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  2. 2. PHILOSOPHY OF DEVELOPMENT BROADCASTING People must be reached at their present age of educationalattainment and level of interest and understanding in order to help themattain their articulated needs and interests. An implicit requirement thatthese needs and interests be known and fully understood.
  3. 3. Uses Of Broadcasting1. Reinforce messages2. Informative or alerting device3. Effects change by creating awareness4. Provide a perspective for considering change5. Help identify reference groups
  4. 4. What Are The BroadcastMedia? RADIO TELEVISION (CABLE TELEVISION)
  5. 5. What is the equipment and whoare the personnel found in the TV Studio?
  6. 6. CONTROL ROOMEquipment Personnel Video maker  Executive producer VTRs for playbacks &  Director Recording  Technical Director TV monitors for  Audio Engineer cameras, preview and  VTR/Playback person program  Computer Graphics Special effects console Artist Computer graphics  (Writer) equipment Lights control panel Audio Mixer
  7. 7. STUDIO PROPEREquipment Personnel Lights  Talents Cameras (with  Cameraman TelePrompTers)  Floor Director Microphones  Lights Persons Earphones or  Set/Props persons Overdrives  Make-up artists
  8. 8. What are the different camera shots?
  9. 9. According To Size Of Subject:CLOSE-UP SHOTMEDIUM SHOTFULL / LONG / WIDE SHOT
  10. 10. According To Body Coverage:HEADBUST / CHESTWAISTKNEE
  11. 11. What Are The Camera Movements?Tilt up, downPan left, rightDolly in, outTrack left, rightZoom in, outFocus, Defocus
  12. 12. What Are The Different TV Transition Techniques?CutDissolveSuperimposition, ‘Super’Special effects such as wipes, flip and tumble, etc.
  13. 13. What Are The DifferentProduction Modes Or Set-ups in the Broadcast Media?Live or TapedStudio or RemoteRaw or EditedNew, Fresh or File, StockENG or SNG
  14. 14. How Are Broadcast Stations Classified?Private / Commercial or GovernmentSales Oriented or Program Oriented
  15. 15. How Are Broadcast Programs Classified?Block time, Station Produced or Co-ProductionNews & Public Affairs, Entertainment or ‘Information’Profit Center or Prestige ProgramLocal or Foreign (‘canned’)
  16. 16. Where Lies The Difference Between News And Public Affairs?NEWS- a report or account of an event, fact, development oropinionthat reporters and editors, acting as agents for the public, believe willinterest or some may of those who receive it.-Inform people urgently need in getting their bearings in a rapidlychanging world.-Report of a recent event mark by fairness, currency, accuracy,conciseness, balance, and objectivity.
  17. 17. P U B L I C A F F A I R S P R O G R A M S those who are geared towards building an enlightenedcitizenry through the discussion and clarification of issues ofnational concern and international significance. • Provide a forum for articulating views and opinions from all sectors of society (KBP Television Code)
  18. 18. What Are The Different Program Formats under Public Affairs?TALK SHOWS- Interview, Discussion, Debate •Talk Shows- Interview, Discussion, Debate •News Special •News Magazine •Documentary •Investigative Report •Special / cultural Event
  19. 19. What are the 3Vs of being aTV News Anchor Or Program Host?
  20. 20. •VOICE: HOW TO SOUND GOOD •VISUAL: HOW TO LOOK GOOD 4Ps- Projection “CAM”- Carriage Pronunciation Attire Phrasing Make-up & Hair Pacing •VALUES: HOW TO BE GOOD 4Cs- Credibility Competence Confidence Concern
  22. 22. PRIVELEGE OF TVAdvantages:1. Reality/ concreteness of message is reinforced2. Offers a common base of experiences to those who watch the program at the same time3. Can bring people, places, events on screen4. Can magnify small objects
  23. 23. L I m I t a t I o n s:1. Passivity/ inattentiveness (habitual watching)2. Highly competitive3. TV never tends to become critical4. More Expensive5. Delayed Feedback6. Exorable
  24. 24. How To Become A Good Interviewer? Always be on time. Be sure to introduce yourself and explain the purpose of the interview properly. Be curious but ask only intelligent questions. Until you develop your own style, go ahead…be a copycat. Keep a simple conversational style. Be conscious of your appearance, voice, language, mannerisms, gestures, facial expressions, posture and behavior. Be bold and direct. Do not lose control. Plan your approach accordingly for any type of interview.
  25. 25. What Are The 3 Ways Of Conducting An Interview? INFORMATION INTERVIEW- When you gatherinformation to be used in reporting and tracking downadditional information from other sources: Face to face oron telephone. FIELD INTERVIEW- Requires a camera to pick up soundbites which should be incorporated in news stories anddocumentaries.
  26. 26.  PRODUCTION INTERVIEW- Requires 2 cameras and isdone in a studio, in a carefully chosen location outside thestudio, or sometimes with the interviewer and interviewee indifferent places.- May be an entire program, a segment of a program or a liveinterview in a news program.
  27. 27. What Are News Packages?1. In Radio, there are 2 Types: Voicer Wraparound2. In TV, there are also 2 Types: Package Wraparound
  28. 28. What Are 3 The Basic Patterns Of A News Packages? Reporter- Sound Bite- Reporter Reporter- Sound Bite- Reporter- Sound Bite- Reporter Reporter- Sound Bite- Sound Bite- Reporter
  29. 29. What Is The Basic Structure Of A News Packages? A line or two of the hard news Set up sound bite (s) Add some information Then close with a signature (name, news organization, dateline)
  30. 30. Some Ground Rules: On The Record Whatever is said to the journalist may bepublished and directly attributed by the name tothe interviewee. It is by far the best way to getyour message across.
  31. 31. On Background Whatever is said to the journalist may bepublished, but with attribution to a previouslyagreed upon identification. It is generally usedwhen the institutional interests represented bythe interviewee may be damaged by directattribution. Examples: “an official spokesman of…”, “a well informed source”, “an expert on…”
  32. 32. On Deep Background Whatever said to the journalist may bepublished, but without attribution of any kind.The information should appear as a conclusiondrawn by the journalist as a result of his inquiries.It should only be uses when “On Background”would lead to quick identification to theinterviewee and serious institutional damage,since it represents difficulty for the journalist.
  33. 33. Off The Record Often misused, this ground rule, as thewords imply, means that the journalist will receiveinformation that is not to be published under anycircumstances. Use is generally restricted toemergency situations involving the physical well-being of the participants in the interview, orothers who may be the subject of the interview.
  34. 34. RADIO NEWS STYLE Listeners depend only on their sense of hearing.They cannot go back to a story once they miss something.The newscaster therefore should not be put in a doubtfulposition while he reads. If there are difficult words or phrasesin a news story, the newscaster might stammer or stutter.
  35. 35.  Be Informal- write the way one talks to a friend across the table – minus the errors and objectionable words. Avoid Long Sentences- people are not used to making long, complex sentences in ordinary conversation. Provide Breathers- give the announcer a chance to breathe. Mention The Source Of The Information- always begin with the source of the story and not at the middle or at the end of the sentences. Use Transitional Words- like therefore, however, likewise, also, furthermore at the beginning of sentence. Prefer The Indirect Quotation- this makes for smoother, readable copy.
  36. 36.  Handle Figures Properly- avoid them unless they are vital part of the story. Avoid Abbreviations- a good rule to follow in handling abbreviations is, when in doubt, write it out. Always Use The Present Tense Whenever Possible- this adds to immediacy. Avoid Tongue Twisters or Tanglers- change words or phrases which are hard to read. Provide Phonetic Spelling- new words and those difficult to pronounce should be provided with a phonetic spelling right after the word.
  37. 37. Radio Program Formats Panel Discussion Documentary Musical Program •Integrated Variety Program Farm, Homemaking •Diversed Drama Special Events Radio Vision •Scheduled Talk ProgramNews •Unscheduled•Subject Public Service / Affairs•Special Audience Radio Forum•Variety School-On-The-Air Magazine Program News Program Radio Spots / Plugs
  38. 38. Elements Of AudioCraft SOUND EFFECTS Functions And Sound 5. Establish time, event and Effects place 6. Heighten Emotions  Action Principles of Musical  Setting Scoring  Symbolic  Novelty  Consistency • MUSIC  Unobtrusiveness Uses Of Music 1. Theme Music 2. Shift Scenes 3. Bridge/Transition Music 4. Indicate Action
  39. 39.  VOICE Pacing and Delivery 1. Marking 2. Intended Use 3. Visualize audience Pronunciation and Enunciation 1. Speak Naturally 2. Role Model 3. Pronunciation Guide Emoting 1. “Picture” in mind 2. Body Language 3. Stress 4. Practice Modulation
  40. 40. THE END