www.vonardenne.biz
Application of Thin Films in
Contemporary Industry
Henrik Obst
VON ARDENNE
Dresden, Germany
15.10.2013
provides
industrial vacuum coaters &
approved layer stacks e.g. for
• Architecture Glazing
• Photovoltaic
• Sol...
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento4
Application of Thin Films in Contemporary Industry
Outline
• Introduction
• Meth...
Introduction
Examples of Thin Film Application
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento
Solar Park near Leipzig
40 MWp CdT...
Introduction
Examples of Thin Film Application
15.10.20136 Seminar University of Salento
Introduction
What means “THIN”
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento7
• 0.01 .. 10 nm semiconductor, barrier,
passivati...
Methods of Deposition
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento8
Plating
Spin Coating
Pyrolytic Coating
and many others …
C...
Methods of Deposition
PVD-Process Conditions: Vacuum
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento9
• Mean free path of particl...
Methods of Deposition: Electron Beam Technology
EB-Gun
15.10.201310
EB Generation and EB Guidance
Seminar University of Sa...
Methods of Deposition: EB-Technology
EB-Gun
15.10.201311
EH150V EH300V EH800V
- Max. Process Chamber Pressure 5 Pa
- Beam ...
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
Basic Mechanisms of a DC Plasma Discharg
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento12
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento13
Vacuum + Argon inlet + electrical
discharge g...
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
Basic Principles of Magnetron Sputtering
• Magnetron-Principle:
Closed magnetic tunnel i...
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento15
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
Planar Magnetron Technology
16.10.201315
Plas...
Re-deposition zones
and oxide deposition:
clamping ledges
powder formation
flaking
film quality disturbed
Reactive Sputter...
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
Dual Rotatable Magnetron RDM 3800
Seminar University of Salento
Target Utilization 85%
Z...
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
Why rotatable targets?
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento18
• Much higher target u...
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
Coating Technology- RDM Process in DC Mode
DC, DC-DC or DC-Pulse
conductive Targets (ρ ≤...
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
Coating Technology – RDM Process in AC Mode
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento20
A...
Methods of Deposition: Sputtering
Working Ranges for High Rate Reactive Sputtering
21
P = constant!
metallic mode
reactive...
Film
Material
Target
Material
Type of sputter
process
Max. Dyn. Dep. Rate [nm*m/min]
Rotatable Planar
SiOx Si/Si:Al AC rea...
Application: Architectural Glass Coating
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento23
2008 – New TV-Tower (CCTV) in Peking
Application: Architectural Glas Coating
GC330H
LowE- und Solar Control-Coatings
Substrate sizes up 3.3 x 6.0 m²
Cycle time...
Application: Architectural Glas Coating
Equipment: GC330H
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento25
Application: Architectural Glas Coating
Benefits of Architectural Low-E Glass Coating
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Sal...
15.10.201327 Seminar University of Salento
Improved Silver Layer: Lower Resistance =
Higher NIR Reflectance
Bottom Layer: ...
Application: Thin Film PV
Solar Cell Structures
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento28
Cd Te > 3 µm
ITO or SnO2:F
CdS0...
Applications for Web Coating
• Invisible ITO-films for touch panels or EMI shielding
• Window films i.e. Low-E, electrochr...
FOSA1600 Web Coating System
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento3
• Modular design of multi-chamber platform for R2R v...
Systems and Features
FOSA1600 D8 Dual Drum Web Coater
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento31
Modularity of
Multi-Chamber System
System
• 1x unwinding, 1x rewinding, 1 to 3x process chambers
• 1 drum per process cham...
Pre-Treatment Setup Compartment Mode Type
Plasma Treatment for
all Substrates
DC
LION
Plasma and
Ion Impact
AC Glow Discha...
Film Materials Setup Compartment Mode Type
Ag, Al, Cu, Ti, Metals
NiV, NiCr, Alloys
ITO, NbOx, Ceramics
DC
(pulsed)
WSM
pl...
Film Materials Setup Compartment Mode Type
Al-reactive Oxides
Si-reactive Oxides
TiO2, Nb2O5, Oxides
AC-MF
dense
Plasma
SD...
Metrology
In-Situ
Measurement
• Multi-track optical measurement (Transmit., Reflectance)
• Non contact sheet resistance me...
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento37
Applications & Equipment for Production
Air-to-Air Metal Strip Coating
Applications & Equipment for Production
Air-to-Air Metal Strip Coater MCS1250
15.10.201338 Seminar University of Salento
•...
Metallbandbeschichter MSC 1200
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento39
Applications & Equipment for Production
Air-to-A...
Plasma Pre-Treatment
Glow Discharge Sputter etching
Seminar University of Salento40 15.10.2013
Electron impact Ar+ Ion imp...
Applications & Equipment for Production
Reflectors with Metal Strips
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento41
Light Refl...
Applications & Equipment for Production
Enhanced Reflectance vs. Mirror Material
• Enhanced Al Mirror • Enhanced Ag Mirror...
Seminar University of Salento43
Applications & Equipment for Production
EB-PVD: Layer Properties
Parameter SiO2 TiO2
Index...
Solar Absorber with Metal Strip
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento44
Solar Absorber – Top Roof Modul Copper Metal St...
Solar water heating
Seminar University of Salento45
• Goals
Best usage of solar energy High solar absorbance Ae
Reduced lo...
Process Monitoring Using Ellipsometry
In-Situ / Ex-Situ
Seminar University of Salento46
• in situ: Ellipsometry, XRF
• ex ...
Air-to-Air
Metal Strip Coater MSC1250
15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento47
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Ldb Convergenze Parallele_07

  1. 1. www.vonardenne.biz
  2. 2. Application of Thin Films in Contemporary Industry Henrik Obst VON ARDENNE Dresden, Germany
  3. 3. 15.10.2013 provides industrial vacuum coaters & approved layer stacks e.g. for • Architecture Glazing • Photovoltaic • Solar Absorbers and Reflectors on Metal Strip • Web Coating
  4. 4. 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento4 Application of Thin Films in Contemporary Industry Outline • Introduction • Methods of Deposition • EB-evaporation • Sputtering • Applications & Equipment for Production • Architectural Glass Coating • (Thin Film) Photovoltaic • Sputter Roll Coater for Polymer Films • Metal Strip Coater • Developments for OELD Applications • Summary
  5. 5. Introduction Examples of Thin Film Application 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento Solar Park near Leipzig 40 MWp CdTe Solar Farm (former Russian Military Airport)World Jewellery Center Milano www.juwi.de 5
  6. 6. Introduction Examples of Thin Film Application 15.10.20136 Seminar University of Salento
  7. 7. Introduction What means “THIN” 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento7 • 0.01 .. 10 nm semiconductor, barrier, passivation, EUV-optics • 20 nm transparent metallic layers • 10 .. > 100 nm optical (refractive) layers e.g. thickness for interference with λ/4 in SiO2: 550 nm /4 /1,5 = 91,6 nm • 200 µm thermal barrier coatings (TBC) YSZ
  8. 8. Methods of Deposition 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento8 Plating Spin Coating Pyrolytic Coating and many others … Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) • Evaporation (e.g. by electron beam) • Sputtering • Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) • Cathodic Arc Deposition
  9. 9. Methods of Deposition PVD-Process Conditions: Vacuum 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento9 • Mean free path of particles l ∼ 1/p air, room temperature, p = 10-2 mbar l = 10 mm p = 10-3 mbar l = 100 mm • Scattered particles due to collisions • Processes with inherent ion-bombardment, e.g. Ar+ • Parasitic incorporation vs. reactive processes • Common pressure for evaporation < 1*10-4 mbar • Common pressure for sputtering 5*10-3 mbar
  10. 10. Methods of Deposition: Electron Beam Technology EB-Gun 15.10.201310 EB Generation and EB Guidance Seminar University of Salento
  11. 11. Methods of Deposition: EB-Technology EB-Gun 15.10.201311 EH150V EH300V EH800V - Max. Process Chamber Pressure 5 Pa - Beam Power 30 ... 800 kW - Acceleration Voltage 30 ... 60 kV - Cathode System Quick and Easy Exchange - Space Charge Limited Mode Option: Temperature Limited Mode - Power control patented Variocathode Seminar University of Salento
  12. 12. Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Basic Mechanisms of a DC Plasma Discharg 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento12
  13. 13. Methods of Deposition: Sputtering 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento13 Vacuum + Argon inlet + electrical discharge generate the plasma, i. e. negative electrons and Argon ions. High-energetic Argon ions hit the target surface provoking energy cascades. A layer is built up on the substrate by sputtering the target material. Substrate Target hv e-
  14. 14. Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Basic Principles of Magnetron Sputtering • Magnetron-Principle: Closed magnetic tunnel in front of the sputter target (cathode) -500 V 15.10.201314 Seminar University of Salento
  15. 15. 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento15 Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Planar Magnetron Technology 16.10.201315 Plasma Target Utilization max 45%
  16. 16. Re-deposition zones and oxide deposition: clamping ledges powder formation flaking film quality disturbed Reactive Sputtering of SiO2 Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Planar Target with Re-Depositions 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento16
  17. 17. Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Dual Rotatable Magnetron RDM 3800 Seminar University of Salento Target Utilization 85% ZnO-Al Ceramic Target 17 15.10.2013
  18. 18. Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Why rotatable targets? 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento18 • Much higher target utilization (factor 2) • No re-deposition zones at the target surface • 1.5 to 2 times higher dynamic deposition rates • Better uniformity < ± 1.5% • Less arcing, less flaking • Enhanced magnetic field strength, tunable magnetbars • Total: lower cost of ownership, CoO
  19. 19. Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Coating Technology- RDM Process in DC Mode DC, DC-DC or DC-Pulse conductive Targets (ρ ≤ 1 Ωcm), long-term stable TCO processes (e.g. ITO or ZnO:Al2O3) Anode AnodeDC DC Seminar University of Salento19 15.10.2013
  20. 20. Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Coating Technology – RDM Process in AC Mode 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento20 AC/MF + +- - AC/MF ++ -- Electron drift Film condensation with densification by ion impact Moving substrate
  21. 21. Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Working Ranges for High Rate Reactive Sputtering 21 P = constant! metallic mode reactive mode transition mode stabilization by fast control of reactive gas flow, only 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento
  22. 22. Film Material Target Material Type of sputter process Max. Dyn. Dep. Rate [nm*m/min] Rotatable Planar SiOx Si/Si:Al AC reactive 120 (RDM) 73 (SDM) Nb2O5 NbxO AC ceramic 80 (RDM) 39 (SDM) SiO2 Si/Si:Al AC reactive 80 (RDM) 39 (SDM) ITO ITO DC/DC ceramic 180 (RSM/RSM) 67 (SSM/SSM) Mo Mo DC/DC metallic 200 (RSM/RSM) 130 (WSM) ZnO:Al Zn:Al/ AZO DC reactive 120 (RSM) N/A Methods of Deposition: Sputtering Typical Maximal Dynamic Deposition Rates Rotatable RDM – Rotatable Dual Magnetron RSM – Rotatable Single Magnetron Planar SDM – Standard Dual Magnetron SSM – Standard Single Magnetron WSM – Wide Single Magnetron 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento26
  23. 23. Application: Architectural Glass Coating 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento23 2008 – New TV-Tower (CCTV) in Peking
  24. 24. Application: Architectural Glas Coating GC330H LowE- und Solar Control-Coatings Substrate sizes up 3.3 x 6.0 m² Cycle time 40 sec 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento24
  25. 25. Application: Architectural Glas Coating Equipment: GC330H 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento25
  26. 26. Application: Architectural Glas Coating Benefits of Architectural Low-E Glass Coating 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento26 65 % Transmittance Outdoors Indoors Reflectance 23 % Absorption 12 % U= 1.2 W/m2K 15 liter fuel oil per m2 and year U= 5.8 W/m2K 68 liter fuel oil per m2 and year Reflectance 8 % Absorption 4 % Energy savings heating and cooling costs saving environmental protection Fuel consumption 100% 21% 88 % Transmittance
  27. 27. 15.10.201327 Seminar University of Salento Improved Silver Layer: Lower Resistance = Higher NIR Reflectance Bottom Layer: TiO2 Increased transmittance and neutral color Split Top Layer: SnO2/Si3N4 Improved mechanical and chemical robustness of layer stack Si3N4 SnO2 NiCrOx Ag ZnO TiO2(TxO) Glass Application: Architectural Glass Coating Heat protection coating with U = 1.1 W/m2K (Single Low-E)
  28. 28. Application: Thin Film PV Solar Cell Structures 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento28 Cd Te > 3 µm ITO or SnO2:F CdS0.3 µm Glass pane 4 mm CIGS > 2 µm Cu In (Ga) Se, S Mo 0.5 µm i-ZnO and ZnO:Al 1µm Glass pane 4 mm Thin Film a-Si:H CdTe CIGS Metal 0.5 µm η = 7% η = 10% η = 13% ZnO:Al or SnO2:F Metal Reflector 0.3 µm ZnO:Al p a-Si : H i a-Si : H n a-Si : H CdS 50 nm Glass pane 4 mm
  29. 29. Applications for Web Coating • Invisible ITO-films for touch panels or EMI shielding • Window films i.e. Low-E, electrochromic, IR blocker • Antireflection, dry AR coatings • Flexible PV, contact and absorber layers • Enhanced mirrors, optical filters • Barrier and adhesion layers 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento4
  30. 30. FOSA1600 Web Coating System 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento3 • Modular design of multi-chamber platform for R2R vacuum coatings • Deposition of high-quality layers using advanced sputtering technology • Flexible substrates, polymer films with multiple coil handling • Industrial mass production
  31. 31. Systems and Features FOSA1600 D8 Dual Drum Web Coater 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento31
  32. 32. Modularity of Multi-Chamber System System • 1x unwinding, 1x rewinding, 1 to 3x process chambers • 1 drum per process chamber • Concept allows up to 24 magnetrons FOSA1600S4FOSA1600D8FOSA1600T12 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento6
  33. 33. Pre-Treatment Setup Compartment Mode Type Plasma Treatment for all Substrates DC LION Plasma and Ion Impact AC Glow Discharge AC Electron Impact Free Span Heaters Heat and Desorption Infra Red IR Cryo – Traps Effective H2O Pumping within the Sputter Compartment Trapping @ T < -125°C Pumping of Water Vapor Techniques for Applied Web Coatings Processes for Pre-treatment of Polymer Films Seminar University of Salento Substrate ≈AC Substrat Drum @ 80°C 15.10.201333
  34. 34. Film Materials Setup Compartment Mode Type Ag, Al, Cu, Ti, Metals NiV, NiCr, Alloys ITO, NbOx, Ceramics DC (pulsed) WSM planar Ag, Al, Cu, Ti, Metals NiV, NiCr, Alloys ITO, NbOx, Ceramics DC (pulsed) RSM rotatable Ag, Al, Cu, Ti, Metals NiV, NiCr, Alloys ITO, AZO, Ceramics DC/DC separated (pulsed) RSM/RSM rotatable Ag, Al, Cu, Ti, Metals ITO, AZO, TCO’s TiOx, NbOx, Ceramics DC/DC DAS (pulsed) RSM/RSM rotatable Techniques for Applied Web Coatings DC Magnetron Sputtering Seminar University of Salento Substrat Substrat Substrat Substrat 15.10.201334
  35. 35. Film Materials Setup Compartment Mode Type Al-reactive Oxides Si-reactive Oxides TiO2, Nb2O5, Oxides AC-MF dense Plasma SDM planar Al-reactive Oxides Si-reactive Oxides TiO2, Nb2O5, Oxides AC-MF dense Plasma RDM rotatable Al-reactive Nitrides Si-reactive Nitrides mixed Oxide-Nitrides AC-MF dense Plasma RDM rotatable Techniques for Applied Web Coatings AC-MF Magnetron Sputtering Seminar University of Salento Substrat Substrat Substrat 15.10.201335
  36. 36. Metrology In-Situ Measurement • Multi-track optical measurement (Transmit., Reflectance) • Non contact sheet resistance measurement • Other parameters on request • Marker cathode Process Control • Impedance control for SiOxNY deposition 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento14
  37. 37. 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento37 Applications & Equipment for Production Air-to-Air Metal Strip Coating
  38. 38. Applications & Equipment for Production Air-to-Air Metal Strip Coater MCS1250 15.10.201338 Seminar University of Salento • Substrate 1.25 m (W) • R2R for Metal Strip Coating 24h/5d onto Al, Cu, Steel • EB-PVD and Rotatable Magnetron Sputtering • Film materials: Al, CrN, SiO2, TiO2,
  39. 39. Metallbandbeschichter MSC 1200 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento39 Applications & Equipment for Production Air-to-Air Metal Strip Coater Coatings and Applications onto Al, Cu and SST metal strip: Reflectors Absorbers Technologies: • Glow Discharge • Sputter Etching • Metallic and Reactive Sputtering • Electron Beam Evaporation Length 106 m, Strip width 1,2 m
  40. 40. Plasma Pre-Treatment Glow Discharge Sputter etching Seminar University of Salento40 15.10.2013 Electron impact Ar+ Ion impact
  41. 41. Applications & Equipment for Production Reflectors with Metal Strips 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento41 Light Reflectors made from Aluminium Reflectatance: Electro plated < 85% Vacuum coating > 96% 20% less energy consumption with constant illumination strength
  42. 42. Applications & Equipment for Production Enhanced Reflectance vs. Mirror Material • Enhanced Al Mirror • Enhanced Ag Mirror Seminar University of Salento42 15.10.2013
  43. 43. Seminar University of Salento43 Applications & Equipment for Production EB-PVD: Layer Properties Parameter SiO2 TiO2 Index of refraction n = 1.44 n = 2.2...2.3 (λ = 670 nm) λ/(4n)-thickness 85 nm 45 nm O2 partial pressure 1 x 10-4 mbar 1 x 10-4 mbar density 0.8 ... 0.9 ρbulk 0.8 .... 0.9 ρbulk Maximum dynamic rate (absorption free) 30 nm/s 5...6 nm/s Evaporated material per cycle (120 h) 80 kg 75 kg Techn. Challenges Sublimation residual absorption (re-oxidation of suboxides) 15.10.2013
  44. 44. Solar Absorber with Metal Strip 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento44 Solar Absorber – Top Roof Modul Copper Metal Strip – PVD coated
  45. 45. Solar water heating Seminar University of Salento45 • Goals Best usage of solar energy High solar absorbance Ae Reduced losses low Emissivity ε 15.10.2013
  46. 46. Process Monitoring Using Ellipsometry In-Situ / Ex-Situ Seminar University of Salento46 • in situ: Ellipsometry, XRF • ex situ: Reflectometry • reverse thickness calculation • position matching 15.10.2013
  47. 47. Air-to-Air Metal Strip Coater MSC1250 15.10.2013 Seminar University of Salento47

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