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Achievement gap for slife changing suburbs institute 2015 h w-marshall

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Achievement gap for slife changing suburbs institute 2015 h w-marshall

  1. 1. ì   Helaine  W.  Marshall,  Ph.D.   Long  Island  University-­‐Hudson   Westchester  and  Rockland  Campuses   Annual  EducaDonal  Forum   Changing  Suburbs  InsDtute   ManhaHanville  College,  Purchase,  NY   April  21,  2015    
  2. 2. Fusion.net/Unaccompanied   “The  untold  history  of  unaccompanied  minors”  
  3. 3. Source:    Office  of  Refugee  Rese/lement,  FY  2014  
  4. 4. By  the  Numbers     Source:    Office  of  Refugee  Rese/lement,  FY  2014  
  5. 5.                          
  6. 6.      Curriculum,  Instruc>on,  and  Assessment          Culturally  Responsive  Teaching   Societal  Factors   Bedrock  Layer     Layers  of  the  Instructional  Context  
  7. 7. Teachers  and  learners  assume  that   1.    The  goals  of  instrucDon  are  to   a)  produce  an  independent  learner   b)  prepare  the  learner  for  the  future       (Adapted  from  DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2011;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013)   2.    The  learner  is  ready  to   a)  parDcipate  and  demonstrate  mastery  on  an                      individual  basis   b)  engage  in  literacy-­‐based,  classroom  tasks  
  8. 8. ì  Oral  transmission  vs.  wriHen  word       ì  Informal  ways  of  learning  vs.                                                     formal  educaDon   ì  CollecDvism  vs.  individualism         Three  Underlying  Cultural  Differences    
  9. 9. I  never  care  about  reading  until    I  come  here    In   my  country  nothing  to  read  but  here,  everywhere   print,  words  and  signs  and  books  and  you  have   to  read.   The  most  importants  I  have  learned  about   the  United  States  that  is  a  book,   newspapers,  or  notebook  and  pens.       These  things  are  always  let  me  know  how   to  live  here.        
  10. 10. Formal  vs  Informal  Ways  of  Learning  
  11. 11. Academic  Ways  of  Thinking                                                                    and  Decontextualized  Tasks   ì  DefiniDons   ì  What  is  a  tree?     ì  True/False   ì  Washington  DC  is  the  capital  of  the  U.S.   ì  New  York  City  is  the  capital  of  New  York  State.     ì  ClassificaDon   ì  Categorize  these  objects  
  12. 12.                                                                 What  is  the   group?     Which  ITEM   does  not   belong  in  the   group?     Sample  Task   (Luria,  1976)  
  13. 13. •  Personal  efforts  praised,   rewarded     •  Personal  interests,  desires,   primary       •  Personal  responsibility   •  “Self-­‐actualization”       Individualism   (Hofstede,  2001;  Lee  &  Oyserman,  2008;  Triandis,  2000)  
  14. 14. •  “We”  rather  than  “I.”   •  People  see  themselves  as  part   of  an  interconnected  whole   •  “Web”  of  relationships   •  Group  is  more  important  than   any  single  individual   Collectivism   (Triandis,  1995)  
  15. 15. Teachers  and  learners  assume  that   1.    The  goals  of  instrucDon  are  to   a)  produce  an  independent  learner   b)  prepare  the  learner  for  the  future     2.    The  learner  is  ready  to    a)  parDcipate  and  demonstrate  mastery  on  an              individual  basis    b)  engage  in  literacy-­‐based,  classroom  tasks   (Adapted  from  DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2011;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013)  
  16. 16. (Ibarra,  2001)  
  17. 17. SLIFE   U.S.    Classrooms   CONDITIONS       PROCESSES     ACTIVITIES     Aspects  of     Learning       ç       Shared   Responsibility   Individual    Accountability   PragmaDc  Tasks   Academic  Tasks   Interconnectedness   Oral  Transmission   Future    Relevance   WriHen  Word     Immediate  Relevance   (DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2011;  Marshall,  1994;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013)   Standardized  Tes-ng!   Independence   Two  Different  Learning  Paradigms  
  18. 18. MALP®   Mutually      AdapDve                                        Learning                                                              Paradigm   (Marshall,  1994;  1998)  
  19. 19. SLIFE   U.S.  Classrooms   Interconnectedness   Independence    Shared        Responsibility   Individual    Accountability    PragmaDc            Tasks        Academic                    Tasks   ACCEPT   CONDITIONS   COMBINE   PROCESSES   FOCUS  on  NEW   ACTIVITIES   with  familiar   language     &  content      Immediate          Relevance   Oral              Transmission    WriHen  Word   with Future              Relevance              (DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2011;  Marshall,  1994;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013)      
  20. 20.      FAMILIAR      SCHEMATA        UNFAMILIAR        SCHEMATA     Describing your favorite game in your first language or dialect Writing a science lab report in academic English Two  Learning  Activities  
  21. 21. SLIFE   U.S.  Classrooms   Interconnectedness   Independence    Shared        Responsibility   Individual    Accountability    PragmaDc            Tasks        Academic                    Tasks   ACCEPT   CONDITIONS   COMBINE   PROCESSES   FOCUS  on  NEW   ACTIVITIES   with  familiar   language     &  content      Immediate          Relevance   Oral              Transmission    WriHen  Word   with Future              Relevance              (DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2011;  Marshall,  1994;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013)       New Formal Schemata
  22. 22. Ø  Interviewing at home Ø  Sharing data in class Ø  Drawing map & flags Ø  Entering data in table Ø  Using sentence frames Ø  Responding to questions   Class  Survey:  Crossing  the  Mekong    
  23. 23. Paj  Ntaub  
  24. 24. Renee’s  2nd  Grade  Newcomer  Class  
  25. 25.   Non-­‐Fiction  Unit:  The  Welcome  Book      
  26. 26. Renee’s  High  School  Newcomer  Class  
  27. 27. From   The    Achievement    Gap     To  
  28. 28. U.S.  Mainstream   Formal  Educa>on   SLIFE  Informal  Ways   of  Learning   Oral   Transmission   Collec>vism     Deficit  View       they  know  what  to  do  but  lack  ability   Dissonance  View     they  are  starDng  from  a  different  paradigm   Ways  of  Learning  Continuum  
  29. 29. Hallmarks/Deal  Breakers     of  U.S.  Mainstream  Classrooms   ì  Promise  of  future  reward  from  educaDon     ì  Individual  parDcipaDon  –  the  hand  raise     ì  Display  of  mastery  –  standardized  tesDng    
  30. 30. me   The  farther  a  student   is  from  the  “me”  of   the  culture,  the  less   credible  the  promise   of  future  reward  from   educa7on  will  be  for   the  student.     (Crumpton  &  Gregory,  2011;  Noguera,  2003)     Hallmark/Deal  Breaker  #1  
  31. 31. The  farther  a   student  is  along  the   con7nuum  of   individualism  to   collec-vism,  the  less   invested  the  student   will  be  in  the   individual  hand   raise.   (LiHleton  &  Howe,  2010)     Hallmark/Deal  Breaker  #2  
  32. 32. The  less  comfortable  a   student  is  with   mainstream  processes   of  individual   accountability  and  the   wri;en  word,  and  the   less  familiar  a  student   is  with  academic  tasks,   the  less  successful  the   student  will  be  on   standardized  tes7ng.   Individual Accountability Academic Tasks Written Word Standardized  Tes-ng!   (Menken,  2008;  Wong  Fillmore  &  Snow,  2000  )   Hallmark/Deal  Breaker  #3  
  33. 33.     Equity  Pedagogy  through     Culturally  Responsive  Teaching  with  MALP  ®             Students  who  do  not  find  the   “promise  of  future  reward”   credible  in  their  lives       Students  who  do  not  embrace     the  “individual  hand  raise”     to  compete  and  excel       Students  who  do  not  perform   adequately  on  “standardized   tests”   ì  need  immediate  relevance   ì  need  interconnectedness   ì  need  the  combina>on  of:     ì  shared  responsibility  with  built-­‐in  individual   accountability   ì  oral  transmission  to  scaffold  the  wriHen  word   ì  a  focus  on  academic  tasks  with  familiar   language  and  content  as  scaffolds  
  34. 34. Struggling  ELLs   U.S.  Classrooms   Interconnectedness   Independence    Shared        Responsibility   Individual    Accountability    PragmaDc            Tasks        Academic                    Tasks   ACCEPT   CONDITIONS   COMBINE   PROCESSES   FOCUS  on  NEW   ACTIVITIES   with  familiar   language     &  content      Immediate          Relevance   Oral              Transmission    WriHen  Word   with Future              Relevance              (DeCapua  &  Marshall,  2009,  2011;  Marshall,  1994;  Marshall  &  DeCapua,  2013)      
  35. 35. More  about  MALP® ?   Books:    (University  of  Michigan  Press)    Making  the  transi7on  to  classroom  success:  Culturally  responsive   teaching  for  struggling  language  learners    (2013)        Breaking  new  ground:  Teaching  students  with  limited  or  interrupted   formal  educa7on  in  U.  S.  secondary  schools  (2011)   Websites:       hHp://malpeducaDon.com                      hHp://malp.pbworks.com   Slide  Presenta>ons:   hHp://www.slideshare.net/lainemarsh   Email:   helaine.marshall@liu.edu                            drandreadecapua@gmail.com    
  36. 36. Selected  References   Crumpton,  H.  &  Gregory,  A.  (2011).    “I'm  not  learning”:  The  role  of  academic  relevancy  for  low-­‐achieving  students,  The  Journal  of  Educa7onal  Research,  104,  42  —  53   DeCapua,  A.,  &  Marshall,  H.W.  (2011).  Breaking  new  ground:  Teaching  students  with  or  interrupted  formal  educa7on.  Ann  Arbor:  University  of  Michigan  Press.   DeCapua,  A.,  &  Marshall,  H.W.  (2010).  Serving  ELLs  with  limited  or  interrupted  educaDon:  IntervenDon  that  works.  TESOL  Journal,  1,  49–70.   DeCapua,  A.,  &  Marshall,  H.W.  (2010).  Students  with  limited  or  interrupted  formal  educaDon  in  U.S.  classrooms.  Urban  Review,  42,  159–173.   DeCapua,  A.,  Sma/hers,  W.  &  Tang,  F.    (2009).  Mee7ng  the  needs  of  students  with  limited  or  interrupted  formal  educa7on.  Ann  Arbor:  University  of  Michigan  Press.   Hofstede,  G.  (2001).  Culture's  consequences:  Comparing  values,  behaviors,  ins7tu7ons  and  organiza7ons  across  na7ons.  2nd  EdiDon,  Thousand  Oaks  CA:  Sage   PublicaDons.   Ibarra,  R.  (2001).  Beyond  affirma7ve  ac7on:  Reframing  the  context  of  higher  educa7on.  Madison:  University  of  Wisconsin  Press.   Lee,  W.S.  &  Osyerman,  D.  (2008).  Does  Culture  Influence  What  and  How  We  Think?  Effects  of  Priming  Individualism  and  CollecDvism.  Psychological  Bulle7n,  American   Psychological  Associa7on,  134,  311–342   Li/leton,  K.  &  Howe,  C.  (2010).  (Eds.).  Educa7onal  dialogues:    Understanding  and  promo7ng  produc7ve  interac7on.    New  York:  Routledge     Luria,  A.  R.  (1976).  Cogni7ve  development:  Its  cultural  and  social  founda7ons.  Cambridge,  MA:  Harvard  University  Press.  Marshall,  H.W.  &     Marshall,  H.W.  &  DeCapua,  A.  (2013).    Making  the  transi7on  to  classroom  success:  Culturally  responsive  teaching  for  English  language  learners.    Ann  Arbor:  University   of  Michigan  Press.   Marshall,  H.  W.  (1994).  Hmong/English  bilingual  adult  literacy  project.  Final  report  of  research  conducted  under  the  NaDonal  InsDtute  for  Literacy,  grant  #X257A20457.   University  of  Wisconsin-­‐Green  Bay.   Menken,  K.  (2008).  English  learners  leY  behind:  Standardized  tes7ng  as  language  policy.  Clevedon,  UK:  MulDlingual  MaHers.   Noguera,  P.A.  (2003).  Schools,  prisons  and  the  social  implicaDons  of  punishment.  Theory  to  Prac7ce,  42,  341–351.   Office  of  Refugee  Rese/lement.  (2014).    Retrieved  from:  hHp://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/unaccompanied-­‐children-­‐released-­‐to-­‐sponsors-­‐by-­‐county   Rivas,  J.(2014).    The  untold  history  of  unaccompanied  minors.    Retrieved  from  hZp://fusion.net/story/6211/the-­‐untold-­‐history-­‐of-­‐unaccompanied-­‐minors/   Suarez-­‐Orozco,  C.,  Bang,  H.,  O'Connor,  E.,  Gaytan,  F.  X.,  Pakes,  J.,  &  Rhodes,  J.  (2010).  Academic  trajectories  of  newcomer  immigrant  youth.  American  Psychological   Associa7on,  46,  602-­‐618.   Suarez-­‐Orozco,  C.,  Suarez-­‐Orozco,  M.  M.,  &  Todorova,  I.  (2008).  Learning  a  new  land:  Immigrant  students  in  American  society.  Cambridge,  MA:  Belknap.Triandis,  H.   (1995).  Individualism  &  collec7vism.  Boulder,  CO:  Westview  Press.       Wong-­‐Fillmore,  L.,  &  Snow,  C.  (2005  ).  What  teachers  need  to  know  about  language.  In  C.  Adger,  C.  Snow,  C.,  &  D.  ChrisDan  (Eds.).    What  teachers  need  to                                 know  about  language  (pp.  7-­‐54).  Washington,  D.C.        

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