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  1. 1. Autism: Nonverbal forms of communication Presentation by: Stefanie, Tony, Lisa
  2. 2. Table of Contents: <ul><li>What is Autism? </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of Autism </li></ul><ul><li>The Research Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Children with Autism:Verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Our Research and it’s Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Sign Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture Exchange Communication System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message Boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice Output Communication Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Results </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Autism? <ul><li>A psychiatric disorder of childhood characterized by marked deficits in communication and social interaction, preoccupation with fantasy, language impairment, and abnormal behavior, such as repetitive acts and excessive attachment to certain objects. It is usually associated with intellectual impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Taken From: The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Different types of Autism <ul><li>Childhood Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood disintegrative disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Rett’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>PDD NOS </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Research Focus: <ul><li>Communication of Autistic Students </li></ul>
  6. 6. Children with Autism: Often Have Trouble Communicating Verbally <ul><li>Autistic children are unable to communicate their wants, needs and desires effectively so that people can understand them </li></ul><ul><li>It is important for a child with autism to be able to communicate with others in a way that will effectively convey what they want to say especially in a school setting. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Research: <ul><li>We looked at different forms of nonverbal communication that children with autism can use. </li></ul><ul><li>We wanted to discover effective ways to communicate with children with autism without using a voice. </li></ul>
  8. 8. It’s Important: <ul><li>It is important for a child with autism to be able to communicate with others in a way that will effectively convey what they want to say. </li></ul><ul><li>This is important not only in a school setting but at home too! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Effective Methods: <ul><li>American Sign Language </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) </li></ul><ul><li>Message boards </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Output Communication Devices (VOCAs) </li></ul>
  10. 10. American Sign Language <ul><li>Sign language was first developed as a means of communication for hearing-impaired individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Sign language has also been used to teach people with developmental disabilities who have little or no communication skills and has been proven to be successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching autistic children how to use sign language is not as common a practice today as in previous years, possibly due to an increase in the use of computerized communication systems. </li></ul><ul><li>However, research suggests that teaching sign language along with speech will likely accelerate a person’s ability to speak </li></ul>
  11. 11. Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) <ul><li>Many children with autism tend to learn visually. </li></ul><ul><li>Many children with autism communicate using picture cards. </li></ul><ul><li>PECS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease negative behaviors that were caused by frustrations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase availability for learning and interaction; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase relatedness and emotional closeness; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds spoken language skills </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. PECS Phases <ul><li>Phase 1: Teacher and Student Card Motivation Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Student Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Multiple Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 4: Sentence Strips Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 5: Sentence Strip Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 6: Student Interaction and Response </li></ul>
  13. 13. Message Boards <ul><li>Message Boards are set up in the classroom to tell an autism child what they are going to be doing for the day. </li></ul><ul><li>The child would go the board after each activity so that he or she knows what is happening next </li></ul><ul><li>They help the child to transition from one activity to the next </li></ul>
  14. 14. Voice Output Communication Devices <ul><li>A Voice Output Communication Aid or VOCA is an electrical communication device which assists people who have a communication impairment to express their needs, exchange information, ask questions and participate in conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>A voice output device is an electronic device that &quot;speaks&quot; for a child </li></ul><ul><li>The child can expressively communicate one or more messages. </li></ul><ul><li>The messages are recorded specifically for that child, so that they are relevant to the child's needs and environment. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Our Results <ul><li>There was no one method that seemed to work more effectively than another. </li></ul><ul><li>The method used depends on the child. </li></ul><ul><li>What might work for one child may not for another. </li></ul><ul><li>It is individualized! </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Bishop, Dorthy. (2005). Executive functions in children with communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Impairments, in Relation to Autistic Symptomatology. 2: Response Inhibition Autism the International Journal of Research and Practice, 9(1), 29-35. </li></ul><ul><li>Bondy, A. S. and L. Frost. (2002). The Picture exchange communication system. Focus on Autistic Behavior 9(3), 1-19.   </li></ul><ul><li>Kravits, T. R. (2002). Brief report: Increasing communication skills for an elementary- aged student with autism using the picture exchange communication system. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders , 32 (3), 225-230. </li></ul><ul><li>  Shore, S. M. (2002). The language of music: Working with children on the autism spectrum. Journal of Education , 183 (2), 97-108. </li></ul><ul><li>  Siegal-Causey, E. (1997). Enhancing initial communication and responsiveness of learners with multiple disabilities: A tri-focus framework for partners. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities , 12 (2), 105-121. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>