UPLIFTING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY,         AND RESEARCH    College of Law, Bulacan State University,            City of Malolo...
Focus of Discussion    1 Overview of Basic Concepts       Scientific Method       Steps in the Research Process        –...
2 Workshop Topics     1. Problem Identification     2. Definition of the General and Specific Problems     3. Preparation ...
Scientific Research       Scientific research is a systematic, controlled,        empirical, and critical investigation o...
Paradigm of Inquiry in Scientific Approach    1.   Problem-Obstacle-Idea – involves getting the idea out in         the op...
General Order of the Scientific Methods       Identification of a problem       Definition of the problem       Formula...
Steps in the Research Process       Identifying a Problem       Theoretical Framework           2.1 Theory Building     ...
Steps in the Research Process       Research Designs and Methods           3.1 Basic Research Designs           3.2 Sampl...
Classification of Research       Research as a formal, systematic and intensive        process of scientific investigatio...
Sources of a Research Problem        Experience and observations.        The vast amount of literature in your own field...
Elements of a Research Problem        Aim or purpose of the problem for         investigation.        The subject matter...
Criteria in the Selection of a Research     Problem        Novelty and avoidance of unnecessary         duplication.     ...
Guidelines in the Selection of a Research     Problem        The research problem or topic must be chosen         by the ...
Selecting a Research Problem        Analyzing the research problem.        Identifying the variable.        Stating the...
Criteria of Problems and Problem     Statement     1.   The problem should express a relation between          two or more...
Significance of the Study        Rational, timeliness and/or relevance of the         study should be clearly stated;    ...
Scope/Limitations of the Study        Scope defines the coverage or boundary of the         study in terms of the area or...
Theoretical Framework     Relevant Theory        A theory is a set of interrelated constructs         (concepts), definit...
Theoretical Framework     Role of Theory in Research     1.   Provides a framework by serving as the point          depart...
Theoretical Framework     Related Literature and Studies        Involves the systematic identification, location         ...
Conceptual Framework / Variables        Conceptual Framework - presents the         relationship between the different sp...
Samples of the Paradigm of the Study              SAMPLE 1                              SAMPLE 2     Independent   Depende...
Samples of the Paradigm of the Study              SAMPLE 3                             SAMPLE 4     Independent   Dependen...
Samples of the Paradigm of the Study                                 SAMPLE 5        Independent              Dependent / ...
Statistical Treatment Applicable for each     Model        Models 1 and 2 – Correlation Coefficient with T-test         f...
Example      Teacher        Style                                            Students’      Student          Classroom    ...
Hypothesis        Hypothesis comes from the Greek prefix “Hypo”         meaning beneath or underlying, and the Greek word...
Functions of Hypothesis     1.   Helps the researcher determine what kind of          research is to be done and what meth...
Research Methodology        Research Designs        Methods and Procedures        Sources of Data        Data Gatherin...
Sources of Primary Data     1.   Interview          a.   Personal Interview          b.   Telephone Interview          c. ...
Data Processing         Is a means of converting information either manually or by          machine. This involves the fo...
Measurement Scales      Measurement                    Characteristics       of Scales     Nominal        Groups and label...
Commonly Used Statistical Analyses        Descriptive Statistics - one (1) variable at a time:         1.   Measure of Ce...
Commonly Used Statistical Analyses        Inferential Statistics - Used in hypothesis testing         1.   Parametric (t-...
Final Part and Important Considerations        Results and Findings        Summary, Conclusions & Recommendations      ...
Designing Research Instruments     A. Observation Checklist Guidelines     1.  Enumerate (list down) the dimensions (facto...
B. Guidelines in the Formulation of questions        for a Questionnaire     1. Make all directions clear and unequivocal ...
Sample of Bibliographical Entries                    BIBLIOGRAPHY                         A. BOOKS     Alano, Patricio, Ma...
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(THESIS) Uplifting Science & research2

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(THESIS) Uplifting Science & research2

  1. 1. UPLIFTING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND RESEARCH College of Law, Bulacan State University, City of Malolos, Bulacan May 4,, 2005, 8:00 a.m ERLINDA P. VILLAMORAN, Ph. D Director, Research Services Office Professor, Graduate School and College of Education Bulacan State University Malolos, Bulacan 3000
  2. 2. Focus of Discussion 1 Overview of Basic Concepts  Scientific Method  Steps in the Research Process – Identification of Problem – Theoretical Framework – Research Designs and Methods – Presentation, Analyses, and Interpretation of Data – Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations  Rules to Follow in Research Writing2 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  3. 3. 2 Workshop Topics 1. Problem Identification 2. Definition of the General and Specific Problems 3. Preparation of the Conceptual Framework Based on the Identified Problems 3.1 Paradigm of the Study 3.2 Hypothesis of the Study 3.3 Definition of Terms 4. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Mock Data III Presentation of Outputs [(4.1), (4.2), (4.3), (4.4), (4.5)] IV Critiquing of Outputs3 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  4. 4. Scientific Research  Scientific research is a systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypotheses about the presumed relations among such phenomena.4 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  5. 5. Paradigm of Inquiry in Scientific Approach 1. Problem-Obstacle-Idea – involves getting the idea out in the open and expressing the problem in some reasonably manageable form 2. Hypothesis - a conjectural statement, a tentative proposition about the relation between two or more phenomena or variables 3. Reasoning-Deduction - the scientist deduces the consequences of the hypothesis he has formulated 4. Observation-Test-Experiment - is only part of the scientific enterprise. If the problem has been well stated, the hypothesis or hypotheses adequately formulated, and the implications of the hypotheses carefully deduced, this step is almost automatic assuming that the investigator is technically competent.5 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  6. 6. General Order of the Scientific Methods  Identification of a problem  Definition of the problem  Formulation of hypotheses  Projection of consequences  Testing of hypotheses6 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  7. 7. Steps in the Research Process  Identifying a Problem  Theoretical Framework 2.1 Theory Building 2.2 Review of Related Studies 2.3 Review of Related Literature 2.4 Conceptual Framework 2.5 Constructing Hypotheses 2.6 Identifying, Labeling and Controlling Variables 2.7 Definition of Terms7 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  8. 8. Steps in the Research Process  Research Designs and Methods 3.1 Basic Research Designs 3.2 Sampling Procedure 3.3 The Collection of Data 3.4 Selecting Appropriate Statistical Technique  Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data  Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations8 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  9. 9. Classification of Research  Research as a formal, systematic and intensive process of scientific investigation is always directed toward the solution of a problem Basic Research - it develops or enhances theories Applied research - it tests theories and evaluate their usefulness in solving actual problem situations in order to improve a product or process. Action Research - Applied research which is focused on immediate application.9 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  10. 10. Sources of a Research Problem  Experience and observations.  The vast amount of literature in your own field.  Courses that you have taken.  Journals, books, magazines, or abstracts.  Theses and Dissertation.  Your Professor and Your Classmates.10 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  11. 11. Elements of a Research Problem  Aim or purpose of the problem for investigation.  The subject matter or topic to be investigated.  The place or locale where the research is to be conducted.  The period or time of study during which data are to be gathered.  Population or universe from whom data are to be collected.11 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  12. 12. Criteria in the Selection of a Research Problem  Novelty and avoidance of unnecessary duplication.  Significance for the field represented and implementation.  Interest, intellectual, curiosity, and drive.  Sponsorship and administrative cooperation.  Cost and returns.  Time factor.  Training and personal qualification.  Availability of data or method.  Special equipment and working conditions.12 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  13. 13. Guidelines in the Selection of a Research Problem  The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher himself.  It must be within the interest of the researcher.  It must be within the specification of the researcher.  It must be within the competence of the researcher to tackle.  It must be within the ability of the researcher to finance.  It is researchable and manageable.13 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  14. 14. Selecting a Research Problem  Analyzing the research problem.  Identifying the variable.  Stating the problem.  Evaluating the problem.  Setting up of a sub-problem.  Presentation of the problem.14 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  15. 15. Criteria of Problems and Problem Statement 1. The problem should express a relation between two or more variables. It asks, in effect, questions like is A related to B? How are A and B related to C? How is A related to B under conditions C and D? 2. The problem should be stated clearly and unambiguously in question form. Instead of saying for instance, “The problem is . . . ,” or “The purpose of this study is …,” ask a question. 3. The problem and the problem statement should be such as to imply possibilities of empirical testing15 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  16. 16. Significance of the Study  Rational, timeliness and/or relevance of the study should be clearly stated;  Contribution to the accumulation of knowledge, or to filling up a knowledge or gap;  Contribution to building, validating or refining prevailing theories;  Contribution to meeting a pressing need of a specific group like solving a problem or improving certain conditions; possible implications and;  Contribution to refining concepts, improving research instrumentation and methodologies.16 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  17. 17. Scope/Limitations of the Study  Scope defines the coverage or boundary of the study in terms of the area or locality and subjects or population covered, the duration or period of the study and the research issues are focused.  Limitations are statements which alert the reader of the research report to certain constraints over which the researcher has no control. It also defines the conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place restrictions on the conclusions of the study and their application or other situations.17 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  18. 18. Theoretical Framework Relevant Theory  A theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena  Sources of theories: – Research literature and the conceptual writings in a discipline – If a theory did exist or was not well developed, one could conceptualize a theory based on a logical analysis of prior research applied to the phenomenon under study.18 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  19. 19. Theoretical Framework Role of Theory in Research 1. Provides a framework by serving as the point departure for the pursuit of a research problem 2. The theory identifies the crucial factors 3. It provides a guide for systematizing and interrelating the various facets of the research. 4. It helps identify gaps and weak points 5. Theory may light the way for continued research on the phenomena under study19 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  20. 20. Theoretical Framework Related Literature and Studies  Involves the systematic identification, location and analysis of documents containing information on the research problem  Literature refers to the writings of a country or books dealing with a special subject valued as works of arts like drama, fiction, essays, .. etc.”, therefore all written material or article can be called as literature.  Related studies are investigations that are usually published materials like manuscript, theses, and dissertations which are conducted previously to which the present study had similarity and relatedness.20 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  21. 21. Conceptual Framework / Variables  Conceptual Framework - presents the relationship between the different specific constructs that we want to study. A construct is a clearly defined concept.  Variable is a characteristic that has two or more mutually exclusive values or properties. 1. Dependent Variable (DV) 2. Independent Variable (IV) 3. Moderator Variable 4. Control Variable 5. Intervening Variable21 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  22. 22. Samples of the Paradigm of the Study SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE 2 Independent Dependent Independent Dependent / Dependent Variables Variables Variables Independent Variables Variables IV DV IV DV / IV DV22 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  23. 23. Samples of the Paradigm of the Study SAMPLE 3 SAMPLE 4 Independent Dependent INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Variables Variables IV DV MV Moderating Variables23 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  24. 24. Samples of the Paradigm of the Study SAMPLE 5 Independent Dependent / Dependent Variables Independent Variables Variables IV DV / IV DV MV 1 MV 224 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  25. 25. Statistical Treatment Applicable for each Model  Models 1 and 2 – Correlation Coefficient with T-test for significance of the correlation  Models 3 and 5 – Multiple Regression Analysis and ANOVA for Single and Combined Effects of the IV’s on the DV(s) (t and F tests)  Model 4 – T-test for significant difference if applicable e.g. significant difference between perceptions of two groups of respondents, significant difference between pretest and posttest.25 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  26. 26. Example Teacher Style Students’ Student Classroom satisfaction Personality structuring with the Style & formality course Subjects Class size Students’ age / sex26 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  27. 27. Hypothesis  Hypothesis comes from the Greek prefix “Hypo” meaning beneath or underlying, and the Greek word “thesis” meaning a proportion or statement that can be supported by argument or evidence.  It is a conjectural statement of the significant relationship between two or more variables. It is still doubtful and needs to be tested.  Two types of hypothesis: 1. Null hypothesis 2. The alternative or experimental or research hypothesis a. Non-directional Hypothesis b. Directional Hypothesis27 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  28. 28. Functions of Hypothesis 1. Helps the researcher determine what kind of research is to be done and what methodology may be used; 2. Means of stating assumptions and presenting or providing explanations; 3. Serves as determinations of the relevancy of facts; 4. Aids the researcher present the conclusions of the study; and 5. Provides format for the presentation, analysis and interpretation of research data. 6. Sources for the formulation of new hypothesis. 7. Provides the link between theory and observation;28 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  29. 29. Research Methodology  Research Designs  Methods and Procedures  Sources of Data  Data Gathering Instruments  Procedure  Statistical Treatment Used  Collection of Data – Primary – Secondary29 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  30. 30. Sources of Primary Data 1. Interview a. Personal Interview b. Telephone Interview c. Interviewing by Mail 2. Observation a. Non-Behavioral Observation i. Record Analysis ii. Physical Condition Analysis iii. Physical Process Analysis b. Behavioral Observation i. Non – Verbal Analysis ii. Linguistic Analysis iii. Extra – Linguistic Analysis iv. Spatial Analysis30 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  31. 31. Data Processing  Is a means of converting information either manually or by machine. This involves the following phases: 1. Data Coding . It is a process of grouping the response to a question into categories and assigning numbers, characters, and/or other symbols called codes. 2. Selecting Appropriate Statistical Method Factors to be considered: a. Variables – a noun that stands for variation within a class of objects. b. Relationship of Variables – a statement about variables; two or more groups are compared or relationships among variables are studied within one group c. Measurement of Scales d. Sample Size31 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  32. 32. Measurement Scales Measurement Characteristics of Scales Nominal Groups and labels data only, report frequencies or percentages Ordinal Ranks data; uses numbers only to indicate ranking Interval Assumes the difference between scores of equal magnitude really mean equal differences in the variable measured; (actual number) Ratio All of the above, plus true zero point32 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  33. 33. Commonly Used Statistical Analyses  Descriptive Statistics - one (1) variable at a time: 1. Measure of Central Tendency (mean, median, mode) 2. Measure of variability/dispersion (range, IQR, Standard Deviation, Quartile Deviation, Average Deviation, Coefficient of Variation)  Descriptive Statistics - two (2) variables at a time: 1. Measures of Correlation a. Pearson – for 2 sets of interval data b. Spearman rho – ordinal – ordinal (easier to compute) c. Kendall Tau – ordinal – ordinal (reliable for large n) d. Kendall Partial Correlation Coefficient – 3 sets of ordinal data e. Point Biserial – nominal – interval data 2. Measures of Association (Q coefficient, phi coefficient)33 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  34. 34. Commonly Used Statistical Analyses  Inferential Statistics - Used in hypothesis testing 1. Parametric (t-test) 2. Non – Parametric (Mc Nemar, Chi- square, Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney)  Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) – comparing more than 2 groups  Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) – for equating groups34 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  35. 35. Final Part and Important Considerations  Results and Findings  Summary, Conclusions & Recommendations  Important Considerations 1. Clear and concise title 2. Clearly stated and delimited problem 3. Clearly stated significance of the problem, scope and limitation of the study 4. Testable hypothesis 5. Coherent and relevant review of theories, literature and studies 6. Detailed description of research design 7. Adequate samples 8. Relevant variables 9. Appropriate data gathering technique 10. Valid and reliable instruments 11. Clearly stated results and discussion 12. Properly formatted bibliographical entries35 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  36. 36. Designing Research Instruments A. Observation Checklist Guidelines 1. Enumerate (list down) the dimensions (factors) to be observed 2. Define them very clearly. (What they are exactly) 3. Eliminate those that are vague or repetitive. 4. Arrange them on a sheet of paper in a manner most convenient for observing and recording. 5. Include space for identifying data. 6. Try out form. (This is called a dry run) 7. Revise the form on the basis of the try out and your experience. 8. Write the checklist in its final form.36 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  37. 37. B. Guidelines in the Formulation of questions for a Questionnaire 1. Make all directions clear and unequivocal 2. Use correct grammar 3. Make all questions unequivocal 4. Avoid asking biases questions 5. Objective responses 6. Relate all questions to the topic under study 7. Create categories or classes for approximate 8. Group the questions in logical 9. Create sufficient number of response categories 10. Word carefully or avoid questions that deal with confidential or embarrassing information 11. Explain and illustrate difficult questions 12. State all questions affirmatively 13. Makes as many questions as would supply adequate information for the study 14. Add a catch-all word or phrase to options of multiple response questions 15. Place all spaces for relies at the left side 16. Make the respondents anonymous37 Erlinda P. Villamoran
  38. 38. Sample of Bibliographical Entries BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Alano, Patricio, Management of Human Behavior in Organizations, Manila, National Bookstore, 1992. Baldwin, R. G., Incentives for Faculty Vitality, San Francisco Publishing House: London, 1985 B.JOURNAL AND PERIODICALS Putman, J.J. “Quicksilver and Slow Death” National Geographic, 1972. Waldichuck, M. “Lead in the Environment” Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1980 C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Alcala, D., “Personality Dimensions and Status of Elementary School Principals as Related to their level Of Job Satisfaction in the Division of Quezon”. (Unpublished Masteral Thesis, PNC, 1988.)38 Erlinda P. Villamoran

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