Lasisi Elp Presentation

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Lasisi Elp Presentation

  1. 1. POPOULATION,POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION: THE CHALLENGES OF MEGA CITIES : CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE . Lasisi Adedoyin K.S. Ministry of the Environment, Lagos, Nigeria. Phone No: 234-8028476147 E-mail: [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>At the close of the 20th century, the concentration of population in the world’s cities is occurring almost exclusively in the underdeveloped countries, such as Lagos. During the 1990s, the world’s urban population increased from 2.4 to 3.2 billion people, with significant urban growth to follow in the current century ( Setchell , 1995 ). Up to 95% of the 800 million additional people who came to live in cities during the 1990s are in developing countries ( UNDP, 1997, p 1–2, 10 ). Not only is urban growth soaring there, but the number of very large cities – those over four million people, often known as mega-cities – is growing rapidly as well ( Setchell , 1995 ). </li></ul>
  3. 4. World Urban Population, 1950-2000 with Projections to 2020 (in billions)
  4. 5. <ul><li>In 1960, the world contained 19 mega-cities, with nine in developing countries. By the year 2000, 66 such cities were predicted, with 50 in developing countries ( UNDP, 1997, p 12–15 ). The world’s largest, Mexico city, has a population of approximately 25 million, a total equal to the world’s entire urban population at the dawn of the Industrial Age in 1750 ( World Bank, 1997, p 16 ). </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Lagos State is an African mega city which is located in South Western Nigeria on the West coast of Africa, within latitude 6 23’ and 6 41’N and longitude 20 42’ E and 3 42’ E. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>The total land mass of the State is about 3,577 square kilometers representing 0.4% of Nigeria’s territorial landmass. It is the smallest State in the Federation. The physical environment of Lagos State is composed of about 83% of landmass and 17% of water bodies = aquatic splendor. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Natural factors like the flat topography of the State, its high water table, the swampy nature of most of its land and its intensive rainfall also contribute to the problems of the environment in the State. The location of the State makes it possible to receive pollution load from rivers and streams from hinterland states. </li></ul><ul><li>The State is the industrial, and commercial nerve centre of the Federation with the location of 60-70% of the nation’s industries. Due to the high population and large concentration of industrial, commercial and trade activities, the State is exposed to various environmental, pollution and ecological problems which have caused profound degradation of the environment </li></ul>
  8. 10. POPULATION Household Size and Density in Some Local Government Areas of Lagos Metropolis in 2004 4.8 2.0 Medium Surulere 8.0 8.0 Low Mushin 10.8 5.4 Low Lagos 5.8 5.8 Low Ajeromi 4.8 1.4 High Apapa 5.6 1.6 High/Medium Eti-osa Household size People per room Status by income Local Govt
  9. 11. Population Growth <ul><li>City 1950 1975 2000 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Lagos 288 1 890 8 665 15 966 </li></ul><ul><li>Cairo 2 410 6 079 9 462 11 531 </li></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles 4 046 8 926 13 213 14 495 </li></ul>
  10. 13. SLUMIFICATION
  11. 14. POVERTY <ul><li>Rural poor decline from 26.4 million in 1985 to 22.8 in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Urban town/cities it rose from 9.7 million to 11.9 million in 1985-1992. </li></ul><ul><li>In Lagos, the total extreme poverty increase three-fold in urban area from 1.5 million to 4.3 million. </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank poverty study of 2007 shows N 65 per family ( less than $1). ($1 = N152). </li></ul>
  12. 15. EXTENT OF CRIMINAL VICTIMIZATION 1 6 5 9 9 29 31 29 184 168 Murder Automoblie hijack Automobile theft burglary Robbery percentage No Nature of criminal victimization
  13. 16. STREET BOYS (Area boys)
  14. 17. Street trading
  15. 18. OIL BUNKERING
  16. 19. Drivers of Environmental Degradation <ul><li>Growth rate = 9.4 per cent </li></ul><ul><li>Population density = 20,000 person per km sq. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 65% of Nigeria's total industries; </li></ul><ul><li>Over 10,000 of Nigeria’s commercial concerns; </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 vehicles registered annually in Lagos; Nationally 11 vehicles/Km-in Lagos 222 vehicles/Km. </li></ul><ul><li>Water demand of 2.4 billion meter cub. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Deforestation rate: 3,984 sq km per ann. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 9000 metric tonnes of waste daily/collected by 640 trucks daily. Fuel consumption 78,400 ltrs. of fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Methane 1,000,000 mt </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide 4,000,000 mt </li></ul><ul><li>GHGs, CfCs 1,000,000 mt </li></ul>
  18. 22. AIR POLLUTION
  19. 23. INFRASTRUCTURE DECAY
  20. 24. E-WASTE
  21. 25. Oil pollution /Poor Industrial Safety
  22. 26. Road accident
  23. 27. FLOODING/OCEAN SURGE
  24. 28. INDUSTRIAL WASTE
  25. 29. GOVERNMENT EFFORT <ul><li>Implementation of urban greening </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of policy on climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Massive employment </li></ul><ul><li>Redevelopment of waste management system. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of waste reuse/recycling system. </li></ul>
  26. 34. ENFORCEMENT
  27. 35. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Creating mechanism for Evaluating Environmental Performance including Strategic Environmental Assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>- State of National Environment Report </li></ul><ul><li>- Developing Verifiable Performance indicators </li></ul><ul><li>- Creating compliance/Monitoring Evaluation Mechanism </li></ul>
  28. 36. <ul><li>Creating Mechanism to Sustain and Compensate Environment for goods and services it provides; </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Mechanism to enable emergence of environment as a tradable commodity; </li></ul><ul><li>Creating the enabling environment to encourage investment in environment protection and improvement activities. </li></ul>
  29. 37. Finally <ul><li>“ We shall not finally defeat AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, or any of the other infectious diseases that plague the developing world until we have also won the battle for safe drinking water, sanitation and basic health care.” Kofi Annan, Frm. United Nations Secretary-General </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>

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