Chapter 17 inventory management


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Chapter 17 inventory management

  1. 1. Inventory Management Chapter 17
  2. 2. Objectives: As a result of successfully completing this chapter, students will be able to:   Review the importance of effective inventory management, and explain basic inventory management concepts   Explain common inventory replenishment systems:  Par-level systems  Automated supply replenishment systems  Exchange cart systems  Requisition systems  Case cart systems  STAT orders
  3. 3. Objectives:   Review the use of bar codes and radio frequency identification to track inventories   Describe procedures for effectively distributing supplies to clinical units and the operating room   Review important inventory management concepts  Perpetual inventory systems  Alternative inventory control methods  Total acquisition costs  Inventory turn rates and service levels  Inventory information systems  Space utilization
  4. 4. Terminology  Inventory- Reusable equipment and consumable items that are used to provide healthcare services for patients  Consumable Inventory- Items which are purchased, used and discarded  Reusable Inventory- Assets that are relatively inexpensive that such as medical devices and sterilization containers that can be reused as healthcare services are provided to patients  Stock out- A condition that occurs when inventory items that are needed to provide healthcare services to patients are unavailable  Capitol Equipment- Assets that are relatively expensive such as sterilizers or washers that require significant advance planning for purchase  Asset- Something of value that is owned by an organization or person
  5. 5. Consumable Inventory Cycle (Disposable Items) Purchase StoreUse Discard
  6. 6. Central Service Consumable Inventory Items  Detergents  Cleaning Supplies  Disposable Wrappers  Processing Chemicals  Sterilizer Quality Assurance Testing Products
  7. 7. Inventory  Must be managed to prevent Stock Outs  Must be managed to provide equality patient care  Must be managed to control operating costs
  8. 8. Inventory Management Concerns  Official Inventory  Unofficial Inventory
  9. 9. Inventory Management Concerns Official Inventory  Consumable products found in Central Service and other storerooms, warehouses, and satellite storage areas  Can be counted as an asset on the facility’s balance sheet (financial statement) Unofficial Inventory  Consumable products found in user areas such as surgical locations and labs. These items have usually been expensed (charged) to the user departments are stored in unofficial location
  10. 10. Inventory Management  Hospitals must strive to find the balance between adequate supplies and cost-effectiveness
  11. 11. Too Much/Little Inventory Too much  Too much cash invested in excessive stock levels  May need to borrow $ to pay suppliers  More storage space needed  Greater Risk of Damage, Loss, Obsolescence or pilferage/theft  Requires more time to Manage Too little  Supply Shortages  Emergency Purchases  Negative Effect on Patient Care  Leads to Hoarding in User Departments  Frequent Handling to Move Inventory to Point- of-use
  12. 12. Inventory Facts:  Facilities spend approximately 30% of their operating budget on consumable supplies  Facility inventories of consumable supplies represent an average of 50 days’ usage requirements  Facilities typically have a greater value of unofficial inventory than official inventory
  13. 13. Managing Consumable Inventory Good Work Practices
  14. 14. Storage Standards  Storage locations must be kept clean  Clutter or overstocking can lead to package damage  Packages must be protected from “events” that can contaminate them
  15. 15. Carts and Totes used to Transport Sterile Items Must be Kept Clean
  16. 16. Expiration Dates  Some commercially sterilized items have expiration dates  Those dates must be checked and outdated (expired) items must not be dispensed for use
  17. 17. Expiration Dates are Located in Different Places on Packaging
  18. 18. “Contents Sterile Unless Damaged or Opened” Packages with this type of statement are determined to remain sterile unless their barrier is compromised by an event
  19. 19. Event-Related Sterility Applies to all packages. Even packages with expiration dates can have a shortened shelf-life if they are compromised by an event (i.e. moisture, holes, tears, etc.)
  20. 20. Interpreting Product Information What does the label say?
  21. 21. Common Package Information Manufacturer’s Product Reference Number Product Expiration Date Lot (Batch) Number Identifies product to a specific production run
  22. 22. Package Symbols  Do Not Reuse – Single Use Only  Date of Manufacture
  23. 23. Manual and Automated Inventory Systems
  24. 24. Manual and Automated Inventory Systems Manual  Use a paper method to document and track transactions Automated  Use a computerized method to document and track transactions  Automated systems yield more data because the information is more easily managed and stored
  25. 25. Automated Inventory Systems
  26. 26. Inventory Replenishment Systems A variety of systems used to replenish consumable supplies in patient care areas
  27. 27. PAR-Level Systems  Periodic Automated Replenishment (PAR)  Establish a standard stock level for each department  CS/MM employees inventory each area and restock quantities to the established quantity
  28. 28. Exchange Cart Systems  A system where a specified amount of supplies are placed on a cart that is stored in the user unit. A duplicate cart is kept in another location and the full cart is exchanged for the used cart on a routine schedule
  29. 29. Requisition Systems  An inventory distribution where items are requested (requisitioned) by the user department and dispensed from a central storage location
  30. 30. Case Cart Systems  An inventory control system primarily used in the operating room, that uses a cart that is specifically prepared for one procedure
  31. 31. STAT Order Abbreviation for the Latin word, “Statim,” which means immediately or at once
  32. 32. Automated Inventory Tracking Systems  Used to facilitate the accurate tracking of inventory  Usually done using Bar Codes or Radio Frequency Identification
  33. 33. Bar Codes  Machine-readable rectangular bars and spaces arranged in a specific way to represent letters, numbers, and symbols
  34. 34. Radio Frequency Identification  A tracking system in which identify of an item is wirelessly transmitted with radio waves  Commonly abbreviated as: RFID
  35. 35. ABC Inventory Control  An inventory management strategy that indicates storeroom controls should first address the relatively few items with the greatest value (A Items), and should lastly address the many items with the lowest value (C Items)  For example, more attention and time should be tracking a total joint implant (A Item) than a gauze sponge (C Item)
  36. 36. Alternative Inventory Control Methods Other methods that may be used to manage inventory in a healthcare facility. Inventory control methods are selected based on the needs of the specific facility
  37. 37. Min/Max System Stock is ordered when a predetermined minimum quantity is reached
  38. 38. Economic Order Quantity Products are purchased in the quantity that is most economical. For example, by the case, box, or dozen
  39. 39. Stockless Supplies The supplier (vendor) provides complete inventory, storage, and distribution services to the facility
  40. 40. Just-in-Time (JIT) System A system in which minimal stock is kept on site and most orders are delivered when needed
  41. 41. Consignment System  Items are stored at the healthcare facility, but owned by the supplier  The supplier does not charge for the inventory until it is used  Implants are commonly consignment items
  42. 42. Pick-n-Pack System  Products are ordered from a vendor and are prepacked for specific departments  Office supplies and forms are often handled with a pick-n-pack system
  43. 43. Total Acquisition Costs  Purchasing, Materiels Management, Central Service, and other departments must analyze costs to assure that costs are minimized without sacrificing quality
  44. 44. Acquisition Costs are more than the Purchase Price of items  Other Costs Associated with Acquisition include:  Physical Storage Costs  Disposal of Expired Items  Theft/Pilferage  Obsolescence  Freight and Delivery Charges  Stock Outs  Overstocks (the costs of more-than-required quantities of products on hand)
  45. 45. Inventory is Constantly Changing  New Items are constantly being introduced  New Equipment and Technologies often require disposable components  Planning is important to ensure that CS is made aware of the new items and educated about them
  46. 46. Inventory Turnover Rate The number of times per year that inventory is purchased, consumed, and replaced
  47. 47. Inventory Service Level The percentage of items filled (available) when an order is placed
  48. 48. Inventory Service Level  An order is placed to 100 items  92 items are available. 8 are out of stock  The Inventory Service level is 92% (100-8=92)  The Stock Out Rate is 8% (100-92=8)
  49. 49. Inventory Stock Out Rate The percentage of items that cannot be filled (are not available) when an order is placed
  50. 50. Inventory Information Systems  Inventory is the same as cash  When it is managed improperly it costs the facility money  Inventory information systems help manage inventory
  51. 51. Card Systems  Manual System  Keeps information cards on items  Cards contain the following information:  Item description, vendor source, unit(s) of measure  Information on orders placed  Receipt Transactions  Issue Transactions  Adjustments
  52. 52. Computerized Systems  Process inventory transactions quickly  Provide well-organized and analyzed data that is helpful in decision- making  Require a substantial investment
  53. 53. Keeping Things Organized
  54. 54. Stock Locator Systems  Assign a specific location to every item in the inventory system
  55. 55. Techniques for Effective Space Utilization  Storage space is always in high demand. Every effort must be made to utilize existing space efficiently  Cubic footage (volume) should be utilized to take advantage of all available space  Make sure bins and items fill the space from the front to back and top to bottom of shelves  Place items of like size and type along side each other  Add additional shelves where there is additional space  Leave space between items for future add-in items
  56. 56. Gravity Flow Racks  Are filled from the back and as items are pulled from the front, replacement items slide into their place  Allow easy access and efficient stock replenishment
  57. 57. The Importance of Inventory Management Cannot be Understated  Proper Inventory Management:  Supports quality patient care  Provides efficient support for healthcare providers  Manages the facility’s supply costs  Contributes to a patient-safe environment