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- 1. UPLIFTING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND RESEARCH College of Law, Bulacan State University, City of Malolos, Bulacan May 4,, 2005, 8:00 a.m ERLINDA P. VILLAMORAN, Ph. D Director, Research Services Office Professor, Graduate School and College of Education Bulacan State University Malolos, Bulacan 3000
- 2. Focus of Discussion 1 Overview of Basic Concepts Scientific Method Steps in the Research Process – Identification of Problem – Theoretical Framework – Research Designs and Methods – Presentation, Analyses, and Interpretation of Data – Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Rules to Follow in Research Writing2 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 3. 2 Workshop Topics 1. Problem Identification 2. Definition of the General and Specific Problems 3. Preparation of the Conceptual Framework Based on the Identified Problems 3.1 Paradigm of the Study 3.2 Hypothesis of the Study 3.3 Definition of Terms 4. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Mock Data III Presentation of Outputs [(4.1), (4.2), (4.3), (4.4), (4.5)] IV Critiquing of Outputs3 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 4. Scientific Research Scientific research is a systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypotheses about the presumed relations among such phenomena.4 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 5. Paradigm of Inquiry in Scientific Approach 1. Problem-Obstacle-Idea – involves getting the idea out in the open and expressing the problem in some reasonably manageable form 2. Hypothesis - a conjectural statement, a tentative proposition about the relation between two or more phenomena or variables 3. Reasoning-Deduction - the scientist deduces the consequences of the hypothesis he has formulated 4. Observation-Test-Experiment - is only part of the scientific enterprise. If the problem has been well stated, the hypothesis or hypotheses adequately formulated, and the implications of the hypotheses carefully deduced, this step is almost automatic assuming that the investigator is technically competent.5 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 6. General Order of the Scientific Methods Identification of a problem Definition of the problem Formulation of hypotheses Projection of consequences Testing of hypotheses6 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 7. Steps in the Research Process Identifying a Problem Theoretical Framework 2.1 Theory Building 2.2 Review of Related Studies 2.3 Review of Related Literature 2.4 Conceptual Framework 2.5 Constructing Hypotheses 2.6 Identifying, Labeling and Controlling Variables 2.7 Definition of Terms7 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 8. Steps in the Research Process Research Designs and Methods 3.1 Basic Research Designs 3.2 Sampling Procedure 3.3 The Collection of Data 3.4 Selecting Appropriate Statistical Technique Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations8 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 9. Classification of Research Research as a formal, systematic and intensive process of scientific investigation is always directed toward the solution of a problem Basic Research - it develops or enhances theories Applied research - it tests theories and evaluate their usefulness in solving actual problem situations in order to improve a product or process. Action Research - Applied research which is focused on immediate application.9 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 10. Sources of a Research Problem Experience and observations. The vast amount of literature in your own field. Courses that you have taken. Journals, books, magazines, or abstracts. Theses and Dissertation. Your Professor and Your Classmates.10 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 11. Elements of a Research Problem Aim or purpose of the problem for investigation. The subject matter or topic to be investigated. The place or locale where the research is to be conducted. The period or time of study during which data are to be gathered. Population or universe from whom data are to be collected.11 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 12. Criteria in the Selection of a Research Problem Novelty and avoidance of unnecessary duplication. Significance for the field represented and implementation. Interest, intellectual, curiosity, and drive. Sponsorship and administrative cooperation. Cost and returns. Time factor. Training and personal qualification. Availability of data or method. Special equipment and working conditions.12 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 13. Guidelines in the Selection of a Research Problem The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher himself. It must be within the interest of the researcher. It must be within the specification of the researcher. It must be within the competence of the researcher to tackle. It must be within the ability of the researcher to finance. It is researchable and manageable.13 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 14. Selecting a Research Problem Analyzing the research problem. Identifying the variable. Stating the problem. Evaluating the problem. Setting up of a sub-problem. Presentation of the problem.14 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 15. Criteria of Problems and Problem Statement 1. The problem should express a relation between two or more variables. It asks, in effect, questions like is A related to B? How are A and B related to C? How is A related to B under conditions C and D? 2. The problem should be stated clearly and unambiguously in question form. Instead of saying for instance, “The problem is . . . ,” or “The purpose of this study is …,” ask a question. 3. The problem and the problem statement should be such as to imply possibilities of empirical testing15 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 16. Significance of the Study Rational, timeliness and/or relevance of the study should be clearly stated; Contribution to the accumulation of knowledge, or to filling up a knowledge or gap; Contribution to building, validating or refining prevailing theories; Contribution to meeting a pressing need of a specific group like solving a problem or improving certain conditions; possible implications and; Contribution to refining concepts, improving research instrumentation and methodologies.16 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 17. Scope/Limitations of the Study Scope defines the coverage or boundary of the study in terms of the area or locality and subjects or population covered, the duration or period of the study and the research issues are focused. Limitations are statements which alert the reader of the research report to certain constraints over which the researcher has no control. It also defines the conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place restrictions on the conclusions of the study and their application or other situations.17 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 18. Theoretical Framework Relevant Theory A theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena Sources of theories: – Research literature and the conceptual writings in a discipline – If a theory did exist or was not well developed, one could conceptualize a theory based on a logical analysis of prior research applied to the phenomenon under study.18 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 19. Theoretical Framework Role of Theory in Research 1. Provides a framework by serving as the point departure for the pursuit of a research problem 2. The theory identifies the crucial factors 3. It provides a guide for systematizing and interrelating the various facets of the research. 4. It helps identify gaps and weak points 5. Theory may light the way for continued research on the phenomena under study19 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 20. Theoretical Framework Related Literature and Studies Involves the systematic identification, location and analysis of documents containing information on the research problem Literature refers to the writings of a country or books dealing with a special subject valued as works of arts like drama, fiction, essays, .. etc.”, therefore all written material or article can be called as literature. Related studies are investigations that are usually published materials like manuscript, theses, and dissertations which are conducted previously to which the present study had similarity and relatedness.20 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 21. Conceptual Framework / Variables Conceptual Framework - presents the relationship between the different specific constructs that we want to study. A construct is a clearly defined concept. Variable is a characteristic that has two or more mutually exclusive values or properties. 1. Dependent Variable (DV) 2. Independent Variable (IV) 3. Moderator Variable 4. Control Variable 5. Intervening Variable21 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 22. Samples of the Paradigm of the Study SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE 2 Independent Dependent Independent Dependent / Dependent Variables Variables Variables Independent Variables Variables IV DV IV DV / IV DV22 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 23. Samples of the Paradigm of the Study SAMPLE 3 SAMPLE 4 Independent Dependent INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Variables Variables IV DV MV Moderating Variables23 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 24. Samples of the Paradigm of the Study SAMPLE 5 Independent Dependent / Dependent Variables Independent Variables Variables IV DV / IV DV MV 1 MV 224 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 25. Statistical Treatment Applicable for each Model Models 1 and 2 – Correlation Coefficient with T-test for significance of the correlation Models 3 and 5 – Multiple Regression Analysis and ANOVA for Single and Combined Effects of the IV’s on the DV(s) (t and F tests) Model 4 – T-test for significant difference if applicable e.g. significant difference between perceptions of two groups of respondents, significant difference between pretest and posttest.25 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 26. Example Teacher Style Students’ Student Classroom satisfaction Personality structuring with the Style & formality course Subjects Class size Students’ age / sex26 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 27. Hypothesis Hypothesis comes from the Greek prefix “Hypo” meaning beneath or underlying, and the Greek word “thesis” meaning a proportion or statement that can be supported by argument or evidence. It is a conjectural statement of the significant relationship between two or more variables. It is still doubtful and needs to be tested. Two types of hypothesis: 1. Null hypothesis 2. The alternative or experimental or research hypothesis a. Non-directional Hypothesis b. Directional Hypothesis27 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 28. Functions of Hypothesis 1. Helps the researcher determine what kind of research is to be done and what methodology may be used; 2. Means of stating assumptions and presenting or providing explanations; 3. Serves as determinations of the relevancy of facts; 4. Aids the researcher present the conclusions of the study; and 5. Provides format for the presentation, analysis and interpretation of research data. 6. Sources for the formulation of new hypothesis. 7. Provides the link between theory and observation;28 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 29. Research Methodology Research Designs Methods and Procedures Sources of Data Data Gathering Instruments Procedure Statistical Treatment Used Collection of Data – Primary – Secondary29 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 30. Sources of Primary Data 1. Interview a. Personal Interview b. Telephone Interview c. Interviewing by Mail 2. Observation a. Non-Behavioral Observation i. Record Analysis ii. Physical Condition Analysis iii. Physical Process Analysis b. Behavioral Observation i. Non – Verbal Analysis ii. Linguistic Analysis iii. Extra – Linguistic Analysis iv. Spatial Analysis30 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 31. Data Processing Is a means of converting information either manually or by machine. This involves the following phases: 1. Data Coding . It is a process of grouping the response to a question into categories and assigning numbers, characters, and/or other symbols called codes. 2. Selecting Appropriate Statistical Method Factors to be considered: a. Variables – a noun that stands for variation within a class of objects. b. Relationship of Variables – a statement about variables; two or more groups are compared or relationships among variables are studied within one group c. Measurement of Scales d. Sample Size31 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 32. Measurement Scales Measurement Characteristics of Scales Nominal Groups and labels data only, report frequencies or percentages Ordinal Ranks data; uses numbers only to indicate ranking Interval Assumes the difference between scores of equal magnitude really mean equal differences in the variable measured; (actual number) Ratio All of the above, plus true zero point32 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 33. Commonly Used Statistical Analyses Descriptive Statistics - one (1) variable at a time: 1. Measure of Central Tendency (mean, median, mode) 2. Measure of variability/dispersion (range, IQR, Standard Deviation, Quartile Deviation, Average Deviation, Coefficient of Variation) Descriptive Statistics - two (2) variables at a time: 1. Measures of Correlation a. Pearson – for 2 sets of interval data b. Spearman rho – ordinal – ordinal (easier to compute) c. Kendall Tau – ordinal – ordinal (reliable for large n) d. Kendall Partial Correlation Coefficient – 3 sets of ordinal data e. Point Biserial – nominal – interval data 2. Measures of Association (Q coefficient, phi coefficient)33 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 34. Commonly Used Statistical Analyses Inferential Statistics - Used in hypothesis testing 1. Parametric (t-test) 2. Non – Parametric (Mc Nemar, Chi- square, Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) – comparing more than 2 groups Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) – for equating groups34 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 35. Final Part and Important Considerations Results and Findings Summary, Conclusions & Recommendations Important Considerations 1. Clear and concise title 2. Clearly stated and delimited problem 3. Clearly stated significance of the problem, scope and limitation of the study 4. Testable hypothesis 5. Coherent and relevant review of theories, literature and studies 6. Detailed description of research design 7. Adequate samples 8. Relevant variables 9. Appropriate data gathering technique 10. Valid and reliable instruments 11. Clearly stated results and discussion 12. Properly formatted bibliographical entries35 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 36. Designing Research Instruments A. Observation Checklist Guidelines 1. Enumerate (list down) the dimensions (factors) to be observed 2. Define them very clearly. (What they are exactly) 3. Eliminate those that are vague or repetitive. 4. Arrange them on a sheet of paper in a manner most convenient for observing and recording. 5. Include space for identifying data. 6. Try out form. (This is called a dry run) 7. Revise the form on the basis of the try out and your experience. 8. Write the checklist in its final form.36 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 37. B. Guidelines in the Formulation of questions for a Questionnaire 1. Make all directions clear and unequivocal 2. Use correct grammar 3. Make all questions unequivocal 4. Avoid asking biases questions 5. Objective responses 6. Relate all questions to the topic under study 7. Create categories or classes for approximate 8. Group the questions in logical 9. Create sufficient number of response categories 10. Word carefully or avoid questions that deal with confidential or embarrassing information 11. Explain and illustrate difficult questions 12. State all questions affirmatively 13. Makes as many questions as would supply adequate information for the study 14. Add a catch-all word or phrase to options of multiple response questions 15. Place all spaces for relies at the left side 16. Make the respondents anonymous37 Erlinda P. Villamoran
- 38. Sample of Bibliographical Entries BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Alano, Patricio, Management of Human Behavior in Organizations, Manila, National Bookstore, 1992. Baldwin, R. G., Incentives for Faculty Vitality, San Francisco Publishing House: London, 1985 B.JOURNAL AND PERIODICALS Putman, J.J. “Quicksilver and Slow Death” National Geographic, 1972. Waldichuck, M. “Lead in the Environment” Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1980 C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Alcala, D., “Personality Dimensions and Status of Elementary School Principals as Related to their level Of Job Satisfaction in the Division of Quezon”. (Unpublished Masteral Thesis, PNC, 1988.)38 Erlinda P. Villamoran

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