This presentation considers the philosophical implications of current neuroscience advance. The brain is the final frontier, and thinking, cognition, emotion, and consciousness remain some of the most important unsolved mysteries. It is still unknown how ideas are actually represented in the brain. However, the expectation from neural nanotechnology and nanomedicine is that some of these mysteries will be revealed, in not just pathology resolution but also enhancement capabilities. There are already some translational research applications for cognitive enhancement. The fast pace of scientific advance in neuroscience is prompting the consideration of these kinds of questions involving personal identity, human potential, and societal coordination, and how we might eventually transition to a future of radically augmented post-biological entities and multispecies intelligence.