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ADD ADHD Transtornosdeficitatencion

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ADD ADHD Transtornosdeficitatencion

  1. 1. TRABAJO FINAL DE TECNOLOGIA Y LAS N.E.E .
  2. 2. Tema: Trastornos por déficit de Atención
  3. 3. IFD Nº 7 “POPULORUM PROGRESSIO” IN.TE.LA . Profesorado de Educación Especial. Materia: Tecnología de la Necesidades Educativas Especiales 4 Año “A”. Turno Noche San Salvador de Jujuy. JUJUY. REPUBLICA ARGENTINA. AUTORAS : Burgos, Carmen Palacios, Melisa Rodríguez, Judith TUTOR : Arqto. LAFOURCADE, JORGE. E 2006
  4. 4. <ul><li>INTRODUCCIÓN </li></ul>
  5. 5. La inteligencia es quizás el atributo más maravilloso de la condición humana y su utilización ha permitido a la humanidad salvar obstáculos que parecían imposibles .
  6. 6. Objetivo <ul><li>Brindar a todas las personas implicadas en la educación de los niños con déficit de atención una diversidad de herramientas y técnicas que permitan dar la oportunidad de aprender y desarrollar al máximo su capacidad intelectual. </li></ul>
  7. 7. AGRADECIMIENTO <ul><li>A nuestra familia que nos brindaron el apoyo emocional y económico. </li></ul><ul><li>Al profesor Jorge Lafourcade por orientarnos y guiarnos en este proceso . </li></ul>
  8. 8. CAPITULO 1 ¿Qué es el ADD-ADHD?
  9. 9. A D D DESORDEN POR DEFICIT DE ATENCION
  10. 10. A D H D <ul><li>DESORDEN POR DEFICIT DE </li></ul><ul><li>ATENCION CON HIPERACTIVIDAD </li></ul>
  11. 11. ADD-ADHD <ul><li>Es un trastorno caracterizado por un grupo de síntomas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Inatención. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  * I mpulsividad. </li></ul><ul><li>  * H iperactividad (en algunos casos). </li></ul><ul><li>* Dificultades para mantener un nivel de organización en la vida. </li></ul><ul><li>* Daño crónico en el autoestima. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CAPITULO 2 <ul><li>INATENCION </li></ul><ul><li>IMPULSIVIDAD </li></ul><ul><li>HIPERACTIVIDAD </li></ul>
  13. 13. La triada sintomática básica del ADD-ADHD consiste en:
  14. 14. INATENCION
  15. 15. CARACTERISTICAS: <ul><li>No presta atención a los detalles. </li></ul><ul><li>Parecen no escuchar cuando se los habla. </li></ul><ul><li>Se distrae fácilmente por estímulos irrelevantes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiene dificultades para organizar tareas y actividades. </li></ul>
  16. 16. IMPULSIVIDAD
  17. 17. CARACTERISTICAS <ul><li>Precipita respuestas antes de haber sido concretadas las preguntas. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrumpe o se inmiscuye en las tareas de otros. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiene dificultades para guardar turnos. </li></ul><ul><li>Obra sin reflexión. </li></ul>
  18. 18. HIPERACTIVIDAD
  19. 19. CARACTERISTICAS <ul><li>Habla en exceso. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiene dificultades para jugar o dedicarse tranquilamente a actividades de ocio. </li></ul><ul><li>Corre o salta excesivamente en situaciones que es inapropiado hacerlo. </li></ul>
  20. 20. CAPITULO 3 <ul><li>ETIOLOGIA Y MANIFESTACIONES CLINICAS </li></ul>
  21. 21. En la actualidad la teoría explicativa respecto de la etiología sitúa la dificultad en un trastorno de la neurotransmisión de la corteza prefrontal zona que desempeña un papel trascendental en la planificación y regulación de la conducta y sirve fundamentalmente para planificar y anticipar futuros eventos.
  22. 22. ¿Qué es lo que no causa el ADD-ADHD? <ul><li>La alergia a los colorantes en los alimentos. </li></ul><ul><li>La falta de algún tipo de vitaminas. </li></ul><ul><li>Mirar televisión. </li></ul><ul><li>Los videos juegos. </li></ul><ul><li>El divorcio de los padres, el nacimiento de hermanitos, los conflictos familiares que si pueden exacerbarlo pero no ocasionarlo. </li></ul><ul><li>Otros factores de estrés. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CAPITULO 4 <ul><li>OBSERVACION Y DIAGNOSTICO </li></ul>
  24. 24. Las personas que están en condiciones de realizar el diagnóstico son: <ul><li>Pediatras </li></ul><ul><li>Neurólogos </li></ul><ul><li>Psiquiatras </li></ul><ul><li>Psicólogos </li></ul><ul><li>Psicoanalistas </li></ul><ul><li>Psicopadagogos </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>La conducta de un sujeto debe evaluarse en base e la edad y la etapa del desarrollo en la que se encuentra. Todos los niños son hasta cierto punto distraídos, impulsivos e hiperactivos, estas características en la conducta son parte de su desarrollo normal, pero deben ir desapareciendo a partir de los dos años de edad, si esto no ocurre hay que realizar los estudios diagnóstico necesarios para saber a que se deben su persistencia. </li></ul>
  26. 26. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE EL ADD-ADHD <ul><li>ADD (predominante desatentos) </li></ul><ul><li>Tienen dificultades para seguir indicaciones. </li></ul><ul><li>Pierden objetos personales y olvidan consignas para cumplir tareas. </li></ul><ul><li>Parecen no escuchar. </li></ul><ul><li>Son muy distraídos. </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD (predominantemente impulsivos) </li></ul><ul><li>Son inquietos </li></ul><ul><li>Se levantan del asiento cuando no deben. </li></ul><ul><li>Hablan constantemente. </li></ul><ul><li>Tienen dificultades para esperar su turno. </li></ul>
  27. 27. CAPITULO 5 <ul><li>AREAS DE TRASTORNO </li></ul>
  28. 28. AREAS DE TRASTORNO <ul><li>TRASTORNOS FISICOS </li></ul><ul><li>TRASTORNOS DE APRENDIZAJE </li></ul><ul><li>TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA </li></ul><ul><li>TRASTORNOS EMOCIONALES </li></ul>
  29. 29. TRASTORNOS FISICOS Suelen tener accidentes y fracturas. Muchos de ellos suelen ser enuréticos .
  30. 30. TRASTORNOS DE APRENDIZAJE <ul><li>Sus maestros suelen quejarse de que pasan la mayor parte del tiempo fuera de sus asientos. </li></ul><ul><li>Se distraen constantemente. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrumpen a los otros. </li></ul><ul><li>No pueden esperar su turno y fundamentalmente no pueden continuar su tarea por un largo periodo. </li></ul>
  31. 31. TRASTORNO DE CONDUCTA <ul><li>Para satisfacer su curiosidad muchas veces desarman sus juguetes Suelen ser impulsivos en la escuela y en la casa, tienen conductas arriesgadas. </li></ul><ul><li>para ver como funcionan. </li></ul><ul><li>Como tienen un alto umbral de tolerancia al dolor los castigos físicos no funcionan como una amenaza. </li></ul>
  32. 32. TRASTORNOS EMOCIONALES <ul><li>A pesar de aparentar lo contrario, una de las consecuencias emocionales más frecuentes y negativas en éstos niños es el daño en la autoestima debido al sostenido fracaso escolar a lo largo de los años. </li></ul><ul><li>A lo largo de toda su vida como estudiantes fueron criticados por sus padres y maestros como resultado de sus bajos rendimientos intelectuales </li></ul>
  33. 33. CAPITULO 6 <ul><li>TRATAMIENTO INTERDISCIPLINARIO </li></ul>
  34. 34. TRATAMIENTO INTERDISCIPLINARIO
  35. 35. PSICOTERAPIA <ul><li>Se propone evitar que los síntomas primarios derivados del sustrato neuruquímico como la impulsividad, terminen transformándose en “rasgos de carácter” de estos pacientes. </li></ul>
  36. 36. TRATAMIENTO PSICOPEDAGOGICO <ul><li>Ayudan a resolver los trastornos del aprendizaje que suelen acompañar al ADD-ADHD. </li></ul>
  37. 37. TRATAMIENTO PSICOFARMACOLOGICO <ul><li>Debe estar precedido por una etapa diagnóstica que conducirá a la indicación del psicofármaco mas apropiado. </li></ul>
  38. 38. TECNICAS
  39. 39. TECNICAS COMPORTAMENTALES <ul><li>Se basan en la administración de refuerzos o castigos para controlar las conductas positivas o negativas del niño. </li></ul>
  40. 40. PARA AUMENTAR CONDUCTAS POSITIVAS <ul><li>El esfuerzo positivo : </li></ul><ul><li>Dar puntos por buen comportamiento, estos puntos son individuales. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconocimiento social. </li></ul><ul><li>La atención de los mayores. </li></ul>
  41. 41. PARA REDUCIR CONDUCTAS NEGATIVAS <ul><li>El castigo : </li></ul><ul><li>Las reprimendas: Suelen ser eficaces si son reprimendas breves, y deben producirse cada vez que el niño abandona la tarea o comete la conducta que deseamos eliminar, acompañadas de palabras de aliento o refuerzo positivo social cuando el niño se este portando bien. </li></ul>
  42. 42. TECNICAS COGNITIVAS <ul><li>Permiten que ellos sean capaz de autoevaluarse a si mismo, darse cuenta de sus propias dificultades y analizar las posibles soluciones. </li></ul>
  43. 43. CAPITULO 7 EL ROL DEL DOCENTE Y DE LA FAMILIA
  44. 44. PAPEL DEL PROFESOR <ul><li>Respetar las diferencias entre sus alumnos. </li></ul><ul><li>Descubrir las múltiples variaciones de aprender. </li></ul><ul><li>Ofrecer un plan de trabajo adecuado. </li></ul><ul><li>Desarrollar otras áreas intelectuales. </li></ul>
  45. 45. ESTRATEGIAS Y TECNICAS PARA LA LABOR DEL DOCENTE <ul><li>Adaptar la tarea a su capacidad de atención y tolerancia emocional. </li></ul><ul><li>Estructurar las tareas en tiempos cortos. </li></ul><ul><li>Situarlos cerca de nuestra mesa para controlarlo mejor. </li></ul><ul><li>Retirar la atención ante las malas conductas y premiar las buenas </li></ul>
  46. 46. PAPEL DE LOS PADRES
  47. 47. PAPEL DE LOS PADRES <ul><li>Resulta imprescindible para la recuperación del niño. </li></ul><ul><li>Deben brindarles seguridad, modelos a seguir, tratándolos con disciplina y autoridad en la medida de sus posibilidades. </li></ul>
  48. 48. A MODO DE CIERRE Las pautas, técnicas y estrategias desarrolladas pueden ser de máxima ayuda, y la práctica bien llevada pueden mejorar la educación de estos niños con necesidades y características de aprendizajes distintos.
  49. 49. El trabajó nos llevó a pensar que si logramos desarrollar todas las habilidades humanas no solo los niños con ADD-ADHD se sentirán mejor sobre si mismos, sino también competentes y comprometidos con la realidad. <ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul>
  50. 50. PROSPECTIVA <ul><li>Implementar programas de computadoras en el aula para estimular la creatividad y el pensamiento realista. </li></ul>
  51. 51. ¿Por qué me miras diferente? <ul><li>si solo soy un niño como vos… </li></ul>

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