Pharmacy Module 1


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Pharmacy Module 1

  1. 1. The Pharmacy Technician: Chapter 1 History
  2. 2. Five Historical Periods <ul><li>Ancient Era: The beginning of time to 1600 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Empiric Era: 1600 to 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization Era: 1940 to 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Patient Care Era: 1970 to present </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology and genetic engineering: The new horizon </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Ancient Era <ul><li>Leaves, mud, and cool water were used to stop bleeding and heal wounds </li></ul><ul><li>Early man learned from watching injured animals’ behaviors </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ancient Era <ul><li>Knowledge of materials with healing properties was passed down through the tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Medical information was documented on clay tablets around 2600 BC </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Beginnings of Pharmacy <ul><li>The Ebers Papyrus, written around 1500 BC, contained formulas for more than 800 remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Each tribe had a designated person who was the equivalent of a priest, pharmacist, and physician all in one </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Beginnings of Pharmacy <ul><li>The earliest known record of the practice of pharmacy occurred in Mesopotamia around 2600 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbs were the predominant form of curatives </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Greeks <ul><li>Hippocrates, the “father of medicine,” liberated medicine from the belief that disease was caused by spiritual reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Theophrastus, the “father of botany,” classified plants by their various parts </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Greeks <ul><li>Mithridates studied the adverse effects of plants and later became known as the “father of toxicology” </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Romans <ul><li>The Romans organized medical and pharmaceutical knowledge and converted theories into scientific rules </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans, as well as the Greeks, were responsible for preparing their own prescriptions </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Romans <ul><li>The Romans initiated the first job titles of various pharmacy-related personnel </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other Pioneers <ul><li>Dioscorides began the transition of the Greek system of knowledge into the Roman system of science; he is known as the “father of pharmacology” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Other Pioneers <ul><li>Galen, a Greek physician, wrote “On the Art of Healing,” and was very critical of physicians who did not prepare their own remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmos and Damien, the patron saints of pharmacy and medicine, practiced both disciplines around 300 AD </li></ul>
  13. 13. Roman Pharmacy Titles <ul><li>Pharmacopeia — makers of remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacotritae — drug grinders </li></ul><ul><li>Unguentarii — makers of ointments </li></ul><ul><li>Pigmentarii –— makers of cosmetics </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacopolae — sellers of drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatarii — dealers in spices </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Arabian Influence <ul><li>Formularies — continuation of documentation of drug information </li></ul><ul><li>Dosage forms — syrups, conserves, confections, and juleps </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Arabian Influence <ul><li>Pharmacy shops — first appeared in Baghdad around 762 AD, and were privately owned </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital pharmacies followed in Marrakech around 1190 AD </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Italian Influence <ul><li>Europe’s first university was established in Salerno, and was responsible for major contributions to pharmacy and medicine </li></ul><ul><li>The Magna Carta of Pharmacy, separating pharmacy from medicine, was issued by Emperor Frederick II </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds of pharmacists were established </li></ul>
  17. 17. New Ideas <ul><li>A Swiss physician, Paracelsus, contradicted the Galenic theories of botanical orientation to medicine with his own theories based on chemicals </li></ul>
  18. 18. New Ideas <ul><li>Monasteries became host to their own pharmacies </li></ul><ul><li>Germany became the first to governmentally regulate its pharmacies </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Influence of Royalty <ul><li>Pharmacists who worked for royal families provided specialized services, and were known as apothecaries </li></ul><ul><li>New medicinal herbal substances, plants, trees, and seeds began to be used </li></ul><ul><li>Better documentation of this new knowledge began to occur </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Renaissance <ul><li>Pharmacy became separated from medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacy regulation began </li></ul><ul><li>University education of pharmacists was now required </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Renaissance <ul><li>Larger quantities of known and new drugs were imported from the New World and the Orient </li></ul><ul><li>New chemical medicines were introduced </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Empiric Era <ul><li>Pharmacopeias became the regulatory tools of government, with standardized medicines listed </li></ul><ul><li>Existing medications were questioned and tested as to their actual effectiveness </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Empiric Era <ul><li>In the 18th century, pharmacy began to develop in the colonies of the New World </li></ul><ul><li>In 1751, Benjamin Franklin started the first hospital in America </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Empiric Era <ul><li>The first hospital pharmacist was Jonathan Roberts </li></ul><ul><li>William Proctor introduced control into the practice of pharmacy in the New World </li></ul>
  25. 25. Drugs Discovered in the 19th Century <ul><li>Quinine </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Morphine </li></ul><ul><li>Codeine </li></ul><ul><li>Niacin </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenalin </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>Phenobarbital </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Industrialization Era <ul><li>Firms other than the pharmacies themselves began centralized manufacturing of medicinal preparations </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Industrialization Era <ul><li>The periods of development of manufacturing pharmacy began as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative (1867) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Botanical (1875) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization (1882) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Chemicals (1883) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Industrialization Era <ul><ul><li>Biological (1895) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones (1901) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins (1909) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics (1940) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Growth of Industrialization <ul><li>Large amounts of war-related injuries required industrial manufacturing in order to meet the need for pharmaceutical products </li></ul><ul><li>Many retail pharmacists protested the industrialization of manufacturing </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Growth of Industrialization <ul><li>Industrialization brought about biologically prepared products, complex chemical synthesis, increased use of parenteral medications, and standardized manufacturing </li></ul>
  31. 31. Retail Pharmacy <ul><li>The pharmaceutical industry created new needs, to the advantage of retail pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Retail pharmacy has proved to be indispensable and irreplaceable as the fitting and distributing agency of medicinal products </li></ul>
  32. 32. Retail Pharmacy <ul><li>Manufacturing and retail pharmacy are two branches of the same tree </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Patient Care Era <ul><li>Increased concentration on rational, targeted research through the use of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of available medicines </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Patient Care Era <ul><li>Well-coordinated teams of scientists with other professions such as statisticians and financial managers </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple drug therapy, however, led to adverse reactions, interactions, and therapeutic outcomes that were greater or less than desired </li></ul>
  35. 35. Patient-Focused Drug Therapy <ul><li>Also thought of as drug control or drug monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>C.D. Hepler established the concept of pharmaceutical care around 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>A pharmacist’s education must now focus on human behavior as it relates to providing practiced, patient-focused care </li></ul>
  36. 36. The New Horizon <ul><li>Research into gene therapy and genetic defects has greatly increased </li></ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA technology is producing new medications based on the patient’s genetic make-up </li></ul>
  37. 37. The New Horizon <ul><li>Some medications that come from natural sources, such as insulin, are prone to producing allergies </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic research is involved in the pursuit of cures for major diseases, such as cancer </li></ul>