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Evidence Table


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Evidence Table: Hippotherapy, Therapeutic Horseback Riding, Equine Assisted, Animal Assisted Therapies

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Evidence Table

  1. 1. Evidence Table Table 1. Summary of studies: Interventions and participants Study Control Total Intervention/time Population Ages Authors Intervention n Hippotherapy: 45 min/session x None 1 session/wk x 16 wks 2000 (Each participant Children with 4-6 Session included donning 3 Taylor1 served as his/her autism yrs helmet, mounting, 20-30 mins on own control) horse, dismounting One week summer day camp: None Children with 2003 Therapeutic horseback riding (Each participant sensory 5-13 12 Candler2 Sensory integration intervention served as his/her modulation yrs Camp arts and crafts own control) disorder None Children with 2004 Hippotherapy: 60 min/session x (Each participant language- 3 9-12 Macauley3 2 sessions/wk x 6 wks served as his own learning control) disabilities Therapeutic horseback riding: 60 min/wk x 10 wks Children with 2004 4-10 Session included 30 mins pre- Wait-list autism or PDD- 12 Stoner4 yrs mounted activities and 30 mins NOS mounted activities None OT incorporating animals: (Each participant Children with 7-13 2006 Sams5 average 28.5 mins/session x 1 22 served as his/her autism yrs session/wk x 15 wks own control) Therapeutic horseback riding: 60 min/wk x 12 wks Session included 5 mins Children with 4-10 2009 Bass6 Wait-list 34 mounting/dismounting, 10 mins ASD yrs warm-up, 15 mins riding skills, 20 mins mounted games, 10 mins horsemanship/grooming
  2. 2. Table 2. Summary of Studies: Research methods Level of Treatment Control Rx Study Authors Research Design Rx n Evidence Duration n 2000 Taylor1 Single subject A-B-B design IV 16 wks 3 0 One-Group Pretest-Posttest 2 2003 Candler Design IV 1 wk 12 0 O1 X O2 One-Group Pretest-Posttest 2004 Macauley3 Design IV 6 wks 3 0 O1 X O2 Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design 2004 Stoner4 II 10 wks 6 6 R O1 X O2 O1 O2 One-Group Pretest-Posttest 5 2006 Sams Design IV 15 wks 22 0 O1 X O2 Pretest-Posttest Control 6 Group Design 2009 Bass III 12 wks 19 15 R O1 X O2 O1 O2
  3. 3. Table 3. Summary of Studies: Outcomes, measures, and results Study Outcome of Measurement Tool Result Clin Statistics Level of Authors Interest Signif Evidence 2000 Motivation/Volition PVQ + NR NS IV Taylor1 COPM (modified for NR IV 2003 Occupational summer camp setting) Candler2 performance - Performance + p=.001 - Satisfaction + p=.001 21-item questionnaire NR IV 2004 Speech and - parents + p<.000 Macauley3 language abilities - participants - p<.02 SP 2004 + Sensory processing 1 question with 3 NR NR II Stoner4 + possible answers 2006 Social interactions Number of behaviors + large p<.01 IV Sams5 Language use Number of behaviors + small p<.05 SRS + none p=.017 2009 Bass6 Social functioning III SP + small p<.01 Legend for Table 3 PVQ Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire + Result favored animal therapy COPM Canadian Occupational Performance - Result did not favor animal Measure therapy SP Sensory Profile NR Not reported SRS Sensory Responsiveness Scale ND No difference NS Not significant
  4. 4. List of References: 1. Taylor, R. R., Kielhofner, G., Smith, C., Butler, S., Cahill, S. M., Ciukaj, M. D., & Gehman, M. (2000). Volitional change in children with autism: A single-case design study of the impact of hippotherapy on motivation. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 25, 192- 200. 2. Candler, C. (2003). Sensory integration and therapeutic riding at summer camp: Occupational performance outcomes. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 23 (3), 51-64. 3. Macauley, B. L., & Gutierrez, K. M. (2004). The effectiveness of hippotherapy for children with language-learning disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 25 (4), 205-217. 4. Stoner, J. B. (2004). Riding high. Advance for Occupational Therapy Practitioners, 20 (13), 42. 5. Sams, M. J., Fortney, E. V., & Willenbring, S. (2006). Occupational therapy incorporating animals for children with autism: A pilot investigation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 60 (3), 268-274. 6. Bass, M. M., Duchowny, C. A., & Llabre, M. M. (2009). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on social functioning in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1261-1267.