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Hercules through time and space unico + students

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Workshop on Hercules in Desenzano

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Hercules through time and space unico + students

  1. 1. THE MYTH OF HERCULES THROUGH TIME AND SPACE
  2. 2. WHY IS THE MYTHOF HERCULES SO LONG-LASTING ANDPOPULAR? WHY DO WE FINDHIMPORTRAYEDIN CERTAIN LOCATIONS? WHAT MESSAGE DOES HE CONVEY?
  3. 3. What is this marble group?Where do you think it is? In ATHENS VENICE ROME VIENNA NEW YORK
  4. 4. The building at the back is…It dates back to…. A CHURCH A TEMPLE A ROYAL PALACE A BANK THE STOCK EXCHANGE THE ROMAN EMPIRE THE MIDDLE AGES THE RENAISSANCE THE 17TH CENTURY THE 19TH CENTURY
  5. 5. KEY Michaelertor (St. Michael’s Gate), Hofburg, Vienna St. Michael’s Wing is a later addition to the Imperial Palace in Vienna. It was originally designed in the 1720s by Josef Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, but construction really started in 1888, following von Erlach's original Baroque design, and was completed in 1893.
  6. 6. WHY ARE THE LABOURS OF HERCULES REPRESENTED IN THAT LOCATION? BRAINSTORMING QUESTION: The Emperor’sname was Hercules An ancient statue was found in this place Classical art was a source of inspiration The sculptorwas Greek Herculessymbolizes ferocityand strength Herculessymbolizes power and virtue It shows that the Emperor prevailed on all opponents
  7. 7. EFFIGES OF HERCULES ANDTHEIRLOCATIONS THREE CASES
  8. 8. CASE ONE CAPTURINGTHE ERIMANTHIANBOAR CAPTURINGTHE GOLDENHINDOF ARTEMIS
  9. 9. Where wouldyou expect to see these bas reliefs? On the façade of a Church a Temple a Royal Palace a Bank the Stock Exchange In Athens Venice Rome Vienna New York
  10. 10. KEY St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice The Virgin Archangel Gabriel St. George St. Demetrius
  11. 11. It may seem strange to findHeracles/Hercules performing his Labours on the façade of a basilica, flanking two saints andthe Annunciation. A pagan hero portrayedin a holy place.
  12. 12. But you may notice that •the two saints are carrying weapons: two warrior saints, St. George and St. Demetrius, in the fight against evil •the Annunciation alludes to the legendaryfounding of Venice on 25th March 421 (AnnunciationDay) •the main central piece is the Last Judgement flanked by the Passion, Deathand Resurrectionof Christ in the lunettes at the sides and the History of the Relics of St. Mark •the west façade introduces the message amplified in the mosaics of the interior: the possession of St. Mark’s relics
  13. 13. The whole façade speaks of triumph, rule and riches. In the Middle Ages, pagan themes were transformed into Christian terms: the mythological tale of Hercules, victorious over animal strength, became an allegory of Christian salvation. It claims observance of the ethical-religious virtues (personifications of the virtues) and the ideals and regulations of civil coexistence (representations of months and trades).
  14. 14. Remember this episode in young Heracles’ life FromXenophon’s Memorabilia
  15. 15. Because of his Choice, Hercules appears in early Christian tombs and sarcophagi and in later works as a symbol of virtue fighting the enemies of Christianity. ANNIBALE CARRACCI: THE CHOICE OF HERCULES (Ercole al bivio) Itaian Baroque, 1596 (Capodimonte Gallery of Naples)
  16. 16. CASE TWO PalazzoVecchio, Piazza della Signoria, Florence Michelangelo David BaccioBandinelli Herculesand Cacus Baucisand Philemon
  17. 17. Piazza della Signoria, Florence PalazzoVecchio Loggia dei Lanzi Palazzo Vecchio is lined withstatues with a distinctive historical and political significance
  18. 18. The politics of the Medici and Florence dominate Piazza della Signoria Every sculpture within it responds politically and artistically to each other and tell about the Florentine Republic and the House of Medici.
  19. 19. The older statues point to the Florentine Republic and its ideals The heraldiclion, seatedand supporting Florence’s coat-of-arms with one paw Donatello’s renditionreplaced the original in 1420 Apparentlythe first piece of public secular sculpture commissionedby the Republicof Florence in the late 14thcentury. Marzocco ca. 1377
  20. 20. Donatello Judithand Holofernes 1460 The bronze statue, commissioned by Cosimo il Vecchio, was originally standing in theMedici Palacebesides Donatello’s David. Bothdepict tyrant slayers. They are the symbol of liberty, virtue and victory of the weak over the strong in a just cause. When the Medici were exiled from Florence in 1495, the sculpture was placed on Piazza della Signoria. Now it symbolized rebellion to the tyrannical Medici.
  21. 21. Michelangelo David 1504 The 4.34-metre marble statue of a standing male nude representis David, the Biblical hero who defeatedthe giant Goliah. Originally one of 12 large Old Testament statues to be positioned along the roofline of the Cathedral, in 1504 it was eventually placed in front of Palazzo Vecchio, the seat of the civicgovernment. It symbolizes the defence of civil liberties threatened by rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family.
  22. 22. Michelangelo David 1504 Unlike earlier Renaissance depictions of David, Michelangelo omittedthe giant Goliathaltogether and depictedthe little boy David as a giant. Davidis not shown victorious over a foe muchlarger than he. Michelangelo’s Davidis depicteda moment before the battleactually takes place. He looks tense and ready for combat.
  23. 23. Thesethree works containimplicit allusions of civil liberties and virtues. After an 11-month siege theMedici resumed their rule of the city, withthe support of Emperor Charles V. 1531
  24. 24. 1534 As a counterpart to Michelangelo’s David, Alexander wanted themarble statue of Hercules and Cacus by Baccio Bandinelli . Alessandro de’Medici was appointed "Duke of the Florentine Republic“. The Statebecame a hereditaryDuchy. 1532
  25. 25. The colossus (height 5.05 m) was originally assignedto Michelangelo but it was later appropriatedby the Medici familyas a symbol of their renewed power after their first return fromexilein 1512, and again in 1530.
  26. 26. Hercules killing the fire-belching monster Cacus on the Palatine hill, Rome, returning fromhis tenth labour: stealing Geryon’s cattle, is the symbol of physical strength, juxtaposedwithDavid as a symbol of spiritual strength, both virtues desiredby the Medici.
  27. 27. This marble group shows the basic theme of the victor (the Medici) and the vanquished (the Republicans). The pause suggests the leniencyof the Medici to thosewho would concede to their rule, and a warning to those who wouldnot, as this pausecan be indefinite or simplytemporary.
  28. 28. Bandinelli’s groupwas harshly criticised, first of all because Michelangelo’s talent was unparalleledby Bandinelli, but also for political reasons, providedthat the Medici family had dissolved the Florentine Republic and Bandinelli was under the Medici patronage. Benvenuto Cellini, a championof Michelangelo and rival of Bandinelli referredto Hercules’ emphaticmusculature as "a sack full of melons," forgetting that Michelangelo had receivedsimilar deprecationpreviously by Leonardo da Vinci.
  29. 29. To affirmthe Medici supremacy, Alexander’s successor, Duke CosimoI Medici, commissioned Benvenuto Cellini’s Perseus and Medusa(1545). The Perseus is an allegoryof the Medici taking control over the Florentine rebellious people. This is also a symbol of the Medici’s third restoration. STATUES in PIAZZADELLASIGNORIA
  30. 30. Giambolognawas a Flemishartist, influencedby Michelangeloand his studyof anatomy. This reference to Greekmythology shows the classicismof the time, whenRenaissance artists tried to bring back certainGreekand Roman traits. Giambologna Hercules and the Centaur Nessus. 1599 The statue was moved to the Loggia dei Lanzi in 1812.
  31. 31. The centaur Nessus triedto steal Hercules’ wife while carrying her acrosstheriver. Hercules shot him with a poisoned arrowand the dying Centaur told Hercules’ wife that his blood would keep Hercules hers forever. Later, Hercule’s wife became jealous of a womannamed Lole, so she rubbedthe centaur’s blood on Hercules’ tunic. The blood was actually a poisonwhich killedHercules. Giambologna Hercules and the Centaur Nessus. 1599
  32. 32. Mantua, Palazzo Te Hall of Horses CASE THREE
  33. 33. ITALY IN THE RENAISSANCE REPUBLICOF FLORENCE Medici DUCHYOFMANTUA Gonzaga The rise of independent city-states resultedin political fragmentation
  34. 34. THE HOUSE OF GONZAGA FEDERICOI (Marquess1478–1484) FRANCESCOI (Marquess1484–1519) FEDERICOII (Marquess1519–30, Duke1530-40) PALAZZOTE The Gonzaga summer residence Built by Giulio Romano between 1525 and 1535 A masterpiece of thelate Renaissance A model of Classicism
  35. 35. GiulioRomano built a grandiose suburbanresidence, inspiredby Roman villas, for Federico II Gonzaga in the place where the family usedto breed their famous horses. At PalazzoTe Federico spent his time withhis mistress Isabella Boschetti, the real love of his life The privateresidence was also a state palace for the court official receptions. In 1530 the Emperor Charles V was received here withgreat ceremony.
  36. 36. The only roomin the villaoriginallydefinedas a hall, due to its size and function: feastsand balls were held here, like theone in honour of emperor Charles V on his visitto Mantuain 1530. The roomwas decorated between1525 and 1527. THE HALL OF THE HORSES
  37. 37. The Hall testifies to the Gonzaga’s love for horses. A horse was the finest gift a Gonzaga could give a friend, suchas Giulio Romano, or a ruler, like emperor Charles V. IN THE HALL.... Federico’s horses portrayedlife size against a background of distant landscapes Classical architecture of faux marble Corinthian columns with a fireplace on the southwall Statues of deities and busts of dignitaries
  38. 38. Six of the labours of Hercules to imitate bronze bas-reliefs. Frieze withmale and female puttiand grotesque masks
  39. 39. WHY ARE THE LABOURS OF HERCUES DEPICTEDIN THAT LOCATION? Space for your ideas
  40. 40. Some suggestions fromPeterBurns On Becoming Immortal: The Life Of Heracles His stories serve to educate people, not only entertain them He shows that evenmortalscan achieve incredibleexploits He was an example of strength, courage, confidence and tenacity His tales are meantto educate young men right fromchildhood Ancient Romans incorporatedhis legendinto their own mythology
  41. 41. He embodies hard workand toil, struggling to come out victorious His travels took himto all corners of ancient Greece and Europe He has to expiate his sins by undertaking the 12 Labours He shows that all men strive for virtue and excellence He was a troubledhero, unable to control his emotions and going into fits of rage He is a prime example of Andreia [manliness, the essence of man, hisraw strengthand energy]
  42. 42. It is more in accord with nature to emulate the great Hercules and undergo the greatest toil and trouble for the sake of aiding or saving the world, if possible, than to live in seclusion. — Ciceroin “On duty”
  43. 43. IN THE STUDENTS’ VIEW..... Hercules makes you think that everyone can achieve perfection. He is an example of strength , courage and tenacity for young people. He has left his imprints in history and adventure. The story about the 12 Labours is interesting and joyful for every age: children, elderly people, those who do not know about history.
  44. 44. Ancient Myth still inspires a lot of people not to give up and be confident, day by day, century by century. He shows that all men strive for virtue and excellence. Hercules has helped us to learn more about Mythology and his stories educate, not only entertain. Hercules is like us because he is not perfect. He was the first hero who travelled around the world fighting against beasts. He will always be the symbol of virtue, courage and the possibility to defeat the
  45. 45. For the powerful he was propaganda for their actions, for the Church Hercules was the mean to say that if we want we can defeat the evil. Hercules’ immortality is due to the fact that he represents the strength of human power and his Labours are his journey of purification for his sins.He is a prime example of Andreia. He is a part of our History. His Myth is also educational for Men and Children.
  46. 46. He represents some virtues that are important for the life of the Citizens and teaches not to be upset facing the labours of everyday life. His abilities become more important through Art, so that everybody can see and understand. He is immortal because the virtues he represents are immortal and because the story of his life is fascinating and exciting.
  47. 47. THE MYTH OF HERCULES THROUGH TIME AND SPACE

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