We are whatwe eat: thebiochemistry oflife(or the biochemistry of the“operación bikini”)
Carbon-Based Molecules:The Basis for All Life Where do the carbon-containing molecules comefrom? Carbon atoms are central to all organisms becausethey’re found in carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids,and lipids — otherwise known as the structural materialsof all living thingsFood
Providing energy:Carbohydrates The basic formula for carbohydrates is CH2O Carbohydrates are energy-packed compounds Source of near-immediate energy Hunger
Types of CarbohydratesMonosaccharidesPolysaccharidesNon digestible, dietaryfiberSugar, sweet andsolubleglucose4 calories/g
Supplying structure, energy,and more: Lipids High energy density (the ability to storelots of calories in a small space) Store energy Cushions and insulates the body andnerves.
Phospholipids: they’re part of the membranes of cells Steroids: generally used to create hormones Triglycerides: These fats and oils, which are made up ofthree fatty acid molecules and a glycerol molecule, areimportant for energy storage and insulationTypes of lipidsCholesterol is a steroid molecule used to maketestosterone and estrogenIn people, fats form from an excess of glucose
A little bit more about triglycerides…Triglycerides composed of unsaturated fatty acids melt at lowertemperatures than those with saturated fatty acids.most known for raising yourLDL cholesterol (“bad”cholesterol)lower LDL cholesterol andraise HDL cholesterol ("good"cholesterol)
Making life possible:Proteins Amino acids are the building blocks ofproteins All living organisms have only 20 differentamino acids to form all the proteins Multiple functions: structural, transport, orsignaling roles.
Enzymes are proteins that speed up therate of chemical reactions. Structural proteins reinforce cells andtissues. (i.e. colagen) Transport proteins move materials aroundcells and around the body. (i.e.hemoglobin)Types of proteins