This presentation will summarize how psychological disorders are classified including the role of DSM IV.
Psychological disorders are behaviors or mental processes which are connected with various kinds of distress or impaired functioning. They are considered to be unexpected responses to specific situations.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual uses a “multi axial” system of acccessment which provides information about a person’s overall functioning and not just a diagnosis. Example : people may receive Axis I or Axis II, and sometimes it may be a combination of the two. Axis I : Clinical Syndromes which are disorders that may impair functioning and which are stressful to the individual such as substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, somatoform disorders, and dissociative disorders. Axis II : Personality Disorders, which include deep-seated maladaptive ways of relating to others and behaviors that are stressful to the individual, or to persons with whom they interact and relate. Axis III : General Medical Conditions which include, chronic and acute illnesses, injuries, allergies, and so forth, that may be affecting functioning and treatment. Axis IV : Psychosocial and Environmental Problems, identifies stressors that have transpired over the past year that may have contributing factors or development of a new mental disorder or a recurrence of a prior disorder, or a factor in which may have intensified an existing disorder. Axis V : Global Assessment Functioning, is an overall judgment which is based on a 1- 100 scale of the person’s current level of functioning, and highest level of functioning within the last year according to psychosocial, social, and occupational criterion.
Anxiety is an emotional state which is accompanied by subjective, physical, and behavioral features. Anxiety disorders are characterized by motor tension, feelings of dread, irrational and excessive fears, and over arousal of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. Classification of anxiety disorders are phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and traumatic distress disorder.
Dissociative disorders is a class of psychological disorder involving changes in consciousness or self-identity. There are four specific types of dissociative disorder : dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalization disorder.
Somatoform disorders is a class of psychological disorders in which people have physical symptoms and complaints that can not be medically explained or that have attributed to their physical problems despite reassurances to the contrary. Types of somatoform disorders are conversion disorder, La belle indiffe’rence disorder, and hypochondrias is.
Mood disorders are a class of psychological disorders characterized by significant disturbances of mood. Disturbances of mood may take form of depression and elation along with severe and persistent manic disturbances of mood.
Schizophrenia is a most severe and persistent psychological disorder. The different types of schizophrenia are paranoid, systematized delusion; disorganized, incoherence; and catatonic, motor impairment. Most causes of schizophrenia remain elusive and may be from complications in childbirth and quality of parenting. Although, researchers believe that schizophrenia is a brain disorder which can arise from a combination of factors, including heredity, abnormal brain development, and stressful life experiences. Types of schizophrenia are paranoid schizophrenphia, catatonic schizophrenia, and disorganized schizophrenia.
Personality disorders are enduring patterns of maladaptive behaviors that are the source of distress to the individual and to others. These patterns are maladaptive and inflexible, causing difficulties personal, occupational, and social functioning. Among the different types of personality disorders are paranoid , schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant, anti-social, dependant, borderline personality disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
Psychological Disorders Presentation
Psychological Disorders Presentation <br />Stephanie Maxwell <br />Axia College online at University of Phoenix<br />
Psychological Disorders<br />The Major Characteristics and Suspected Causal Factors<br />
Criteria for determination of abnormal behavior<br />Unusualness : behaviors associated with psychological disorders<br />Faulty perception or interpretation of reality: hallucinations, “hearing” & “seeing” things, or<br /> ideas of persecution <br /><ul><li> Significant personal distress : anxiety, fears, depression, and other psychological states
Self-defeating behavior : behavior and mental processes that lead to personal misery ( e.g., chronic drinking , drugs)
Dangerous : behavior and mental processes that are harmful to the person and others
Cultural relativism</li></li></ul><li>Classifying Disorders : DSM IV<br />Diagnostic and Statistical Manual<br />
Anxiety Disorders<br />Major Characteristics <br />Subjective features: <br />Worrying, fear of the worst, fear of losing control, nervousness, and inability to relax.<br />Physical Features :<br />Trembling, sweating, pounding or racing heart, elevated blood pressure with flushed face, and faintness.<br />Behavioral Features : dominated by avoidance of situations or cues associated with source of anxiety. <br />Causal Factors<br />Biomedical factors<br /> Conditioned fears<br /> Genetic predisposition<br />Underlying psychological problems<br />
Dissociative Disorders<br />Major Characteristics<br />Sudden and temporary changes in consciousness, or self-identity. There is a separation of mental processes such as thoughts, emotions, identity, memory, or consciousness. That one is not real or standing outside of one’s self.<br />Causal Factors<br /><ul><li>Extreme childhood sexual and physical abuse
Disorders help to keep disturbing memories or ideas out of mind </li></li></ul><li>Somatoform Disorders<br />Major Characteristics<br />Preoccupied with thoughts that the person is seriously ill and cannot shake this fear. <br />People may present physical problems such as numbness, paralysis, or mysterious pain , or have persistent belief that they have a serious disease despite any medical findings or explanations. <br />Causal Factors<br />Underling psychological conflict<br /> Distorted thinking patterns<br />Symptoms serve some underlying purpose<br />Learned responses that are reinforced by avoidance of painful or anxiety-evoking situations <br />Helps in coping with anxiety or conflict<br />
Mood Disorders<br />Major Characteristics<br />Depression<br /><ul><li>Loss of interest