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Special education


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Special education

  1. 1. Special Education: How to assist those with special needs Presented By: Namarie M. Brown
  2. 2. What is Special Education?  Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent, to meet unique needs of individuals with exceptional needs, whose educational needs cannot be met with modification of the regular instructional program, and related services at no cost to the parent, which may be needed to assist such individuals to benefit from specially designed instruction.
  3. 3. Who is Eligible for Special Education Services? Categories under IDEA include the following:  Autism  Hearing Impairment, including deafness  Deaf-Blindness  Developmental Delay  Emotional Disturbance  Hearing Impairment  Intellectual Disability  Mental Retardation  Orthopedic Impairment  Other Health Impairment  Specific Learning Disability  Speech or Language Impairment  Traumatic Brain Injury  Visual Impairment  Multiple Disability
  4. 4. Tips for working with children who have special needs  Interact  Observe  Use Common Sense  Be Flexible  Be Consistent  Use visual, auditory, and tactile cues  Have a plan……and a back-up plan  Be positive
  5. 5. Co-Teaching Methods  1. Interactive Teaching - Teachers alternate roles of presenting, reviewing, and monitoring instruction.  2. Alternative Teaching - One person teaches, reteaches, or enriches a concept for a small group, while the other monitors or teaches the remaining students.  3. Parallel Teaching - Students are divided into mixed-ability groups, and each co-teaching partner teaches the same material to one of the groups.  4. Station Teaching - Small groups of students rotate to various stations for instruction, review, and/or practice. (Walther-Thomas et al.,)
  6. 6. Effective Teaching Strategies  Mnemonic strategies: Highly effective  Spatial Organizers: Effective  Classroom Learning Strategies (i.e. study skills instruction, note-taking strategies): Very effective  Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): Moderately effective  Peer Mediation: Effective  Study Aids (i. e. study guides, text outlines): Promising, but needs more study  Hands-On or Activity-Oriented Learning: Appears effective, but needs more study  Explicit instruction: Most effective of any strategy studied (Mulligan 2011)
  7. 7. Management for inclusive classrooms  Create a structured classroom. This may include designating separate areas for group and individual work and centers for reading or art, as well as creating a daily class schedule.  Display classroom rules.  Post the daily schedule incorporating color.  Provide opportunities for purposeful movement.  Develop classroom cues for settling down to work, getting out materials, and quieting down.  Plan for transition times (between subjects or tasks, before and after lunch, changing classes).  Help students organize their materials by using checklists, folders, and containers to keep materials organized in desks.  Visually monitor student activity. (Bender, 2002)
  8. 8. Learning environment for students with ADD/ADHD  Seat students with ADD near the teacher's desk, but include them as part of the regular class seating.  Place these students up front with their backs to the rest of the class to keep other students out of view.  Surround students with ADD with good role models.  Encourage peer tutoring and cooperative/collaborative learning.  Avoid distracting stimuli. Try not to place students with ADD near air conditioners, high traffic areas, heaters, or doors or windows.  Be creative! Produce a stimuli-reduced study area. Let all students have access to this area so the student with ADD will not feel different.  Encourage parents to set up appropriate study space at home, with set times and routines established for study.
  9. 9. Giving instructions to students with ADD/ADHD  Maintain eye contact during verbal instruction.  Make directions clear and concise. Be consistent with daily instructions.  Simplify complex directions. Avoid multiple commands.  Make sure students comprehend the instructions before beginning the task.  Repeat instructions in a calm, positive manner, if needed.  Help the students feel comfortable with seeking assistance (most children with ADD will not ask for help). Gradually reduce the amount of assistance, but keep in mind that these children will need more help for a longer period of time than the average child.  Require a daily assignment notebook if necessary
  10. 10. Assistive Technology  AT for kids with disabilities is defined as any device, piece of equipment or system that helps bypass, work around or compensate for an individual's specific learning deficits.  AT doesn't cure or eliminate learning difficulties, but it can help your child reach her potential because it allows her to capitalize on her strengths and bypass areas of difficulty.  AT can increase a child's self-reliance and sense of independence. Kids who struggle in school are often overly dependent on parents, siblings, friends and teachers for help with assignments. By using AT, kids can experience success with working independently. (Raskind, Ph.D & Stanberry 2010)
  11. 11. Assistive Technology Devices  AT devices are computers with print-recognition software that "read" text aloud.  AT devices are speech recognition systems that turn oral language into written text.  AT devices are talking calculators that assist people with math difficulties.  AT devices are software that predicts and edits words for people who are prone to spelling difficulties.
  12. 12. Assistive Technology Devices Devices Used for area of difficulty in….. Word Processors written language Spell Checkers written language Proofreading Programs written language Outlining/Brainstorming Programs written language Speech recognition written language Speech Synthesis/Screen review written language and reading Word Prediction Programs written language Alternative Keyboards written language Optical Character Recognition reading Personal Data Managers organization and memory Free-Form Databases organization and memory Tape recorders/Variable Speech Control reading, listening, and memory FM Listening Systems listening Talking Calculators math Electronic Math Worksheets math (Adapted from Raskind, M.H. & Scott, N. 1993)
  13. 13. Strategies to Enhance Reading Skills  Break the material into very small chunks  Connect the story to a real-life situation or emotion  Make reading multisensory through audio books, DVDs, or being read to  Connect to literature through art  Repetition
  14. 14. Technologies used to Enhance Reading Skills  ReadPlease and outSPOKEN: These programs read any text shown on a computer screen to the user.  Kurzwell 3000 LearnStation and OmniPage Pro 14: These programs scan and convert printed text from a paper or book into editable text so a screen reader and read aloud the words on a computer.  Read&Write (v7) Gold and TextAloud: These programs convert printed text to an audio file for use in an MP3 player or similar portable device.  Other Auditory Technology: Tapes, CD-ROMs, DVDs, portable readers and players, and special internet services all can provide auditory access to printed materials. (J Thompson, J Bakken, B Fulk, G Peterson-Karlan,2004)
  15. 15. Technologies used to Enhance Reading Skills Cont’d.……  Format features in Microsoft Word and Write: OutLoud SOLO: These programs format text to be easier for a user to see by increasing font size, pairing graphics with text, changing background and font color, changing text to a more readable font, or using highlighting to emphasize certain text.  Franklin Speaking Homework Wiz and Quicktionary Reading Pen: Students can access pronunciations and definitions for words on the computer using portable spell checkers and auditory dictionaries and thesauruses; or on paper using reading pens.  Writing with symbols 2000: This program pairs text with graphics, such as picture-communication symbols, for users who can interpret pictures but not the printed word (J Thompson, J Bakken, B Fulk, G Peterson-Karlan,2004)
  16. 16. Works Cited  Schwab Foundation for Learning. “Assistive technology for children with learning disabilities” 2000 pg. 1-27  J Thompson, J Bakken, B Fulk, G Peterson-Karlan “Using technology to improve the literacy skills of students with disabilities” December 2004 North Central Regional Educational Laboratory pg.1-21  Land, Sue M.Ed. "Effective Teaching Practices for Students in Inclusive Classrooms." (2004): n. page. Print. < tiveteach/>.  James, Jennifer. "Five Strategies to Increase Reading Comprehension With Your Child With Special Needs." National dissemination center for children with disabilities . N.p., n. d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <  Mulligan, Elaine. "What Works: Effective Teaching Strategies for Students with Disabilities." National dissemination center for children with disabilities . N.p., 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <>.  Raskind, Ph.D. , Marshall, and Kristin Stanberry. "Assistive technology for kids with LD: An overview." GreatSchools. N.p., 2010. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. < >.  "Teaching Children with ADD/ADHD." Teacher Vision . ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, n.d. Web. 24 Feb 2014. < >.