Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology


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Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology

  1. 1. At the end of this section, the student will be able to: 1. Review the structure, function, activities, and role of cells, tissues, and organs in the body. 2. Identify and describe the structure and roles of each major body system 3. Indicate common surgical procedures that involve each system.  Skeletal  Muscular  Nervous  Endocrine  Reproductive  Urinary and Excretory  Respiratory  Digestive  Circulatory
  2. 2.  They are the basic living unit of life  They vary in size, shape, and function  They are so small, microscopic  Within each cell are still smaller structures Functions of the cell  Living cells come only from other living cells  Cells reproduce by duplication and division into two new cells
  3. 3.  Cell membrane: The outer covering of a cell that regulates what enters and leaves it.  Cytoplasm: The lining matter of a cell between the cell membrane and nucleus.  Nucleus: The functional center of a cell that governs activity and heredity. Each human cell consists of three main parts:
  4. 4.  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) : Stores the information needed to build proteins essential to restore cell and also transfers messages about organisms from parent to offspring.  RNA (ribonucleic acid) : Translates the DNA messages, and guides the protein making process.  Chromosomes: comprised of DNA, and pass on the traits of parent cells to new cells. Tissue: A group of similar cells that perform a specialized function. The nucleus contains three important components:
  5. 5. A group of similar cells that perform a specialized function. Four types of tissues: 1. Epithelial tissue: Covers body’s external surface (skin) and the linings of body cavities (mouth, ears, nose, throat, etc. 2. Connective Tissue: Provides support, stores energy, and connects other tissues and parts (bones, fat, blood, cartilage) 3. Muscular Tissue: Shortens and contracts. When attached to bone, makes body movement. Also lines the inner walls of organs that contract to help food pass to even pumping blood 4. Nervous Tissue: Communication tissue located throughout the body. When stimulated carries messages back and forth between the brain and spinal cord to every part of the body
  6. 6.  Organs: A part of the body containing two or more tissues that function together for a specific purpose. EXAMPLES  Brain  Heart  Stomach  Skin
  7. 7.  System: A group of organs that work together to carry out a specific activity EXAMPLES ◦ Musculoskeletal system ◦ Nervous system ◦ Endocrine system ◦ Reproductive system ◦ Urinary and Excretory system ◦ Respiratory system ◦ Digestive system ◦ Circulatory system
  8. 8.  Without it, we would be just a big mass of tissue  206 bones in the body  Arranged in an orderly manner  Fastened together by connective tissue: tendons & ligaments
  9. 9. The five main functions of the skeletal system are to:  Give the body shape and support  Allow movement  Protect vital organs  Reproduce blood cells  Store calcium
  10. 10. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that provides framework to the body. Its purposes include:  To support body structures such as the ears and nose  To connect the ribs to the sternum  To serve as a cushion between bones to prevent them from rubbing together at junctures and joints
  11. 11. A joint is any place where two bones meet. Some immovable found in the skull and movable like knee and elbow joints. There are several types of joints:  Gliding Joints (spinal column and neck)  Ball and Socket Joints (shoulder and hip)  Pivot Joints (palm of the hand where it swivels)  Hinge Joints (knees, knuckles and elbows)
  12. 12. The overall covering or lining of a joint is called a synovial membrane. It secretes or produces a fluid called synovial fluid to lubricate join surfaces.
  13. 13. Bones are comprised of living tissue, and their strength and hardness come from chemical substances called minerals. It consists of two principle materials:  A hard outer material called cortical or compact bone. Surrounded by the periosteum: a tough membrane that contains bone-forming cells and blood vessels.  The inner section of bone is porous, and is called spongy or cancellous bone. It is filled with material called marrow. A pipeline of blood vessels and nerves runs through the middle of thick bones.
  14. 14.  Crainiotomy  Anterior Cervical Fusion  Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF)  Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF)  Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)  Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) Surgical procedures that involve the skeletal system include:
  15. 15.  More than 600 muscles in the body  Heart muscles contract to pump blood  Muscles in digestive tract move food & fluid through body  Muscles throughout the body produce heat, maintain body’s core temperature.
  16. 16. Muscles: Made up of long, thin cells or fibers that run parallel to one another, bundled together by connective tissue, called fascia. Have the ability to contract and shorten, cause body movements.
  17. 17. Muscular System
  18. 18. There are three types of muscle tissue:  Skeletal  Smooth  Cardiac
  19. 19. Surgical procedures involving muscular system include:  Fasciotomy  Herniorrhaphy  Rotator Cuff Repair
  20. 20.  Vast communication network.  Coordinates and carries messages between all parts of the body.  Enables us to be aware of the changes in the environment and to react accordingly.  Complex series of nervous tissues, like electrical wiring runs from the brain and spinal cord throughout the entire body.
  21. 21. Functions of the Nervous System include:  Controls all body activities/ allows us to respond to stimuli  Nerve tissue carries electrical messages from brain and spinal cord that signal muscles to contract.  Other actions are more conscious and involve emotion, reason, and memory.
  22. 22. NERVOUS SYSTEM Cerebrum Cerebellum Spinal Cord Brain Stem Cranial Nerves 12 pairs Cervical Nerves 8 pairs Thoracic Nerves 12 pairs Lumbar Nerves 5 pairs Sacral Nerves 6 pairs
  23. 23. The Nervous System is composed of two types of cells:  Neurons (also called nerve cells): that carry and transmit information  Neuroglia: support and protect neurons as they work. The Nervous System is divided into two parts:  Central Nervous System (CNS)  Peripheral Nervous System
  24. 24. The Brain:  Main control unit of the CNS  Has more than 100 billion nerve cells  Is a spongy and complex organ Three membranes surround the brain, and provide nourishment and protection to it:  Pia mater  Arachnoid mater  Dura mater The brain is divided into three parts:  Cerebrum  Cerebellum  Brain Stem
  25. 25. The Sense Organs:  Eyes  Ears  Nose  Tongue  Skin  Accessory structures of the nervous system  Special sensory receptors, message-carrying structures  Respond to stimuli from outside the body  Others keep track of the body’s internal environment  Respond to light, sound, taste, chemicals, heat, and pressure
  26. 26. The Eyes: organs of vision. Produce images by focusing light rays that are interpreted by the brain The Eyes consist of three layers of tissue:  Sclera  Choroid  Retina Eye Choroid Cornea Pupil Iris Optic Nerve Sclera
  27. 27. External Ear Auditory Canal Ear Drum Middle Ear Inner Ear Ear
  28. 28. The Nose is the organ of smell:  Consists of many sensory receptors or cells  Receptors located in the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity  Sensitive to chemicals carried through the air  Olfactory nerve endings extend to the receptors  Stimulated by different odors
  29. 29. OLFACTORY BULB BONE EPITHELIAL CELL CILIA NERVE FIBER Olfaction allows us to identify food, experience sensual pleasures like the smell of flowers, as well as detect signs of danger (spoiled food, chemical hazards). Smells (odorants) are sensed by the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal cavity and first processed by the olfactory bulb. The odorant must possess certain molecular properties–it must be water soluble and have high vapor pressure and low polarity–in order to interact with the olfactory receptors and produce signals that can be interpreted as odor. The olfactory sense is able to distinguish among an almost infinite number of chemical compounds. The mucous lipids assist in transporting the odorant molecules. Each olfactory receptor neuron has 8-20 cilia that are whip-like extensions (they mark the beginning of sensory transduction). MITRAL CELL CHEMO-RECEPTOR CELL OLFACTORY RECEPTORS
  30. 30. The Tongue is the organ of taste:  Covered with taste buds, sensory receptors  Sense of taste is a chemical sense  Chemicals carried by saliva throughout the mouth  Taste buds can distinguish 4 kinds of taste: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty  80 different types of chemical odors  Combination of taste and odors produces flavors
  31. 31. TASTE Open mouth with tongue extended indicating areas that distinguish taste, and inset of each tongue region and their function. Bitter Sour Sweet Salty
  32. 32. The Skin is the largest body organ:  Nerve endings at and below its surface  Acts as an important sensory organ  Touch receptors near the skin’s surface allows us to distinguish textures  Also responds to heat, cold, and moisture  Further below skin’s surface are receptors, respond to touch and pressure  Sense of pain stimulates nerves and sends messages of potential danger to the brain
  33. 33. Surgical procedures involving the nervous system:  Craniotomy  Carpal Tunnel Repair  Ulnar Nerve Transposition  Cataract Extraction  Corneal Transplant  Bilateral Myringotomy with Tubes, (BMT)  Stapedectomy  Tympanoplasty  Split-thickness Skin Graft (STSG)
  34. 34.  Changes in body activities are set in motion by the hormones or secretions produced by the glands of the endocrine system. For example: ◦ Muscles tensing ◦ Heartbeat quickening ◦ Breathing rhythm changes The Endocrine System influences functions of metabolism, growth, and personality
  35. 35. Endocrine System Adrenal Glands Release adrenalin that increases heart rate and physical strength. Also enhance the ability to think and respond quickly in emergency situations. Thyroid Gland Helps regulate the rate of metabolism and maintain the body's levels of calcium and phosphorus. Testes Produce the hormone, testosterone, that stimulates the development of masculine characteristics. Pituitary Gland Helps control the activities of all endocrine glands. Also stimulates skeletal and body growth, development of sex organs, regulation of blood pressure, the reproductive process, and muscle development. Pancreas Produces insulin which reduces the level of sugar in the bloodstream and glucagon which can increase the blood's sugar level. Ovaries Produce two hormones, estrogen which is responsible for the development of female characteristics and progesterone, which together with estrogen, regulates the menstrual cycle.
  36. 36. Important information about the endocrine system:  Endocrine glands that produce hormones are not necessarily next to the organs they control.  The nervous system and endocrine system work together.  Endocrine glands are located throughout the body.  Some glands of the endocrine system secrete more then one hormone.
  37. 37. The major glands of the endocrine system include:  Pituitary gland: small, pea-shaped  Thyroid gland: located at the base of the neck  Parathyroid gland: four pea-shaped glands  Adrenal glands: release adrenalin  Pancreas: located just below the stomach
  38. 38. The pancreas has 2 primary hormones that it produces: 1. Insulin: which reduces the level of sugar in the blood stream 2. Glucagon: which can increase the blood’s sugar level
  39. 39.  The ovaries (female sex glands) produce 2 hormones: estrogen and progesterone  The testes (male sex glands) produce the hormone: testosterone
  40. 40. Surgical procedures involving the endocrine system include:  Thyroidectomy  Oophorectomy  Orchiectomy
  41. 41.  The male sex cell is produced by the male reproductive system called sperm  The female sex cell (egg) is called ovum and produced by the female reproductive system  Both sperm and ovum contain rod- shaped structures called chromosomes
  42. 42. The male reproductive system:  Testes  Scrotum  Epididymus  Vas deferens  Seminal vesicle  Ejaculatory duct  Semen  Urethra  Penis  Prostate gland
  43. 43. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Bladder Prostate gland Vas Deferens Urethra Penis Testes Scrotum
  44. 44. The female reproductive system:  Vagina  Uterus  Endometrium  Fallopian tubes  Fimbriae  Ovaries
  46. 46. Surgical procedures involving the reproductive system include:  Orchiectomy  Orchiopexy  Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)  Radical Prostatectomy  Hysterectomy  Bilateral Salpingoophorectomy  Endometrial Ablation  Dilatation & Curettage (D & C)  Ectopic Pregnancy  Pelviscopy  Tubal Ligation
  47. 47. The urinary system provides “pollution control” by eliminating body waste and blood is filtered by the urinary system.  Urine is a water solution consisting of various waste substances  Color from excreted bile pigments  Average adult excretes between 1000cc- 1800cc of urine during a 24-hour period
  48. 48. URINARY SYSTEM Kidney Ureters Bladder Uretha Kidney (Cross-section)
  49. 49. Organs of the urinary system in both sexes include:  Kidneys  Ureters  Urinary bladder  Urethra: male: 20cm long, female: 4cm long
  50. 50. The excretory system removes toxic (poisonous) waste substances:  Kidneys  Lungs  Liver  Skin
  51. 51. Surgical procedures involving the urinary system include:  Nephrectomy  Lithotripsy  Cystoscopy
  52. 52. The respiratory system supplies the body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide that forms as a result of the body using oxygen in the blood
  53. 53. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Deoxygenated blood from the heart Bronchioles Oxygenated blood to the heart Alveoli - site of gas exchange Respiratory System Lungs Nasal Cavity Mouth Pharnyx Trachea
  54. 54. Exchange of gases is accomplished automatically as one breathes in a two step process: 1. Inspiration (inhaling air into the lungs) 2. Expiration (exhaling air from the lungs) Air contains impurities such as dirt, dust, and microorganisms, and these are filtered out by the respiratory system
  55. 55. The primary organs of the respiratory system are:  Nose  Pharynx  Trachea  Lungs
  56. 56. More About the Lungs:  Right lung consists of three lobes  Left lung consists of two lobes (room for heart)  Located in thoracic cavity  Covered by thin membrane, pleura  Protected by skeletal rib cage and sternum  Diaphragm, muscle located below the lungs, causes chest cavity to expand
  57. 57. Surgical procedures involving the respiratory system include:  Thoracotomy  Thoracoscopy  Pneumonectomy  Tracheotomy  Laryngectomy  Bronchoscopy  Septoplasty
  58. 58. The digestive system converts food into energy for the body. The human body requires 6 basic categories of nutrients: 1. Proteins 2. Carbohydrates 3. Fats 4. Water 5. Minerals 6. Vitamins
  59. 59.  Digestion breaks food down mechanically and chemically  Pathway that food takes through the digestive system is called the alimentary canal  Alimentary canal is approximately 30 ft. Consists of: ◦ Mouth ◦ Esophagus ◦ Stomach ◦ Small intestine ◦ Large intestine ◦ Rectum ◦ Anus
  60. 60. Pancreas produces digestive enzymes and assists with fat digestion. Stomach stores and breaks down ingested food into chyme. Gall Bladder stores bile, which aids in digestion. Digestive System Salivary Glands create mucus to soften food and aid in digestion Small Intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ilium) digests carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and absorbs nutrients Large Intestine absorbs water, electrolytes and salts. Mouth Chews food to make it easier to pass through the esophagus (swallow). Esophagus Moves food to the stomach. Liver produces bile needed for digestion.
  61. 61.  The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are accessory organs of the digestive system  The salivary, gastric, and intestinal glands are accessory structures to the digestive system
  62. 62. Review of the components of the alimentary canal:  Mouth  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestines  Large intestine  Rectum  Anus
  63. 63. Close look at 3 Important digestive organs: 1. Pancreas 2. Liver 3. Gallbladder
  64. 64. Surgical procedures involving the digestive system include: Appendectomy Parotidectomy Gastrectomy Gastric Bypass Cholecystectomy Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Colectomy
  65. 65.  The circulatory system is the body’s primary transportation network. Delivers nutrients and oxygen to body cell, and carries away carbon dioxide and other harmful waste products from them  Accomplished as blood is pumped through 64,000 miles of blood vessels in the body
  66. 66. The lymphatic system is a subsidiary of the circulatory system, and it serves a vital role in the body’s defense against disease:  Consists of a series of tiny vessels, throughout body  Large numbers of lymph nodes, filter bacteria and other harmful material out of the lymph  Tonsils are one type of a lymph node  Sentinel lymph nodes are frequently identified during cancer surgery
  67. 67. Lymphatic Glands of the Neck Parotid Lymphatic Node Superior Deep Cervical Node Submaxillary Node Suboccipital Lymphatic Node Posterior Auricular Node Inferior Deep Cervical Node Lymphatic System
  68. 68. Blood is a type of connective tissue fluid that moves throughout the circulatory, system and transports many important substances:  Contains an average of five to seven liters of blood  Blood is made up of 55% of plasma  Red blood cells structures rich in hemoglobin, pick up oxygen in the lungs, transport to all over the body  Red blood cells produced in the bone marrow, life span of 120 days
  69. 69.  White blood cells attack, destroy, and digest disease-producing organisms  Platelets traps blood cells and plasma that will harden and clot
  70. 70.  Arteries carry blood away from the heart  Veins carry blood back towards the heart  Capillaries tiny vessels connections between veins and arteries
  71. 71. Circulatory System Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood back towards the heart.
  72. 72. The heart is the muscular organ about the size of a fist that pumps five liters of blood through the body every minute:  Four hollow chambers  A thick tissue wall  Upper chambers atria  Lower chambers ventricles
  73. 73. Tricuspid valve Right ventricle Mitral valve Left ventricle Interventricular septum Papillary muscle Right atrium Chordae tendonae Superior Vena Cava Pulmonary valve Aorta Pulmonary Artery Heart Left atrium
  74. 74. Surgical procedures involving the circulatory system include:  Tonsillectomy  Adenoidectomy  Arteriovenous  Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmectomy  Hemorrhoidectomy  CABG  Carotid Endarterectomy