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  • Eileen Hicks, Daniela Alba, Sunny Fok, and Rusty Goldbaum. Group 2 /period 2/ global 1
  • Persia

    1. 1. The Persian Empire The Persian Empire was based mainly on tolerance, diplomacy, military power, and religious revolution. These characteristics contributed to making it one of the most productive and complex empires of its time.
    2. 2. Persian Geography Persia had prosperous farmland and a wealth of minerals. It included gold, silver, lead, copper, and shining blue lapis lazuli. This area extended from the Caspian Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf in the south.
    3. 3. Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius Cyrus -While Cyrus was in rule, he had a very different method of governing. He had great kindness toward the people and cities he conquered. -Cyrus had rules against destroying and burning the places he lead his army into, because he believed in honoring their religions and customs. -For example, instead of burning a local temple or causing harm to it, he would go pray in it. -Cyrus was a true warrior and lost his life in battle. Next to the throne was Cambyses. Cambyses - Cambyses was Cyrus’s son. He first expanded the Persian Empire by conquering Egypt. However, he did not use the same technique as his father did. -While invading Egypt, he treated the Egyptian religion like it was unworthy. He ordered pictures of their gods to be burned. -Cambyses died after ruling for only eight years, and a bunch of rebellions broke out all across the Persian empire. Darius -Darius was Cambyses’s successor; a noble of the ruling dynasty. -He spent the first few years stopping revolts with the help of an elite group of Persian soldiers called the Ten Thousand Immortals. -After making a well-organized and efficient way of ruling, he conquered land up in the mountains of what is now Afghanistan and and down in the river valleys of India. -His only failure was to conquer Greece.
    4. 4. Specialized Workers For the King - Satraps were ruling each different province under the King. - “King’s Eyes and Ears” were people who went to check up on the satraps to make sure that they were doing their job. Military -Soldiers wore leather pants and thick felt boots. They rode mountain ponies and bot bow&arrows. -They were very sucessful. They conquered the whole fertile crescent and most of Anatolia -Cyrus had a special way of leading the military while he was in rule.
    5. 5. ADVANCED Architecture IN PERSIA Due to the hot and dry climate of the region in ancient Persia, its structures include neolithic background and show much more configuration of set-up family wise. For example, in a village near present day Iran they have found little settlements featuring small mudbrick homes and what is believed to be early plumbing systems, as well as separate rooms displaying certain qualities. One such quality is a room in which there is a bed made out of weaves. This obviously displays what an early Persian called a room.
    6. 6. Persian Culture <ul><li>Traced from ancient Indo-Iranians. (Aryans) </li></ul><ul><li>Persian art was based a lot on Elamite civilization and Mesopotamia and later from Hellenism </li></ul><ul><li>The music of Persia goes back to the days of Barbad in the royal Sassanid courts, and even earlier. As it evolved, an eastern Mediterranean style became Persian folk music </li></ul><ul><li>Persians made outstanding contributions to architecture. Their Architecture stretches pass the borders of Iran (modern-day Persia) and can be seen throughout Central Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>One building that was very outstanding was the Taj Mahal, Agra. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Rug weaving was developed by ancient civilizations as a basis of architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Persian rugs were said to be the most detailed hand-made works of art. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian gardens were designed to reflect paradise on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The English word “paradise” is said to originate from Persian word “Pardis”, which the gardens were called. </li></ul>
    8. 8. A COMPLEX INSTITUTION <ul><li>As an empire Persia contributed greatly institution wise: </li></ul><ul><li>They created one of the first monotheistic religions, which branced into the belief of one god. Something that until then had not been openly thought of as a possibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Their government was based on laws and was revolutionary to the fact that there where rulers for every region in order to control the extensive land. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian created many useful weapons for combat against land intruders. </li></ul>
    9. 9. ZOROASTRIANISM <ul><li>The Persians Adopted this religion around 1600 b.c. when Zoroaster, began to preach his monotheistic beliefs in a land that had followed a polytheistic religion until then. It is believed that due to an invasion that many Zoroastrians fled to present day India, where the largest population of Zoroastrians are found today. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though Zoroastrians once occupated more then half of the world population, there are less then 2,000 in the world today. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the basic Zoroastrian beliefs are; </li></ul><ul><li>“ duality of conflicting forces- Ahura-Mazda (Ormahzd), the supreme entity and the force of good, versus Ahriman, the force of evil and darkness. These forces are locked in a constant struggle, but good, as always, is expected to prevail.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ time is divided into three ages, those of creation, the current era of mixed good and evil, and the coming era, when Ahura-Mazda will triumph, evildoers will be punished, and the good will go to heaven.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ a temporary abode, where sinners are cleansed by fire. (much like the Catholic concept of purgatory.)” </li></ul><ul><li>-Source of </li></ul>
    10. 10. Zoroastrianism cont. <ul><li>Many belive the cause for the diminishing numbers of Zoroastrians is due to the lack of preaching, which is not used in Zoroastrianism. And the intermarriges, which decreases the exceeding number of babies born to the religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the Zoroastrian holidays inlcude: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zoroastrian holidays include No Ruz (literally, new day), or the New Year, celebrated at the Spring Equinox, and Farvardigan, or ten days of the dead , honoring and remembering Zoroastrians of the past, and Khordad Sal, Zoroaster's birthday.” </li></ul><ul><li>As well as going to a temple {fire temple} and performing rituals , Zoroastrians read the holy scriptures called, “Avestan” but many other scriptures are used to perform rituals, usually a priest performs the rituals at the temple. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the symbols used are : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Five daily prayers, preceded by ablutions , are required of every believer above the age of seven. A sacred cord, or kushti, is retied around the waist with each prayer. Physical cleanliness is important. An initiation ceremony similar to the Jewish Bar/Bat mitzvah, called a Navjot, is performed when a believer comes of age. Zoroastrian dead are not buried, but placed in the open air in structures called &quot;towers of silence,&quot; to be devoured by vultures.” </li></ul><ul><li>A living flame , that represents the presence of god. </li></ul><ul><li>Also a farohar, which represents an embelmen of the faith. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Persian Technology <ul><li>- Had a Royal Road which was 1,677 miles in length. It stretches from Susa, Persia to Sardis, Anatolia. </li></ul><ul><li>Used metal coins for money. This was the first time coins had standard values throughout an extended empire. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Ancient Persian Languages and Record Keeping (550 BCE – 400 BCE) <ul><li>Ancient Persians had many languages and writing systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Used writing for many purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Writings were etched. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing was not a general skill; performed by scribes. </li></ul><ul><li>Languages and writing forms from this time influence later languages and writing forms. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Written Languages of Ancient Persia <ul><li>Many written languages were used at the same time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Persian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Akkadian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aramaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elamite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different languages were often used for different purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Often had different origins. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly based on cuneiform. </li></ul><ul><li>Each language had many symbols. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Elamite <ul><li>Official language of the Persian Empire from 600 BCE – 400 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Language of the Elamites </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform, but not related to neighboring languages. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Old Persian Writing <ul><li>Created by Darius I between 522 BCE and 486 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Darius I wanted a written form of his native language to record his exploits. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used for high status purposes. Not used much for literature or record keeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily influenced by Aramaic concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Only had 42 signs. Was more alphabetic than syllabic . </li></ul>
    16. 16. Other Languages <ul><li>Used for literature, record keeping, religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Akkadian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2500 BCE – 1900 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semitic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Mesipotamia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuneiform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aramaic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 BCE – 600 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced many other languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread because of use in trade </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. What Was Written <ul><li>Persians kept extensive government records. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Records of war and exploits </li></ul>
    18. 18. Scripts <ul><li>Writings were usually on clay tablets (sometimes they wrote on cliffs). </li></ul><ul><li>Used special writing instruments </li></ul>
    19. 19. Who Did the Writing <ul><li>Writing was not a general skill </li></ul><ul><li>Writing done by scribes </li></ul><ul><li>High level people were illiterate. Writing was beneath them. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Influence <ul><li>Old Persian became Middle Persian then Late Persian. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Persian was an official language around 300 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced later languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Aramaic influenced a lot of later languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform influence our current alphabet. </li></ul>
    21. 21. BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>Shepherd, William R., comp. &quot;The Persian Empire.&quot; Jewish Virtual Library . 2008. 19 Nov. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li><>. </li></ul><ul><li>C., Mike, and Mike P. &quot;The Significance of Ancient Persia.&quot; 19 Nov. 2008 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction . United States of America: Mcdougal Littell, 2006 </li></ul>
    22. 22. BIBLIOGRAPHY CONT. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. metmuseum . org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha .htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. wsu . edu/~dee/MESO/PERSIANS .HTM </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. persiansarenotarabs .com/persian-culture/ </li></ul>