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Ebook abstracts

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An E-book entitled “Various Aspects of ICT Integration in Education” focuses on the ICT integration in education has been created.The book has composed of 12 modules created by academicians from 10 different universities.
In the design process of the book,both theoretical and application framework has been taken into account and it has been aimed to correlate the relationship between theoretical structure and application.Originally developed in English,the book has been translated into Turkish to reach at wider audiences.

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Ebook abstracts

  1. 1. Editor: Yasemin Koçak Usluel VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ICT INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION
  2. 2. 1 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ICT INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION Editor: Yasemin Koçak Usluel Authors: Bahadır Yıldız Büşra Özmen Denizer Yıldırım Esin Ergün Eva Sakellaridi Fatma Bayrak Filiz Mumcu Gökhan Akçapınar Hatice Çıralı Sarıca Melanie Tomaschko Nilüfer Atman Uslu Petros Georgiakakis Pınar Nuhoğlu Kibar Sarantos Psycharis Selay Arkün Kocadere Turgay Baş Tülin Haşlaman Ümmühan Avcı Yasemin Koçak Usluel The publication of "Various Aspects of ICT Integration in Education" book has been funded by the Erasmus+ Program of the European Union as a part of the project “Searching for the Labours of Hercules” (2014-1- TR01-KA201- 012990). However, this publication reflects the views only of the authors. European Commission and Turkish National Agency cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  3. 3. 2 Preface Throughout history, effects of technology as innovation have been a constant topic of discussion resulting in the emergence of various predictions. While the determinists, stipulating a direct cause and effect relationship between technology and life; the instrumentalist arguing that technology is a mere tool whose effect is shaped by humanity; optimists, pessimists; radicals and liberals have been taking part in discussions from their own perspective, technology has advanced and will continue to advance. In this book, the relationship between technology and education and the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into learning and teaching are being regarded from an optimistic and instrumentalist perspective. Integration of ICT into learning and teaching is a dynamic, complex and multi-dimensional process. This multidimensionality can be discussed under three general fundamental titles as (i) the system; (ii) the individual; and (iii) the technology. The primary components of the system dimension are country policies, educational policies, technological policies, the education system, the school based technology plans, the curriculum, professional development and teacher education. Moreover, the components of the individual dimension are technological awareness of the participants (family, student, teacher, manager, etc.), their knowledge, self-efficacy, self- regulation skills, and their pedagogical beliefs. Finally, the components of the technology dimension are devices and processes used in data collection, analysis, reporting, and transfer or sharing of data. Therefore, to have a complete understanding of ICT integration in the learning and teaching process it is necessary to consider all dimensions (system, individualand technology) and their interaction with each other. This dynamic multi-dimensional nature requires an explanation on what the integration process entails. The rapid change in technology, the need for manpower to utilize this technology and the lack of education and technology policies which can compete with such rapid change across countries, have created an understanding of prioritizing hardware in education systems. However, access to ICT has failed to produce effective utilization of ICT for the learning and teaching process; which -in return- sparked discussions on how and why there can be benefit from ICT in the process of teaching and learning, rather than just enabling access to ICT. The integration process has therefore begun to ground itself with a dimension on support in student learning. Both practice and the theoretical framework were taken into consideration in the process of designing this book. The chapters, while including relevant fundamental approaches to the integration process, also aim to create a connection between practice and theory through sample studies. The Turkish authors of the book consist of academics who have completed their graduate studies at Hacettepe University, Computer Education and Instructional Technologies department, taken classes on ICT integration, conducted thesis studies or are currently involved in this area. The chapters of the Turkish authors are also provided in Turkish, as well as in English, so as to reach a larger audience and to contribute to the Turkish literature. The book consists of 12 chapters. The chapters cover the integration process in terms of the system, the individual, and the technology in theory and practice, viewed from an integrated standpoint.
  4. 4. 3 The meaning of “innovation” in terms of the innovation process in education and technology may be answered through the questions: “what sort of human, what sort of society, what sort of world”. While the answers to these questions are directly related to the education policies of the state, they do not constitute the fundamental area of the integration process. This being said, the answer to the question, “why use technology in the learning-teaching process” is directly related to the integration process. The reasons for needing integration must be considered together with the system and the individual dimensions. While ICT integration is valuable for achieving 21st century skills and supporting achievements in the learning program in terms of the system dimension, it also plays a role in expressing individual differences and varieties, and developing recognition and acceptance in terms of the individual dimension. The way this could be achieved is directly related to the government, education and technology policies. The need for policies aiming to reduce the digital divide and create equal opportunities, starting from vulnerable groups must also be stated. However, in addition to this, the implementers, researchers, and other members of education can enable ICT integration in the learning and teaching process by taking active role through consideration of the components mentioned above. Yasemin Koçak Usluel
  5. 5. Table of Contents / İçindekiler Planning Implementation Evaluation (PIE) Integration Model......................................................5 Technology Integration into Curriculum in Different Countries....................................................6 Designing an Example Implementation Process for ICT Integration .............................................7 Enhanced Teachers’ Beliefs on the Technology Integration Process: Self-Regulated Learning .....8 Integration of Mobile Applications into the Learning and Teaching Process: The Learning Experience Data Approach ..........................................................................................................9 Planning Integration of ICT into the Learning and Teaching Process: Lesson Plans.....................10 Integrating Learning Analytics into Teaching and Learning Processes ........................................11 A Professional Development Model Designed for ICT Integration..............................................12 Integration of Information and Communication Technologies into the Learning and Teaching Process Based on the Example of a Workshop...........................................................................13 ICT-Related Teacher Professional Development: Best Practices.................................................14 Integration of ICT into Education within the Framework of an Erasmus+ Project.......................15 A Proposal for Technology Integration Process: A Knowledge-Building Model...........................16
  6. 6. 5 Planning Implementation Evaluation (PIE) Integration Model Bahadır YILDIZ* Abstract: When the literature is examined, it is seen that there are various integration models that deal with the integration process from different angles. Besides this, the need for a model that addresses the entire process and intended for practice is also emphasized. From this point of view, the Planning Implementation Evaluation (PIE) Integration model was developed, aiming to fully address the integration process. The model consisting of planning, implementation and evaluation stages, discusses the use of ICT in all the processes before, during and after the class. PIE Integration Model consists of four basic components. The first component involves infrastructure, administrative support, technical support, curriculum support, whereas ICT skills are essential for the integration process. For this model to work, it is assumed that the first component is completed. The other three components are planning, implementation and evaluation stages. These are stages that point to the implementation process of the model. The model includes mathematics instruction elements as it is developed in the context of effective mathematics instruction. However, it can be applied to different learning areas as it is completely modular. Keywords: information and communication technologies, integration, planning implementation evaluation model * Asst. Prof., Hacettepe Üniversitesi, e-posta:bahadir@bahadiryildiz.net
  7. 7. 6 Technology Integration into Curriculum in Different Countries Büşra ÖZMEN* ABSTRACT: Due to the rapid access to information and transformation of technology into an inseparable part of social life, it has become a must for countries to integrate technology with their education environments and thus determine their policies on integration of technology at a national level. Furthermore, because of the new ways of thinking and new learning cultures produced by new technologies, curriculum needs to change for new opportunities. Hence, the necessity to incorporate information and communication technologies into curriculum and revise them has emerged in recent times. This study analyzes the national curriculum in different countries in terms of integration of technology and the policies of the countries regarding it. In this regard, following the selection of five countries, which focus on integration of technology in their national curriculum, this study provides a detailed analysis of the curriculum on the official web-sites of the educational institutions in these countries and other relevant resources. In conclusion, the study discusses this information in the light of the principles that need consideration in curriculum design and offers some recommendations. Keywords: integration of technology in education, ICT, curriculum, ICT policies, ICT integration. * Research Assistant, Firat University, e-mail: bozmen@firat.edu.tr
  8. 8. 7 Designing an Example Implementation Process for ICT Integration Denizer YILDIRIM1, Hatice ÇIRALI SARICA2, Yasemin KOÇAK USLUEL3 Abstract: This study presents a framework showing how to design an implementation process to provide an effective ICT integration in learning and teaching. The framework consists of seven components which include “description of the current situation, determination of the goals, designing the implementation, implementation process, analysis, review, and improvement.” It is suggested to take both 21st-century skills while determining the course achievements in the current situation and design the implementation process taking these goals into consideration. The design phase of the implementation involves the selection of target-specific teaching strategy/method/techniques, technology, and assessment method. After this phase, the design will be implemented inside the classroom in accordance with the current situation and goals, data gathered during the implementation process will be analyzed, and after reviewing the whole process, improvements will be carried out to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of further implementations. This way, a detailed framework showing how to design an ICT integration process will be provided for the implementers. Keywords: ICT integration, teacher, design 1 Specialist, Distance Education Center, Ankara University, Turkey, dyildirim@ankara.edu.tr 2 Res. Asst., Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Hacettepe University, Turkey, haticecirali@hacettepe.edu.tr 3 Prof. Dr., Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Hacettepe University, Turkey, kocak@hacettepe.edu.tr
  9. 9. 8 Enhanced Teachers’ Beliefs on the Technology Integration Process: Self-Regulated Learning 1 Esin ERGÜN* Tülin HAŞLAMAN** Abstract: Teachers’ beliefs about technology integration shape their use of technology in learning and teaching processes. Therefore, a positive change in the fundamental beliefs that support and facilitate teachers’ use of technology can bring about improvements in efforts to integrate technology into learning and teaching processes. For this reason, it is of critical importance to determine the beliefs that affect teachers’ behavior and anticipate what can be done to change these beliefs. This study investigated teachers’ beliefs about the technology integration process and offered suggestions that are thought to contribute to a positive change in teachers’ beliefs. Self-regulation, foreseen to play a significant role in the change process, refers to the learner’s thoughts, feelings, and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals (Zimmerman, 2000, p. 4). In this regard, the relationship between the individuals’ skills of learning to learn, being aware of learning, regulating their own learning processes and teacher beliefs, and the integration process thereof, were discussed in detail. Keywords: teacher beliefs, technology integration, self-regulated learning, self-regulated skills 1 This work was supported by Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Karabük University. Project Number: KBÜBAP-17-BM-331 * Yrd.Doç.Dr., Karabuk University, esinergun@karabuk.edu.tr ** Yrd.Doç.Dr., TED University, tulin.haslaman@tedu.edu.tr
  10. 10. 9 Integration of Mobile Applications into the Learning and Teaching Process: The Learning Experience Data Approach Fatma BAYRAK* , Melanie TOMASCHKO1 Abstract: Portability of mobile technologies enables these technologies to be used at any time and place during the learning process. The number of applications available for use on mobile devices seems to increase every day. As such, learners and teachers can use different applications throughout learning and teaching processes. Use of a greater number of applications and platforms has necessitated creation of a means of interoperability between different systems and metadata on learners’ digital footprints. One such interoperability approach is the learning experience statement structure of Experience Application Programming Interfaces (xAPI). This study will explain the xAPI specification and give examples of how learner interactions in mobile applications are used in learning processes. As such, the importance of data and how it can be used with mobile applications across learner interactions is explained using three examples. Keywords: Mobile Applications, Integration, Learning Experience, xAPI * Dr., Hacettepe University, e-mail: fbayrak@hacettepe.edu.tr 1 Mag., Johannes Kepler University Linz, e-mail: Melanie.Tomaschko@jku.at
  11. 11. 10 Planning Integration of ICT into the Learning and Teaching Process: Lesson Plans Filiz MUMCU* Abstract: In this study,an “ICT integration training" was designed by integrating an online learning environment into the learning and teaching process of prospective teachers in order to assist students to find answers for questions about using "which technology", "why", "where", "how", "when" and "for whom". It is also aimed to improve the knowledge and skills of prospective teachers related to ICT integration as well as enabling them to plan the ICT integration process through the training. As a result of the ICT integration training designed within this study, the prospective teachers have developed lesson plans -by aiming at enriching student learning- that integrate ICT with appropriate learning and teaching methods within the classroom; and those which are operational and ready to use. The study showed that the lesson plans developed by the prospective teachers who received training in ICT integration play an important role in reflecting ICT integration skills on the manner of teaching by ensuring that the knowledge obtained in pre- service education is transformed from theory to practice. When the selected ICT resources and applications in the lesson plans developed by the prospective teachers and their reasons for choosing them were examined, it was observed that instructional approaches are shifted towards a student-centered understanding. Thus, the expressions related to the concept of “facilitating and enriching learning" have constituted a significant part of the reasons why the prospective teachers integrate ICT into the learning and teaching process. Keywords: teacher education, ICT integration training, lesson plans, 5W1H integration model * Asst. Prof. Dr., Manisa Celal Bayar University, e-mail: filiz.mumcu@cbu.edu.tr
  12. 12. 11 Integrating Learning Analytics into Teaching and Learning Processes Gökhan AKÇAPINAR* ABSTRACT: Human needs in the developing world caused the expectations of students to change as well. Educating individuals who are able to organize their own learning processes, open to collaboration, creative, adaptable to innovations and have lifelong learning skills has become the priority of educational institutions. This process also requires that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) must be taught to students and used as part of the teaching and learning process. On the other hand, monitoring and evaluation are two important stages in the process of teaching these skills to students. Increase in use of ICTs in education leads to generation of significant amount of data related to the learning experiences of students. Learning Analytics and Educational Data Mining are research areas that are interested in using these data to solve educational problems and improve student learning. These data-driven approaches lead educators and other decision-makers in the areas of predicting the future, monitoring the learning process, anticipating possible problems, and designing the necessary intervention mechanisms, by revealing hidden patterns in data. This study explains the steps of analytical processes in educational settings. Moreover, the application areas, the methods used and the challenges in front of integrating data-driven approaches in educational environments are discussed. Keywords: learning analytics, educational data mining, integration, 21st century skills. * Dr., Hacettepe University, e-mail: gokhana@hacettepe.edu.tr
  13. 13. 12 A Professional Development Model Designed for ICT Integration Nilüfer ATMAN USLU* Abstract: This section proposes a professional development model designed for ICT integration. For this, firstly the items considered in studies related to professional development programs are examined. Awareness about new technologies, inferences on the educational role of technology, planning and design thinking, implementation and support in the implementation process are included in the model, which aims to bring change in beliefs about teachers' ICT skills and educational role of technology. In the model inputs, there are components of the professional development program, including strategies and content, as well as identifying the teachers' existing situation. As a result, from the findings of a micro-application based on this model, the issues to be considered in designing effective programs are discussed. Keywords: ICT, integration, professional development * Asst. Prof., Celal Bayar University, e-mail: atmanuslu@gmail.com
  14. 14. 13 Integration of Information and Communication Technologies into the Learning and Teaching Process Based on the Example of a Workshop Pınar NUHOĞLU KİBAR1 , Turgay BAŞ2 Abstract: The aim of this study is to share the structure, process and output of an international workshop, which aimed to address how technology integration may be provided within the context of learning outcomes for teachers in teaching processes. The workshop consisted of five interconnected modules: 1) “ICT in the Teaching Process”, 2) “LMS in Teaching”, 3) “Visualization in Teaching”, 4) “Infographics in Teaching” and 5) “Video in Teaching”. Nine teachers from five different countries participated in the workshop. The participants were expected to achieve two primary learning tasks: preparation of a technology-integrated lesson plan and development of the planned materials using technology aimed towards the prepared lesson plans. The modules consisted of presentations that reflected the relevant theme within each one along with large activity sections where teachers carried out implementations in interaction with experts on an individual basis. As a result, discussions related to the structure, process and output of this workshop could set an example for the professional development processes of teachers with respect to technology integration. Keywords: ICT integration, teacher, workshop 1 Dr., Hacettepe Üniversitesi, e posta: pnuhoglu@hacettepe.edu.tr 2 Dr., Hacettepe Üniversitesi, e posta: turgaybas@hacettepe.edu.tr
  15. 15. 14 ICT-Related Teacher Professional Development: Best Practices Sarantos PSYCHARIS1, Petros GEORGIAKAKIS2, Eva SAKELLARIDI3 Abstract: Constant innovations in technology have led to an increased use of ICT in all sectors and education is no exception. It is generally believed that ICT in schools can empower both teachers and learners, thus making significant contributions to learning and achievement. However, several studies have shown that ICT integration in the classroom is often ill-implemented and part of this problem has been found to be the inadequate and ineffective professional development of teachers. Considering this evidence, the purpose of the present chapter is to provide its readers with a comprehensive source of information about the best practices for teachers’ professional development, according to contemporary research. The findings suggest that the traditional, top- down professional development approaches that view teachers merely as technicians must be replaced with more collaborative, teacher-centred and inquiry-based learning models that celebrate teachers as professionals. Moreover, in order for these professional development models to work appropriately and effectively, they must be timely, lifelong, subject-related, flexible and adaptable to meet the needs of every individual teacher. This being the case, the chapter ends with a series of recommendations for development of effective teacher training programmes in relation to the use of ICT in the classroom. Keywords: Teacher professional development, ICT integration, best practices 1 Professor, ASPETE, e mail: spsycharis@gmail.com 2 Adjunct Lecturer, ASPETE, e mail: petros.georgiakakis@gmail.com 3 Doctoral researcher, UCL, Institute of Education, e mail: evangelia.sakellaridi.15@ucl.ac.uk
  16. 16. 15 Integration of ICT into Education within the Framework of an Erasmus+ Project Selay ARKÜN KOCADERE1 Abstract: Erasmus+, one of the programmes of the European Union projected to run between 2014 and 2020, includes priorities on integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into education. Using an integration process perspective, this study presents one of the European Union projects aiming at providing teachers with professional development and innovative, student-centred pedagogical approaches by teaching digital skills and prioritization of improving the learning and teaching processes using ICT. The ‘Searching for the Labours of Hercules’ (SFTLOH) Project won a grant from the Erasmus+ programme Strategic Partnership for School Education project. A total of six intellectual outputs were produced in cooperation among eight schools, universities and associations from six different countries. In the context of this study, the four intellectual outputs produced under the management of Hacettepe University in Turkey, the leading organization, will be presented here. The first output is the open online course ‘How to Integrate ICT into Your Classroom Practices’, which aims for the professional development of teachers. The second is the 3-dimensional (3D) educational mobile game ‘Labours of Hercules’, which reflects the theme of the project and aims to support the learning of mythology. The third output is the book ‘Different Aspects of ICT Integration in Education’. The course, game and book are open access. The final output is a data collection tool devised to evaluate the project process and improve both the process and its outputs based on feedback from participating teachers and students. Keywords: Educational game, Erasmus+ project, ICT integration, online course, professional development of the teachers. 1 Asst. Prof., Hacettepe University, selaya@hacettepe.edu.tr
  17. 17. 16 A Proposal for Technology Integration Process: A Knowledge-Building Model Ümmühan AVCI* Abstract: This chapter deals with technology integration and knowledge-building, examining the barriers encountered in technology integration in terms of a knowledge-building model and refers to the importance of knowledge-building in both learning process of students and in teacher training process. Looking at the definitions in technology integration, one may see that the knowledge-building aspect of the integration process is in the focus. It is seen that the common point of knowledge-building and technology integration is contribution to student learning and improvement of student productivity. A knowledge-building model provides high level support and responsibility to students for developing their own questions, exchanging ideas with their peers and assessing their own progress. Knowledge-building includes a deep understanding that requires collaborative questioning on real-life problems, constant improvement of ideas and enabling interaction. In this process, the main purpose is to support students with the help of scaffolds and improve their knowledge limits. Knowledge-building will enable the improvement of the curriculum, enhancement of learning by using collaborative technologies and thus extension of education and technology to a level where the students will be able to become productive. A knowledge-building model may be regarded as a promising approach to overcome the barriers in the technology integration process. Keywords: knowledge-building, scaffolds, knowledge sharing, technology integration, ICT * Assist. Prof., Baskent University, e-mail: uavci@baskent.edu.tr

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