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Ldb lavorare in gruppo modulo 5


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Ldb lavorare in gruppo modulo 5

  1. 1. Laboratorio dal Basso: “LAVORARE IN GRUPPO? UN’IMPRESA! CONFLITTI, COMUNICAZIONE E COOPERAZIONE PER L’IMPRESA SOSTENIBILE” Multiculturalismo a lavoro: processi interculturali e comunicazione in contesti lavorativi interculturali Lecce, 15 e 16 novembre 2013 Sandro Mazzi
  2. 2. Argomenti venerdì Presentazioni e introduzione concetti chiave Comunicazione Cultura Comunicazione interculturale La competenza per la comunicazione interculturale L'importanza dell'interpretazione
  3. 3. Programma venerdì 15:00 Presentazioni e introduzione concetti chiave 16.30: Pausa 16.45: Slides concetti chiave: Comunicazione Cultura Comunicazione interculturale La competenza per la comunicazione interculturale L'importanza dell'interpretazione NB Tutte le slides di questa sezione - quelle in lingua inglese – sono elaborate dal volume: Myron W. Lustig, Jolene Koester, Intercultural Competence. Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures, Pearson Education (US) Upper Saddle River 2012.
  4. 4. Argomenti sabato Modelli e politiche per l'integrazione Stereotipi, pregiudizi e discriminazioni Strumenti per accrescere la competenza per la comunicazione interculturale I sei blocchi della comunicazione interculturale (Barna) Lo strumento D.I.E. La consapevolezza culturale Il lavoro sui valori e l'identità Dalla compassione all'empatia AUM e mindfulness (Gudykunst) Questioni etiche Esempi/domande
  5. 5. Programma sabato 10.00 Recupero modelli e altri concetti chiave 10.30 Consapevolezza culturale e identità 10.45 Dalla compassione alla empatia 11.00 Esercizio “Guardare l'altro come se…” 11.30 Pausa 11.45 Neuroscienze e l’importanza di esercitarsi al cambiamento 12.00 I sei blocchi alla comunicazione interculturale e il loro superamento: AUM e mindfulness 12.15 Esercizio riflessivo in gruppo/coppie: esperienze precedenti e strumenti presentati 13.00 chiusura
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE § In the post-millennium world: § Communicating with people from many cultures is no longer a choice § It is our choice to learn to do it well § Worldwide there is a heightened emphasis on culture § Some forces encourage accommodation and understanding with diverse people § Some forces discourage it § Intercultural encounters are now ubiquitous § Forces that bring other cultures in our life are dynamic, potent, ever present § Competent intercultural communication has become essential
  7. 7. IMPERATIVES FOR INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE 1. The Demographic Imperative 2. The Technological Imperative 3. The Economic Imperative 4. The Peace Imperative 5. The Interpersonal Imperative
  8. 8. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION? There are too many ways for defining communication. We will adopt a definition useful for our purpose: “Communication is a Symbolic Interpretive Transactional Contextual Process in which People Create Shared meanings”.
  9. 9. COMMUNICATION IS SYMBOLIC § Symbols represent the shared meanings § A symbol is a word/action/object that stands or represent the unit of meaning. § Meaning is a perception, thought or feeling § Meanings are shared through messages § Messages are packages of symbols created to create shared meanings
  10. 10. COMMUNICATION IS INTERPRETIVE § When people communicate they have to: § Interpret the symbolic behaviors of others § Assign significance to some of them § Understanding and reaching agreement are two different outcomes.
  11. 11. COMMUNICATION IS TRANSACTIONAL § Actional view of communication: Bowling; Challenge in sending the message; I can win § Interactional views: Ping pong (feedback); Challenge in receiving; I can win or lose § Transactional view: Sharade; Groupwork; Fun; No losers § All participants in the communication process work together to create and sustain the meanings that develop § Communicators are simultaneously sending and receiving messages at every instant they are involved in conversations
  12. 12. COMMUNICATION IS CONTEXTUAL § All communication take place in a context § The context can be: § Physical: actual location § Social: widely shared expectations about the kind of interactions § Interpersonal: expectations people have about the behaviors of others as a result of differences in the relationships between them
  13. 13. COMMUNICATION IS A PROCESS § Communication is not static, fixed, unchanged § A process is a sequence of many distinct but interrelated steps § It can change over time § Heraclit “You can’t stand in the same stream twice”
  14. 14. COMMUNICATION INVOLVES SHARED MEANINGS § Meanings are not just “out there” to be discovered § Meanings are created and shared by groups of people as they participate in the ordinary and everyday activities
  15. 15. WHAT IS CULTURE? We take things for granted…When living within our own culture, we are never really reminded of it.When I am walking down the street, people just don’t stop to say, “Hey, it is an American”. In other words, we don’t talk about our own culture too much, because we are living it. (A student from U.S.) Also for culture, there are too many ways for defining it We will adopt a definition useful for our purpose
  16. 16. A DEFINITION OF CULTURE “Culture is a Learned Set of shared interpretations about Beliefs Values Norms and Social practices which Affect the behaviors of a Relatively large group of people”
  17. 17. WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF CULTURE? • Your family racial/ethnic makeup, and their racial attitudes • where and when you were born and grew up • your friends and social acquitances • where you went to school, and your level of education • Previous diverse cultural experiences in everyday life, the workplace, social and or professional context • Attitudes and impression from the media
  18. 18. A FIRST DEFINITION OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION • “Intercultural Communication is a symbolic, interpretive, transactional, contextual process in which people from different cultures create shared meanings” § People are from different cultures whenever the degree of § difference between them is sufficiently large and important that it creates § dissimilar interpretations and expectations about what are regarded as § competent communication behaviors”
  19. 19. ANOTHER DEFINITION OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Therefore: “Intercultural communication occurs when large and important cultural differences create dissimilar interpretations and expectations about how to communicate competently”
  20. 20. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURAL PATTERNS  People in all cultures face common human problems for which they must find solutions  The range of alternative solutions to a culture’s problems is limited  Within a given culture, there will be preferred solutions, which most people within the culture will select, but there will also people who will choose other solutions.  Over time, the preferred solutions shape the culture’s basic assumptions about beliefs, values, norms and social practices – the cultural patterns
  21. 21. CULTURAL PATTERNS  People from different cultures differ in:  Obvious ways/clearly visible differences: food, clothing etc.  Subtle ways/less visible differences  Cultural patterns are related to subtle differences that are taken for granted in a culture  Cultural patterns are therefore shared interpretations
  22. 22. CULTURAL PATTERNS Shared interpretations are very important and they result from:  the culture collective assumption about what the world is: believes  shared judgments about what it should be: values  widely held expectations about how people should behave: norms  predictable behavior patterns that are commonly shared: social practices
  23. 23. CULTURAL PATTERNS Understanding differences in cultural patterns is a basic requirement to develop Cultural patterns are the basis for interpreting the symbols used in That is how we can explain many misunderstandings in IC (and not only…) They are stable over time They lead to roughly similar behaviors across similar situation
  24. 24. CULTURAL PATTERNS AND INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE  There is a strong relationship between the foundations of cultural patterns and intercultural competence  The patterns of a culture create the filter through which all verbal and nonverbal symbols are interpreted  Not all cultural members of a society necessarily match the profile of the typical cultural member  The patterns of a culture shape but do not determine the mental programming of its people  Other cultures’ ways of believing and their preferred values are not crazy or wrong, just different
  25. 25. INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE  Understanding of ICC is based on studies on communication competence in intracultural contexts  A definition of communication competence:  “Competent communication is interaction that is perceived as effective in fulfilling certain rewarding objectives in a way that is also appropriate to the context in which the interaction occurs” (Brian Spitzberg)  NB we cannot write a prescription guaranteed to ensure competence in intercultural communication  We can try to understand the many ways that a person can behave in interculturally competent manner
  26. 26. THE 3 COMPONENTS OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE 1. Context 2. Appropriateness and Effectiveness 3. Knowledge, (culture-general information and culture-specific information), Motivations and (feelings and intentions) Skills (the actual performance)
  27. 27. BASIC TOOLS FOR IMPROVING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE: D-I-E  Description  Interpretation  Evaluation
  28. 28. CULTURE SHOCK – DEFINITIONS •“Anxiety that results from losing all of our familiar signs and symbol of social intercourse” Kalervo Oberg (anthropologist) •“The emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden emersion in a new and different culture” LaRay M. Barna (communication studies) •“A set of intensive and evocative situations in which the individual experiences himself and other people in a new way distinct from previous situations and is consequently forced into new levels of consciousness and understanding” Alfred Adler (psychologist)
  29. 29. Sei ostacoli alla comunicazione interculturale (Barna) L'assunto di similarità Differenze linguistiche Fraintendimenti non verbali Preconcetti e stereotipi Tendenza a giudicare Forte ansia
  30. 30. "Sulle dispense stava scritto un dettaglio che alla prima lettura mi era sfuggito, e cioè che il così tenero e delicato zinco, così arrendevole davanti agli acidi, che ne fanno un solo boccone, si comporta invece in modo assai diverso quando è molto puro: allora resiste ostinatamente all’attacco. Se ne potevano trarre due conseguenze filosofiche tra loro contrastanti: l’elogio della purezza, che protegge dal male come un usbergo; l’elogio dell’impurezza, che dà adito ai mutamenti, cioè alla vita." Primo Levi - Il sistema periodico
  31. 31. Esericizio in piccoli gruppi Analisi situazioni personali: Come posso usare gli strumenti presentati per alcune delle situazioni "interculturali" nelle quali mi sono trovato/mi trovo/so che mi troverò? Condivisione e confronto
  32. 32. Un modello per gestire efficacemente le relazioni/discussioni/conversazioni Topic Goal Reality Options Will
  33. 33. Due strumenti davvero importanti... Consapevolezza (culturale, della nostra identità, delle nostre premesse e aspettative) Mindfulnes/presenza qui ed ora