Defining and Specifying Functional and Content Requirements

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Defining and Specifying Functional and Content Requirements

  1. 1. Web Usability: Session 5 Defining and Specifying Functional and Content Requirements Dr. Victor Manuel González y González Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT) Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León victor.gonzalezgz@uanl.edu.mx http://it.ciidit.uanl.mx/~victor/
  2. 2. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Agenda Hands on practice: working with Personas and Scenarios Contextual Design Interpreting and Modeling Techniques Hands on practice: working with Affinity Diagramming Functional and Content Requirements ( Scope Plan) Hands on practice: working on requirements documents
  3. 3. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design
  4. 4. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Personas Personas are archetypes of actual users, defined by the user’s goals and attributes. – Alan Cooper “Personas are derived from patterns observed during interviews with and observations of users and potential user (and sometimes customers) of a product” (Cooper & Reimann, 2003, 67)
  5. 5. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Personas A persona is created by identifying the primary stakeholder and creating an identity based on the stakeholder profiles and other collection activities such as interviews and surveys. A persona is a detailed description complete with as many personally identifying attributes as necessary to make it come to life.
  6. 6. 1-6 Source: Molly Stevens http://www.mollystevens.com/
  7. 7. 1-7 Source: Patrizia Nanni http://www.vhml.org/theses/nannip/HCI_final.htm
  8. 8. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Personas Advantages of personas: They are quick and easy to create. They provide a consistent model for all team members. They are easy to use with other design methods. They make the user real in the mind of the designer. Disadvantages of personas: They can be difficult to create if the target audience is international. Having too many personas will make the work difficult. There is a risk of incorporating unsupported designer assumptions.
  9. 9. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Scenarios A description of a typical task It describes • The basic goal • The conditions that exist at the beginning of the task • The activities in which the persona will engage • The outcomes of those activities Scenarios afford a rich picture of the user’s tasks
  10. 10. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Scenarios Example of Scenario A four member family lives in a 3 bedroom semi detached house in North Manchester, UK. They enjoy doing activities as a family and like to be organised within the household. The children enjoy watching TV after they have finished their homework, which is a rule set by their parents Sharon and Alan. They are allowed to watch a set amount of TV each evening, with a maximum of two hours. After the 2 hours is over the children, Ben and Lucy go to their bedrooms to get ready for bed. They leave the lounge where they were watching TV without switching the TV off and leaving the lights on in this room also. Sharon goes to the lounge the next morning and realises that both the TV and lights have been left on in the lounge all night, she is a annoyed with this and tells both Lucy and Ben that they should switch all appliances off once they have finished with them.
  11. 11. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Practical session / Personas and Scenarios • Work with other student • Identify a information based web site: public, serving a specific community, focused on attending particular needs. • Prepare a Persona Profile including the following: • general socio-demo information • computer/web usage • family/social context • needs
  12. 12. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Practical session / Personas and Scenarios • Based on your Persona, prepare a Scenario for the following context: • The owners of the information based web site want to implement a version that makes sense within the context of the new Apple iPad. • They ‘d like to think on situations where users are away from their desks, mobile, and at public spaces. • Your Scenario must address the following aspects: • Include your Persona • Describe the context • Describe the use of the web site for the iPad
  13. 13. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design Interpretation and Modeling Techniques •Contextual Inquiry • Interpretation Sessions • Notes and Affinity diagram • Work modelling
  14. 14. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design Contextual Inquiry is based on four principles: context: go to the customers’ workplace and watch them do their own work. partnership: talk to them about their work and engage them in uncovering unarticulated aspects of work. interpretation: develop a shared understanding with the customer about the aspects of work that matter. focus: direct the inquiry from a clear understanding of your own purpose.
  15. 15. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design Interpretation and Modeling Techniques • Notes: interview - sales rep – sample cards and equipment U4 18 Copies of sample cards kept in shoeboxes; has to keep them two years (regulation) U4 19 Home office lost sample cards she had sent in; she had to make photocopies of her copies and send them again. U4 20 Keeps last 6 months of sample cards in her home office; then puts them in shoebox and moves them to garage. U4 21 Question: Is there any defined procedure for storing and disposing of sample cards? U4 22 Has a video screen to do presentations that she has never used; was given it automatically. U4 23 Has to rent a slide projector; wasn’t given that U4 24 Design Idea: give sales reps a budget they can see to buy the things they really need. U4 25 Insight: Home office thinks they know the equipment the sales reps need, but it doesn’t match their needs.
  16. 16. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design - Interpretation and Modeling Techniques Affinity Diagrams Third group level identifiying an area of concern Second group label summarizing the set of groups. First group label First group label First group label summarizing the summarizing the summarizing the points below points below points below Individual point Individual point Individual point captured during captured during captured during interpretation interpretation interpretation Individual point Individual point captured during captured during interpretation interpretation Individual point captured during interpretation
  17. 17. Third group level identifiying an area of concern Second group label summarizing the set of groups. First group label First group label First group label summarizing the summarizing the summarizing the points below points below points below Individual point Individual point Individual point captured during captured during captured during interpretation interpretation interpretation Individual point Individual point captured during captured during interpretation interpretation Individual point captured during interpretation Structure of an Affinity Diagram
  18. 18. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Affinity Diagram: Definitions • Affinity diagramming is used to sort large amounts of data into logical groups. • Existing items and/or new items identified by individuals are written on sticky notes which are sorted into categories as a workshop activity. • Affinity diagramming can be used to: – analyze findings from field studies – identify and group user functions as part of design – analyze findings from a usability evaluation • The technique is used in HCI, TQM, HRM Source: Usability.net
  19. 19. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals When is affinity diagramming appropriate? Use affinity diagramming in a workshop environment when you want participants to work together identifying, grouping and discussing issues When you have a large amount of information—for example, at the end of a contextual enquiry, when you may have hundreds of individual notes. Source: Gerry Gaffney © 1999 Information & Design
  20. 20. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals How is Affinity Diagramming conducted? 1. State the problem or issue of interest in one full sentence 2. Brainstorm ideas or sub-issues that can contribute to the understanding and resolution of the problem at hand and write each input on a sticky note; post each sticky note on a board. 3. Sort the ideas from the brainstorming into related groupings by silently moving the sticky notes around; very large groupings may be further broken down into smaller subgroups, as long as each subgroup represents a common idea; 4. Capture the central thought or theme that each grouping of ideas represents and write this on a bigger sticky note (of different color, if possible), which will serve as the header card of the grouping; Source: SiliconFarEast.com
  21. 21. Customer service is sub-standard Source: MindMap
  22. 22. Source: MindMap
  23. 23. Source: MindMap
  24. 24. Source: MindMap
  25. 25. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design Modeling Techniques The Flow Model This model reveals how the individuals divide their work among different roles and how they coordinate and communicate. Elements: Individals who do the work Responsabilities of each one (roles) – what is expected from them. Groups: set of people who have common goals or take action together. Flow: the communication between people to get work done. Artifacts the things of the “work”, which are thought of and manipulated. Topic representing the detail of the talk or coordination represented by a flow. Breakdowns: or problems in communication or coordination.
  26. 26. Source: Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems Beyer & Holtzblatt. Morgan Kaufmann 1998.
  27. 27. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design Modeling Techniques The Sequence Model This model helps to describe the order of the task, way to initiate it, steps to follow, and their final aims of them. The model is based on the fact that people’s actions reveal the strategies and what is important for them. Elements: Intent: what the sequence intents to achieve. Triggers causing the sequence of actions. Steps: the action or thought preceeding an action. Order: loops, and branches indicated by arrows connecting the steps. Breakdowns: problems in doing the steps.
  28. 28. Intent: Plug in – start Trigger: Return to the office Daily activities. Scan message list for important messages Use sender, subject Intent: Handle emergencies Choose urgent message Read message about unhappy user Decide more info needed Call the user Had to put off issue of unhappy user Leave phone message Intent: Get back to File in phone folder people easily. See list of messages Choose message 9: subject indicates university news relevant to department Read message Delete message Source: Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems Beyer & Holtzblatt. Morgan Kaufmann 1998.
  29. 29. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Practical session / Affinity Diagrams • Work with four other students • Watch the video (Living in a Train) • Use the affinity diagramming technique to work on the following problem: • How information technologies can help commuters to reach others and make good use of their idle time? • Prepare a scenario where a specific information technology is used by train commuters
  30. 30. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Functional and Content Requirements ( Scope Plan) •Funcionality and content •Functional specifications •Defining priorities
  31. 31. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Functional and Content Requirements Defining the Scope Reason 1: So you know what you are building Reason 2: So you know what you are not building
  32. 32. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Functional and Content Requirements Functionality and Content •Functional Requirements – web as software interface •Content Requirements – web as hypertext system
  33. 33. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Functional and Content Requirements Gathering Requirements •Group meetings with diverse people •Group meetings to discuss requirements •Competitive analysis
  34. 34. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Functional and Content Requirements Functional Specifications •Be positive: describe what the system will do to prevent a bad thing •Be specific: leaving as little as possible open to interpretation •Avoid subjective language: refer to establish guidelines – company branding guidelines. Say the system will support 1000 simultaneous users. Content Requirements •Your content requirements should provide rough estimates of the size of each feature: word count for text features, pixel dimensions for images, and file sizes for downloadable, stand-alone content elements like PDF documents, or for features like audio or video. •Identify who will be responsible for each content element: creating and maintaining it. •For every content feature, identify how frequently it will be updated.
  35. 35. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Functional and Content Requirements Prioritizing Requirements •Evaluate possible requirements based on whether they fulfill our strategic goals (both site objectives and user needs) •How feasible will it be to actually make this stuff? •Conflicts between features: serving different types of users
  36. 36. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Practical session / Requirements • Work with four other students • Based on your Scenario for commuters •Define a list of a minimum of 12 functional related requirements for the application •Define a list of a minimum of 12 content related requirements for the application • Discuss and define priorities for each requirement
  37. 37. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Open Discussion
  38. 38. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contact Information Digital Addresses E-mail: vmgonz (at) acm (dot) org Skype ID: vmgonz IM: vmgyg (at) hotmail (dot) com Web sites: http://personalpages.manchester.ac.uk/staff/vmgonz http://it.ciidit.uanl.mx/~victor/

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