Musical Expertise Chapter14&15


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Musical Expertise Chapter14&15

  1. 1. Musical Expertise & Ability Cog 366 Presentation by Lisa Hollenbeck
  2. 2. What is Expertise? <ul><li>Expertise = “what one is who has acquired special skill in or knowledge of a particular subjects through professional training and practical experience&quot; (Webster's dictionary, 1976, p. 800). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>highly experienced professionals such as medical doctors, accountants, teachers and scientists,  but has been </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>expanded to include those who exhibit superior performance through instruction and extended practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly skilled performers in the arts, such as music, painting and writing, sports, such as swimming, running and golf and games, such as bridge and chess.(Ericsson, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expert Performance and Deliberate Practice An updated excerpt from Ericsson (2000) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is important about Studying Expertise? <ul><li>A principle reason is to be able to effect incremental learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to produce more Music Experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to develop technical expertise skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure in music – hear it, see it, do it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to develop expressive expertise skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion in music </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How does expertise develop? <ul><li>Becoming Expert in socially defined ways is the process of connecting intrinsic expertise to the outside world so that it becomes manifest in particular types of behaviors in particular types of situations .(Sloboda, 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Behavior = hours of practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situations = # of cumulative experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative experiences of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical skills, Expression & Emotion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Formula for Expertise <ul><li>Social Expertise = Intrinsic Expertise(hrs. practice + exper.) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Variables of Expertise <ul><li>individuals gain high-level implicit knowledge about major structural features of the music of their culture during first 10 years of life and preserve this through out life time. </li></ul><ul><li>Tacit Expertise – depends on exposure to skills, modeling, reconstruction, and internalizing of knowledge in the specific domain </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of complex structures to be built up simply as a result of frequent exposure to the domain of music. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Acquiring musical ability through enculturation <ul><li>Can remember music which conforms to cultural language better than music which does not. </li></ul><ul><li>Can recreate plausible solutions to recall music they have just heard </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to judge whether or not a sequence is acceptable according to cultural rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to correctly identify the mood or emotion of a musical passage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Happy, Sad, Angry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question: Why do people develop at different rates and to different levels of expertise? </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is Musical Ability? <ul><li>What is musical ability? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An acquired cognitive expertise, which entails the ability to make sense of musical sequences, through the mental operations that are performed on sounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to distinguish or produce a range of emotions through music by listening and/or performing. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Inborn Ability/ Innate Talent What is it? <ul><li>Sloboda considers talent to have five properties: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) It originates in genetically transmitted structures and hence is at least partly innate. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Its full effects may not be evident at an early stage, but there will be some advance indications, allowing trained people to identify the presence of talent before exceptional levels of mature performance have been demonstrated. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) These early indications of talent provide a basis for predicting who is likely to excel. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Only a minority are talented, for if all children were, then there would be no way to predict or explain differential success. </li></ul><ul><li>(5) talents are relatively domain-specific. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Levels of Musical Expertise(ME)? <ul><li>Lehmann, A. (1997). Acquisition of Expertise in Music: efficiency of deliberate practice as a moderating variable in accounting for sub-expert performance. Perception and cognition of Music . 161-187. </li></ul>Level of performance Formal Training Experience Formal Training and/or Experience Background Level of Musical Expertise No set hrs. Learned in surrounding culture 2,000 hrs Most accomplished 10,000 hrs. Least accomplished 5,000 hrs Informal training and practice in music (developmental changes and acculturation) Varying degrees of formal training and practice in music in addition to developmental changes and acculturation Extensive formal training and practice in music(at least 10 years and many thousand hours of practice 1. Basic level of Experience (non-musicians) Average adult performance in the population 2. Sub-expert Level (amateurs) 3. Expert level (Professional Musicians)
  11. 11. Formal Training & Experience
  12. 12. Examples of Musical Expertise without Formal Instruction <ul><li>Casual Immersion: Rich Musical Environment, listening & observation </li></ul><ul><li>Immersion in Music: systematic exploration of performance with Intensive practice/performance </li></ul><ul><li>Internal or External Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity & Challenges available or sought </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation for musical activity w/strong obsessive component </li></ul><ul><li>Practice: instrument, time & opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation, </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent practice/experience </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication(Wilcox, 1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic/Innate Ability </li></ul>Common factors to acquiring Musical Expertise <ul><li>Part of mass Folk-culture </li></ul><ul><li>Self-taught </li></ul><ul><li>Generally low IQ </li></ul><ul><li>usually male </li></ul><ul><li>often autistic </li></ul>Innate Talent or Genius? General Characteristic Of Individuals Jazz Musicians Bix Beiderbeck Louis Armstrong Roy Eldridge Derek Paravinici Savants J.S. Bach. & sons L.V. Beethoven Musical Prodigies Individual Examples Background
  13. 13. Musical Prodigies
  14. 14. Musical Savants and Emotion <ul><li>Derek - Autistic and Blind Musical Savant </li></ul><ul><li>The Musical Genius Part 3 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Expression & Emotion in the ranges of Musical Expertise <ul><li>Major function of music is to suggest or display a range of emotional responses </li></ul><ul><li>Common musical structures have particular perceptible properties that support the pattern of expectation underlying emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Expression in musical performance has the effect of making these structural features more prominent and thus heightening the emotional response. </li></ul>
  16. 16. References: <ul><li>Webster's dictionary, 1976, p. 800). </li></ul><ul><li>Ericsson (2000). Expert Performance and Deliberate Practice: An updated excerpt. Retrieved online on February 22, 2008 at http://www. psy . fsu . edu /faculty/ ericsson / ericsson .exp. perf .html </li></ul><ul><li>Below is the unedited penultimate draft of: Howe, M.J.A., Davidson, J.W., & Sloboda, J.A. (19XX). Innate talents: Reality or myth? Behavioral and Brain Sciences , XX (X): XXX-XXX. The final published draft of the target article, commentaries andAuthor's Response currently available only in paper. Retrieved online on March 1, 2008 at </li></ul><ul><li>Lehmann, A. (1997). Acquisition of Expertise in Music: efficiency of deliberate practice as a moderating variable in accounting for sub-expert performance. Perception and cognition of Music . 161-187. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Sloboda, J. (2005) Exploring the Musical Mind: Cognition, Emotion, Ability, Function. New York: Oxford University Press. </li></ul>