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Evaluating listening habits
For each of the following statements select the answer that
best
describes
your
listening
habitsUsually,Sometimes,Seldom
1. I maintain eye-contact with the speaker.
2. I determine whether or not speakers ideas are worth
while solely by their appearance and delivery.
3. I try to understand the message from the speakers point
of view.
4. I listen for specific facts rather than the big picture.
5. I listen for factual content and the emotion behind the
literal words.
Evaluating Listening habits
6.I ask questions for clarification and understanding.
7.I withhold judgment of what speakers are saying until they
have finished.
8.

I make a conscious effort to evaluate the logic and
consistency of what is being said.

9. While listening, I think about what I am going to say as
soon as I have my chance.
10.I try to have the last word.
Scoring
• For statements
1,3,5,6,7,8
3 points for Usually
2 points for
Sometimes
1 point for Seldom.

• For statements
2,4,9,10
3 points for Seldom
2 points for
Sometimes
1 point for Usually
Listening and its types
• Marginal Listening-Paying attention to matters
other than being spoken by the speaker.
• Evaluative listening-It traps a listener into the
temptation of passing hasty judgments or
unfounded evaluations about the speaker.Such a
listener fails to get into the speakers’ frame of
reference and understand an idea from the
speakers point of view.
Types of listening
Active/empathic listening-A good listener
is an empathic listener.
• Pays close attention to what the speaker
says
• interferes very little
•Uses encouraging nods and words of
appreciation
•Is willing to listen completely
Different stages in listening
1.Sensing/selecting stage.The listener selects from
many stimuli only the one that seems important at
that point in time and converts it into a message.
2.Interpreting Stage.The listener is engaged in the
act of decoding the message.It is at this stage that
the listener is faced with many kinds of barriers.
3.Evaluating Stage.A great deal of critical listening
takes place at this stage .The listener assigns
meanings to the message,draw inferences,takes an
overview of the message.
Different stages in listening
4.Responding Stage. Listener is ready to respond.This is
the feedback stage which is important to the speaker.The
listener’s non verbal signals tell the speaker whether the
message has been understood or not.
5.Memory Stage. Effective listening helps listeners retain
chunks of what they have listened.Unfortunately, no matter
how brilliant a speaker is,most listeners can retain only 2540 %.That is why good speakers always make it a point to
organize their matter sequentially supported by audio
visuals or other supplementary material.
Listening Barriers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Content
Speaker
Medium
Environmental distractions
Linguistic barriers
Listening speed
Feedback
Speaker
• Delivery of message-organization, speed,
clarity, volume, tone, appearance.
• Attitudes towards the speaker-like/dislike.
Remedy
• Concentrate on WHAT and not ‘who’ or
‘how’
Medium
• Distance and circumstances-least effort
needed when speaker not visible and vice
versa. Because amount and variety of non
verbal cues increases.
Remedy
• Increase listening effort.
Distractions
• Extraneous stimuli-sounds, light,
mannerisms of other listeners,
• Can be environmental or physical but
mostly psychological
Remedy:
• Identify and eradicate distractions.
• Free self from preconceptions, prejudices
and negative emotions.
Mindset
• Attitudes-structured by a listeners’ unique
physical, mental and emotional characteristics.An
individual’s mindset can either diminish or
magnify stimuli, distorting the message.
Remedy
• not to let personal biases interfere.
• Respect others’freedom of values and beliefs
• Realize that there may be more than one
acceptable point of view.
Linguistic/Semantic Barriers
Ambiguity-Attaching different meanings to words
other than the speaker
Misinterpretation-Can occur when words are
imprecise, emotional, technical or overly
intellectual.
Remedy
• Evaluate the context in which the word has been
used.
• See that the meaning is in the mind and not the
word.
Listening speed
Rate:the average speaker rate is 125 words per
minute.
The average listening rate is 500 words per
minute.Excess is used to daydream, missing parts
of the message.
Remedy
• Outline message, identify purpose,evaluate the
logic, verify and integrate with existing
information,maintain eye contact and interpret non
verbal signals.
Feedback
• Inappropriate-Premature evaluations before
listening completely to the speaker’s point of
view.
• Comments that are coloured with emotions of
resentment,defensiveness etc.
Remedy
• Demonstrate supportive feedback through
appropriate eye contact and non verbal cues.
Increasing listening efficiency-1
Attention Skills
• A posture of involvement-eye contact,open body position.
• Appropriate body motion-nodding of head,facial
expressions to reflect understanding back to the
speaker,non discriminating ways etc.
• Eye contact-sustained, direct and reflective.
• Non distractive environment-doing what it takes to
eliminate noises etc.
Increasing listening efficiency-2
Reflecting skills
• Paraphrasing skills-Restating the essence e.g’So you
suggest that we change the proposal?’
• Reflecting feelings-Understanding and expressing vocally
the emotion that you think the speaker is trying to
convey.e.g’It sounds like you are angry with the group’
• Reflecting meanings-Tying feelings to content,e.g’So you
are angry with the group members for pushing the proposal
without your input?’
• Summative reflection-Summarizing what has been said
e.g’If I understand correctly,you want the proposal topic to
be changed with the guarantee that all group members be
involved, right?
Body language of a good listener
•
•
•
•

Attentive face
A closed mouth smile and direct eye contact
No distracting body gestures .
Occasional head nods in appreciation of what is
being said by the speaker.
• Paraphrases using his/her own words.
• Avoids interrupting the speaker
• Asks appropriate questions.
An active listener-a recap
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Does not finish others sentences
Does not answer questions with questions.
Is aware of and guards against biases.
Never daydreams or is preoccupied when others talk.
Does not try to dominate the conversation.
Plans responses when the other has finished speaking.
Provides feedback without interrupting incessantly.
Takes brief notes as this forces one to concentrate.
Analyzes by looking at the relevant facts and asking open
ended questions.
Types of listeners
• The Sleeper-seeks a restful haven in a quiet hall,no
intention of listening,irritated if the sleep is
disturbed,reclines in the seat ready to go off to
sleep,his face reflects his state of blissful sleep.
• Eager Beaver-keeps smiling and nodding,eyes
have a strange out of focus appearance,energies
are directed to impress the speaker with what a
good listener he is-a real waste!
Types of listeners
• The Tiger-ready to pounce on everything the
speaker says,occupied with looking for trouble,has
a crouching position,leaning forward,eyes flashing
with the alertness of a big cat,silently growls when
he hears something he does not agree with.
• The shy ,bewildered-has never been able to find
out what the lecture is all about,Confused,pained
glances from him are a constant reminder to the
speaker that he must go slow…very slow!
Types of listeners
• The frowner-forehead has a perpetual
furrow,seems always on the verge of a
question,fakes attention .
• The Relaxed-seems to stay awake but slips down
in his chair resting his head on the back,stares
fixedly at some object or person,little
tension,never seems to react to anything,a real
problem for the speaker.
Types of listeners
• Busy bee-listens and impresses by writing
notes,buzzing with neighbours,sneaking glances at
magazines,cleaning fingernails,combing hair and
so on.A potential auditor in the audience,tries
various devices to capture the speakers’ attention.
• Two-Eared listener-Listens with ears and
mind,actively participates,reacts
objectively,decodes and evaluates carefully,right
body language,a model for all to follow.
Thanx! …..for listening!

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Lecture on listening

  • 1. Evaluating listening habits For each of the following statements select the answer that best describes your listening habitsUsually,Sometimes,Seldom 1. I maintain eye-contact with the speaker. 2. I determine whether or not speakers ideas are worth while solely by their appearance and delivery. 3. I try to understand the message from the speakers point of view. 4. I listen for specific facts rather than the big picture. 5. I listen for factual content and the emotion behind the literal words.
  • 2. Evaluating Listening habits 6.I ask questions for clarification and understanding. 7.I withhold judgment of what speakers are saying until they have finished. 8. I make a conscious effort to evaluate the logic and consistency of what is being said. 9. While listening, I think about what I am going to say as soon as I have my chance. 10.I try to have the last word.
  • 3. Scoring • For statements 1,3,5,6,7,8 3 points for Usually 2 points for Sometimes 1 point for Seldom. • For statements 2,4,9,10 3 points for Seldom 2 points for Sometimes 1 point for Usually
  • 4. Listening and its types • Marginal Listening-Paying attention to matters other than being spoken by the speaker. • Evaluative listening-It traps a listener into the temptation of passing hasty judgments or unfounded evaluations about the speaker.Such a listener fails to get into the speakers’ frame of reference and understand an idea from the speakers point of view.
  • 5. Types of listening Active/empathic listening-A good listener is an empathic listener. • Pays close attention to what the speaker says • interferes very little •Uses encouraging nods and words of appreciation •Is willing to listen completely
  • 6. Different stages in listening 1.Sensing/selecting stage.The listener selects from many stimuli only the one that seems important at that point in time and converts it into a message. 2.Interpreting Stage.The listener is engaged in the act of decoding the message.It is at this stage that the listener is faced with many kinds of barriers. 3.Evaluating Stage.A great deal of critical listening takes place at this stage .The listener assigns meanings to the message,draw inferences,takes an overview of the message.
  • 7. Different stages in listening 4.Responding Stage. Listener is ready to respond.This is the feedback stage which is important to the speaker.The listener’s non verbal signals tell the speaker whether the message has been understood or not. 5.Memory Stage. Effective listening helps listeners retain chunks of what they have listened.Unfortunately, no matter how brilliant a speaker is,most listeners can retain only 2540 %.That is why good speakers always make it a point to organize their matter sequentially supported by audio visuals or other supplementary material.
  • 9. Speaker • Delivery of message-organization, speed, clarity, volume, tone, appearance. • Attitudes towards the speaker-like/dislike. Remedy • Concentrate on WHAT and not ‘who’ or ‘how’
  • 10. Medium • Distance and circumstances-least effort needed when speaker not visible and vice versa. Because amount and variety of non verbal cues increases. Remedy • Increase listening effort.
  • 11. Distractions • Extraneous stimuli-sounds, light, mannerisms of other listeners, • Can be environmental or physical but mostly psychological Remedy: • Identify and eradicate distractions. • Free self from preconceptions, prejudices and negative emotions.
  • 12. Mindset • Attitudes-structured by a listeners’ unique physical, mental and emotional characteristics.An individual’s mindset can either diminish or magnify stimuli, distorting the message. Remedy • not to let personal biases interfere. • Respect others’freedom of values and beliefs • Realize that there may be more than one acceptable point of view.
  • 13. Linguistic/Semantic Barriers Ambiguity-Attaching different meanings to words other than the speaker Misinterpretation-Can occur when words are imprecise, emotional, technical or overly intellectual. Remedy • Evaluate the context in which the word has been used. • See that the meaning is in the mind and not the word.
  • 14. Listening speed Rate:the average speaker rate is 125 words per minute. The average listening rate is 500 words per minute.Excess is used to daydream, missing parts of the message. Remedy • Outline message, identify purpose,evaluate the logic, verify and integrate with existing information,maintain eye contact and interpret non verbal signals.
  • 15. Feedback • Inappropriate-Premature evaluations before listening completely to the speaker’s point of view. • Comments that are coloured with emotions of resentment,defensiveness etc. Remedy • Demonstrate supportive feedback through appropriate eye contact and non verbal cues.
  • 16. Increasing listening efficiency-1 Attention Skills • A posture of involvement-eye contact,open body position. • Appropriate body motion-nodding of head,facial expressions to reflect understanding back to the speaker,non discriminating ways etc. • Eye contact-sustained, direct and reflective. • Non distractive environment-doing what it takes to eliminate noises etc.
  • 17. Increasing listening efficiency-2 Reflecting skills • Paraphrasing skills-Restating the essence e.g’So you suggest that we change the proposal?’ • Reflecting feelings-Understanding and expressing vocally the emotion that you think the speaker is trying to convey.e.g’It sounds like you are angry with the group’ • Reflecting meanings-Tying feelings to content,e.g’So you are angry with the group members for pushing the proposal without your input?’ • Summative reflection-Summarizing what has been said e.g’If I understand correctly,you want the proposal topic to be changed with the guarantee that all group members be involved, right?
  • 18. Body language of a good listener • • • • Attentive face A closed mouth smile and direct eye contact No distracting body gestures . Occasional head nods in appreciation of what is being said by the speaker. • Paraphrases using his/her own words. • Avoids interrupting the speaker • Asks appropriate questions.
  • 19. An active listener-a recap • • • • • • • • • Does not finish others sentences Does not answer questions with questions. Is aware of and guards against biases. Never daydreams or is preoccupied when others talk. Does not try to dominate the conversation. Plans responses when the other has finished speaking. Provides feedback without interrupting incessantly. Takes brief notes as this forces one to concentrate. Analyzes by looking at the relevant facts and asking open ended questions.
  • 20. Types of listeners • The Sleeper-seeks a restful haven in a quiet hall,no intention of listening,irritated if the sleep is disturbed,reclines in the seat ready to go off to sleep,his face reflects his state of blissful sleep. • Eager Beaver-keeps smiling and nodding,eyes have a strange out of focus appearance,energies are directed to impress the speaker with what a good listener he is-a real waste!
  • 21. Types of listeners • The Tiger-ready to pounce on everything the speaker says,occupied with looking for trouble,has a crouching position,leaning forward,eyes flashing with the alertness of a big cat,silently growls when he hears something he does not agree with. • The shy ,bewildered-has never been able to find out what the lecture is all about,Confused,pained glances from him are a constant reminder to the speaker that he must go slow…very slow!
  • 22. Types of listeners • The frowner-forehead has a perpetual furrow,seems always on the verge of a question,fakes attention . • The Relaxed-seems to stay awake but slips down in his chair resting his head on the back,stares fixedly at some object or person,little tension,never seems to react to anything,a real problem for the speaker.
  • 23. Types of listeners • Busy bee-listens and impresses by writing notes,buzzing with neighbours,sneaking glances at magazines,cleaning fingernails,combing hair and so on.A potential auditor in the audience,tries various devices to capture the speakers’ attention. • Two-Eared listener-Listens with ears and mind,actively participates,reacts objectively,decodes and evaluates carefully,right body language,a model for all to follow.