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Cognitive Enhancement Theory

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Exceeding current cognitive limitations will require both technological advance and progression in mindset as to the notion of personal identity and its confines, for example to contemplate joining a collaborative mind community since biomedical advance can only do so much so fast

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Cognitive Enhancement Theory

  1. 1. Mensa World Gathering 2018 Indianapolis IN, July 4, 2018 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Cognitive Enhancement Melanie Swan Philosophy, Purdue University melanie@Cognitive EnhancementStudies.org Artificial Intelligence-Intelligence Augmentation
  2. 2. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Discussion Questions 1 1. Would you consider joining a Cloudmind (a cloud- based collaboration of human and machine minds)?  Premise: safely harness additional resources 2. What would you want to do in a cloudmind? 1. Solve problems? (math, science, political, social) 2. Pursue creativity? (the Yes-and Cloudmind) 3. Discuss or debate topics of interest? 4. Learn new things? Visit new places? 3. What safeguards would have to be in place? 1. Guaranteed exit and no loss of personal identity 2. Autonomy preserved (cloudmind is not groupmind) ? ?? Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).
  3. 3. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 2 Melanie Swan, Technology Theorist  Philosophy Department, Purdue University, Indiana USA  Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies  Singularity University Instructor; Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technology Affiliate Scholar; EDGE Essayist; FQXi Advisor Traditional Markets Background Economics and Financial Theory Leadership New Economies research group Source: http://www.melanieswan.com, http://blockchainstudies.org https://www.facebook.com/groups/NewEconomies
  4. 4. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cognitive Enhancement Agenda 3  Method  Theoretical model development  Problem  Defining human identity in the context of machines  Solutions  Biomedical Advance  Personal Identity  Cloudminds  Conclusion
  5. 5. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 4 Methodology: Theoretical Model Development Simple Causal Model Source: Swan, M. (2018). Cognitive Enhancement Theoretical Model. Sun Independent Variable (Construct) Research Question: How does the sun shining relate to how many people are outside? Hypothesis: The more the sun is shining, the more people are outside People Outside Dependent Variable (Performance Measure)
  6. 6. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 5 Simple Theoretical Causal Model Sun Independent Variable (Construct) Research Question: How does the sun shining relate to how many people are outside? Hypothesis: The more the sun is shining, the more people are outside People Outside Dependent Variable (Performance Measure) Temperature # of Days Moderating Variables Source: Swan, M. (2018). Cognitive Enhancement Theoretical Model.
  7. 7. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 6 “Waiting for Carnot” problem Source: Kelly, K. (1994). Out of Control.  Simple causal models and unifying theories are not available in complex domains  Biology, Markets, Quantum Gravity
  8. 8. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 7 Effective (Field) Theory Prediction Coarse- graining Explanation in more Complex Phenomena Source: SFI, Lecture 1: Coarse-Graining, Renormalization & Universality, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqbWVoZVOfQ Fine-grained Theory Calibration Small-scale Measurement Simulation Agent-based modeling Lattice QCD Protein Folding
  9. 9. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 8 Theory of Cognitive Enhancement Independent Variables Research Question: How do technology and mindset influence cognitive enhancement? Hypothesis: A sequential evolution of changes in technology and mindset is necessary for cognitive enhancement Cognitive Enhancement Dependent Variable Tools and Techniques Technical Conceptual Shift Social Biomedical Advance Cloudmind Personal Identity 1 2 3 Near-term Long-term Source: Swan, M. (2018). Cognitive Enhancement Theoretical Model.
  10. 10. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Thesis 9 Exceeding current cognitive limitations will require both technological advance and progression in mindset as to the notion of personal identity and its confines, for example to contemplate joining a collaborative mind community since biomedical advance can only do so much so fast
  11. 11. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cognitive Enhancement Agenda 10  Method  Theoretical model development  Problem  Defining human identity in the context of machines  Solutions  Biomedical Advance  Personal Identity  Cloudminds  Conclusion
  12. 12. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement No 11 Yes Not sure Do you want a robot to take your job? Source: Swan, M. "Automation Economy: An Abundance Philosophy of Economics" In Surviving the Machine Economy. Eds. Hughes, LaGrandeur, Palgrave Macmillan. 2017.
  13. 13. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Already a Multi-species Society 12  Markets  40-70% volume programmatic trading  Future of work  50% jobs at risk of technological outsourcing by 2045 Sources: Miller, R.S. and Shorter, G. (2016). High Frequency Trading: Overview of Recent Developments. U.S. CRS. 7-5700. R44443. Frey, C.B. and Osborne, M.A. (2013). The Future of Employment: How susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation. Oxford.
  14. 14. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Problem 13 http://www.robotandhwang.com/attorneys  Defining human identity in the context of machines
  15. 15. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Technological Unemployment  Definition: jobs outsourced to technology  Estimate: Half (47%) of employment is at risk of automation in the next two decades – Carl Frey, Oxford, 2015  Global driverless-car market $42 billion by 2025 – BCG, 2015  Transportation = 10% GDP – US DOT, 2002  Why are there still so many jobs in a world that could be automating more quickly? – David Autor, MIT, 2015 14 Source: Swan, M. "Is Technological Unemployment Real?” In Surviving the Machine Age: Intelligent Technology and the Transformation of Human Work. James Hughes and Kevin LaGrandeur, Eds., Palgrave Macmillan, Forthcoming 2017.
  16. 16. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Routine Tasks (physical and cognitive) outsourced to Machines 15 Source: The Economist (2016) US Population Survey, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, https://www.ft.com/content/1dbd8c60-0cc6-11e6-ad80-67655613c2d6 US Population Survey, Job Growth 1983-2013 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
  17. 17. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Global Robotics Spending: $67 billion 2025e 16 Source: https://www.siemens.com/innovation/en/home/pictures-of-the-future/digitalization-and-software/autonomous-systems-facts- and-forecasts.html
  18. 18. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Technological Unemployment Identity Crisis 17 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (original) Survive (reach baseline) Thrive (extend baseline) Source: Swan, M. (2017). Cognitive Easing: Human Identity Crisis in a World of Technology, http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/Swan20170107.  Human identity defined by labor contribution  Lower-level Maslow for surviving not thriving ?
  19. 19. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Solution: Reconceptualization of “Life” 18 Work Leisure Community Exercise Creativity Learning Music Sports Spirituality Clubs Source: Swan, M. (2016). Abundance Economics. http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/abundance-economics Productive and enjoyable engagement of faculties (job 2.0 or other) Health TeachingRelaxation Fun Life 1.0 Life 2.0 Job of the future: Life Coach becomes Life Designer Art Teams
  20. 20. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 19 Artificial Intelligence Intelligence Augmentation A machine performing physical or cognitive tasks usually conducted by a human: involves processing and possibly decision-making Augmenting natural human intelligence with organic or inorganic means Rapprochement: Human and Machine
  21. 21. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement “Artificial Intelligence” coined 1956  Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence  Not such a challenge to Human Intelligence if entitled “Symbolic Systems”? 20  Famous attendees: John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Claude Shannon. John Nash, Herbert Simon, Allen Newell
  22. 22. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 21 What is the Problem? Brains are: Source: http://trent.st/blog/2015/2/12/artificial-intelligence-and-the-future-of-cognitive-enhancem.html
  23. 23. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 22 Solutions? Source: http://trent.st/blog/2015/2/12/artificial-intelligence-and-the-future-of-cognitive-enhancem.html
  24. 24. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cognitive Enhancement Agenda 23  Method  Theoretical model development  Problem  Defining human identity in the context of machines  Solutions  Biomedical Advance  Personal Identity  Cloudminds  Conclusion
  25. 25. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement What is Cognitive Enhancement? 24 Cognitive enhancement is the amplification or extension of the core capacities of the mind through improvement or augmentation of information processing systems Source: Bostrom, N. and Sandberg, A. (2009). Cognitive Enhancement: Methods, Ethics, Regulatory Challenges. Sci Eng Ethics 15:311–341
  26. 26. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cognitive Enhancement by what means?  Pharmacological  Prescription  Smart drug nootropics  Supplements  Medical device  Nanoparticles  Nanorobots  Deep-brain electrical stimulation (Parkinson’s)  Other means  Environment  Exercise 25  Which Cognitive Skills?  Memory, thinking, learning, reasoning, attention
  27. 27. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 26 Reconceptualization of Health Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_2.0 Health 2.0: Expanded Notion of Health  No longer just “disease and cure”  Longitudinal, predictive, multi-faceted
  28. 28. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 27 $800 bn Neurological Disease spend (US, 2017) Source: https://www.upi.com/Health_News/2017/03/28/Nearly-800-billion-spent-per-year-in-US-on-neurological- diseases/7241490715686/ Cognitive Enhancement Pathology Resolution  Basic medical research findings for Pathology Resolution might be applied to Cognitive Enhancement Health Outcomes Self-expression Enhancement Normalization Improvement Cure Prevention
  29. 29. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Top 10 Cognitive Enhancement Apps  Optimal Learning  CRISPR Genomic Editing and Optogenetic Light Therapy  Internal and External Attentional Systems  Neuroaesthetics: the Beautiful and the Sublime  Innovation Spikes and Creativity  Brain Imaging, Mapping, and Simulation 28 Neocortical Neurogenesis in Mammals lafayette.edu
  30. 30. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 29 App 1: Learning: Whole-picture vs. Elemental Source: Acheson, Gresack, and Risbrough. Hippocampal dysfunction effects on context memory: possible etiology for posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb;62(2):674-85. Elemental Learning (hippocampal disruption; only element-specific) Configural Learning (normal; whole picture) Hypothesis: recurrence of a single feature of the traumatic event could trigger PTSD episode Hypothesis: recurrence of entire event necessary to trigger PTSD episode
  31. 31. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 30 App 2: CRISPR/cas9 Technology cas: CRISPR-associated system  CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a DNA immune system technique found in bacteria and archaea  The cell’s genome contains a copy of DNA snippets that have previously attacked the cell  The cellular security system uses these examples to detect and delete any new and similar edits to its genome  Implication: CRISPR is a general purpose precision technology to seek and delete unwanted genomic sequences (disease)
  32. 32. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 31 App 2: CRISPR germline editing in humans Source: Ma, H., Mitalipov, S. et al. (2017). Correction of a pathogenic gene mutation in human embryos. Nature. 548(7668):413-419. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/608350/first-human-embryos-edited-in-us/  CRISPR germline editing in human embryo (Aug 2017)  Correction of a pathogenic gene mutation in human embryos  MYBPC3 mutation (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy)  CRISPR–Cas9 targeting to activate a germline-specific DNA repair response; wild-type MYBPC3 (unmutated)  Off-target mutations and mosaicism avoided by modulating cell cycle stages
  33. 33. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement App 3. Optogenetics 32 Source: Reardon. S. (2016). Light-controlled genes and neurons poised for clinical trials. Nature News. Nov 2017: https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/optogenetic-therapies-move-closer-to-clinical-use-30611  Light-controlled therapy  A technique used to express light-sensitive proteins in neurons for real-time monitoring and control  Human trials for retinal disease (2016)  Retinitis pigmentosa destroys photoreceptors in the eye, so instead bring light sensitivity to retinal ganglion cells, which pass visual signals from photoreceptors to the brain  Inject blind patients with viruses carrying genes that encode light-sensitive proteins called opsins  Cells fire when stimulated with blue light  Mechanism: use genetically-modified opsins called channelrhodopsins to open neurons and allow the ion channels to enter the cells when exposed to blue light
  34. 34. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement App 4: Cerebral Organoids 33  Grafted brain organoids Human cells to mouse) help improve understanding of neurological disorders (autism, dementia, and schizophrenia)  Few mm across microtissue samples  Miniature human brain organoids grown in test tubes  Tool for disease modeling and drug testing  Layers of brain cells with defined regions that resemble those seen in immature, embryonic brains Sources: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180416121558.htm https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/aug/28/miniature-brains-test-tubes-neuroscience
  35. 35. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Personalized Genomics: Investigate whether a genetic predisposition for loss aversion and optimism bias may be linked to real-life behavior Hypothesis: Individuals with polymorphisms in genes related to neural processes may be more susceptible to two phenomena that shape human thinking, loss aversion and optimism bias Genotypic Examination: 5-HTTLPR, COMT Val(158)Met, T102C, DRD2/ANKK1, PDYN, OXTR Phenotypic Examination: Loss Aversion, Optimum Bias Instruments App 5: Thinking Fast and Slow  2 modes of decision making  System 1: fast, gut reaction  Automatic, fast and often unconscious way of thinking. It is autonomous and efficient, requiring little energy or attention, but is prone to biases and systematic errors.  System 2: slow, deliberative  Effortful, slow and controlled way of thinking Source: DIYgenomics http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/w/page/23041784/Welcome%20to%20DIYgenomics%21
  36. 36. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 35 App 6: Neuroaesthetics Source: Spee, B., Ishizu T., et al. (2018). Neuropsychopharmacological aesthetics: A theoretical consideration of pharmacological approaches to causative brain study in aesthetics and art. Prog Brain Res. 237:343-372. The Biology of Aesthetics  Objective  Understand the mechanism underlying perception, emotion, and aesthetic experience  Aesthetic experience involves many brain centers  Knowledge and meaning  Emotional processing  Sensory-motor system
  37. 37. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 36 App 7: The Beautiful and the Sublime Source: Ishizu, T. and Zeki, S. (2014). A neurobiological enquiry into the origins of our experience of the sublime and beautiful. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8:891. http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00891/full  Beauty and sublime are different  Experience of beauty is associated with feelings of pleasure, reward, and satisfaction  Experience of the sublime is associated with awe, fear, and terror  The sublime engages different brain systems  Inferior temporal cortex, posterior hippocampus, and inferior/middle frontal gyri
  38. 38. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 37 App 8: Attentional Systems Source: Farb, N.A.S. et al. (2013). Attentional Modulation of Primary Interoceptive and Exteroceptive Cortices. Cerebral Cortex. 23(1): 114–126. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/decoding-body-watcher/ Interoceptive attention via insula (top) directs neural representations of the body’s internal state vs external attention via visual system (bottom)  Internal landscape surveyed by the older limbic brain, not the prefrontal cortex  Internal and external attentional systems are different  Internal (notice heart beating rapidly); insula and posterior cingulate  Enhanced insula connectivity with the posterior ventromedial thalamus  External (notice a red light); neocortex  Enhanced visual cortex connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule and pulvinar of the thalamus
  39. 39. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement The Meditating Brain 38 App 9: Innovation Spikes Sources: Wan X, Improvisations. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 9;9(12)., http://brainworldmagazine.com/the-aha- moment/#sthash.ApvGH3BR.dpuf, Parvizi, J. et al. The will to persevere. Neuron. 2013 Dec 18;80(6):1359-67 Gamma WavesAnterior Cingulate Cortex: An imminent challenge followed by a determined attitude to overcome
  40. 40. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement creativity. 39 Geniuses: Einstein, Edison, daVinci, Darwin, Picasso, Michelangelo, Galileo, Freud, Mozart Source: http://time.com/2907776/strokes-of-genius-heres-how-the-most-creative-people-get-their-ideas/  Not all innovation is one Eureka moment of fully- formed ideas  Iteration of ideas, prototypes, solutions  Lots of sketches of thoughts, pictures, diagrams, words Alice: 6 impossible things before breakfast
  41. 41. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement think in possibility. see the world as it could be, not how it is. 40 Actuality Possibility
  42. 42. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 41 Brain Imaging, Mapping and Simulation App 10: Brain Imaging (2011) Sources: http://gallantlab.org/, http://news.berkeley.edu/2011/09/22/brain-movies, https://www.fastcompany.com/1814327/we-know-what-you-want-and-when-you-will-buy-it Use Case: NeuroMarketing
  43. 43. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 42 Brain Imaging, Mapping and Simulation Brain Imaging (2018) Source: http://gallantlab.org/
  44. 44. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Brain Imaging, Mapping and Simulation Brain Mapping 43  Human Connectome Project  3D mapping of neural pathways  Neocortical connects: regular grid and neighborhood structure  Blue Brain Project  Neocortical scanning, simulation, modeling (rat 2011, human 2023E)  UTexas Cerebellum Modeling  Cerebellum simulation  Massively repeated cerebellum wiring pattern Sources: http://www.humanconnectome.org; http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~ai-lab/pubs/NeuralNets12-Li.pdf’ http://newbooksinbrief.com/2012/11/27/25-a-summary-of-how-to-create-a-mind-the-secret-of-human-thought-revealed-by-ray-kurzweil 3D Neural Modeling Neocortical Column Simulation Neocortical Grid and Neighborhood Structure
  45. 45. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Medical Advance with Neural Applications 44
  46. 46. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 45 Neural Nanomedicine  Targeted drug delivery  Quantum-dot biomolecular imaging  Neural tissue engineering  DNA nanotechnology  Medical nanorobots Respirocytes Microbivore Artery Cleaner Drug Delivery Nanoparticles VasculocyteClottocytes Neural TissueDNA Nanotechnology Quantum Dot Dyes Farther future Present Source: Swan, M. Top ten recent nanomedical advances. Book chapter in Clinical Nanomedicine: from Bench to Bedside 2011, Forthcoming. Holliday Junction: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130321141448.ht
  47. 47. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Regenerative Medicine and 3D Printing 46 Whole Organ Decellularization and Recellularization (Heart) Organ Regeneration Lab-grown Meat Personalized 3D Models
  48. 48. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 47 Synthetic Biology Revolution  Vision  Harness biology as an engineering medium  Definition  Directed redesign and de novo construction of biological entities such as enzymes, genetic circuits, and cells  Extensive applications  Energy, Food, Pharmaceuticals, Materials, Chemicals  Main approaches (cellular chassis runs DNA code)  Metabolic engineering (bacteria produce diesel)  Extending E. coli capacity (yeast produces medicine)  Biomimicry (replicate biological function in synthetic systems)  de novo Synthesis (create new functionality) “This century’s transistor” Source: Swan, M. Synbio Revolution: Biology is the Engineering Medium, 6/26/11 http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2011/06/synbio-revolution-biology-is.html
  49. 49. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 48 Bioengineering Design http://parts.igem.org/ Select System, Device, or Part (20,000) Level Metal Binding and Sensing Part for use in Bioremediation
  50. 50. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 49 Print DNA Code into Cellular Chassis
  51. 51. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Nanotechnology: Microfluidics 50  Neuron cell culturing  Neuron-on-a-chip  MEMS, microfluidics  Lab-on-a-chip1  Lung-on-a-chip2  Paper-based microfluidics3 Neuron-on-a-chip Lung-on-a-chip2Lab-on-a-chip1 1http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpressrelease/80/harvards-wyss-institute-creates-living-human-gutonachip 2web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/human-body-on-a-chip-research-funding-0724.html 3bmf.aip.org/resource/1/biomgb/v6/i1/p011301_s1?bypassSSO=1 Lab-on-Paper Diagnostics (DFA.org)3
  52. 52. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cognitive Enhancement Agenda 51  Method  Theoretical model development  Problem  Defining human identity in the context of machines  Solutions  Biomedical Advance  Personal Identity  Cloudminds  Conclusion
  53. 53. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Personal Identity 52  Weak Claim  The concept of personal identity has not been introspected  Strong Claim  There is no reason, biological or otherwise, for the rigidity and exclusivity of personal identity, given safe expansion methods Source: Swan, M. 2014. The Non-Cruciality Of Personal Identity: Immortality As Possibility In The Prospect of Immortality: Fifty Years Later. Charles Tandy, Ed. Ann Arbor MI: Ria University Press. 385-420.
  54. 54. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement What is Personal Identity?  Dictionary (Webster):  The persistent and continuous unity of the individual person  Intuitively appealing view  Persistence  Continuity of memory  Sense of what it is like to be you over time  But humans are solipsist (ex: selfie culture) 53 Solipsism: the idea that only one’s own mind is sure to exist
  55. 55. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Different views of Personal Identity  Religion  Immaterial souls, pure egos  Philosophy  Psychological continuity (Locke)  Direct psychological connections between beliefs, desires, intentions, experiential memories, character traits, and actions  Only human-ordered continuity (Hume)  Bundles of perceptions  Biology  Unitary physical body and mind  Brute physical relation with the environment 54 Solipsism: the idea that only one’s own mind is sure to exist
  56. 56. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Hypothesis  If the evolutionary biological drivers that caused personal identity to develop as a fitness adaptation were to change, the need for personal identity too would change and perhaps disappear  Main evolutionary biological and cultural drivers:  Resource acquisition, status garnering, mate selection, group acceptance, gender roles (Hrdy)  Absent these drivers, how would the adaptation benefit conferred by personal identity change?  Examples of shifts in social goals and outcomes  Worldwide birth rate declines  Below replacement population declines (Japan, Italy, US) 55
  57. 57. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Personal Identity: Multidisciplinary Question 56 Philosophy of Mind Psychology Evolutionary Biology Evolutionary Psychology Philosophy of Biology Theoretical Biology Social Theory Sociology Sociobiology Biology
  58. 58. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Philosophical Views of Personal Identity  Traditional ‘philosophy of mind’ view  Assumes already-existing subject  Personal identity needed for continuity and persistence  Personal identity is not required for the survival of the person, relational experience between past/future selves and experience is (Parfit)  fMRI studies: We procrastinate because we think of our future selves as strangers  Third persons no different than politicians or celebrities 57 Sources: http://nautil.us/issue/9/time/why-we-procrastinate citing van Gelder JL, Hershfield HE, Nordgren LF. (2013). Vividness of the future self predicts delinquency. Psychol Sci. 24(6):974-80, and Pronin, Emily. (2008). How we see ourselves and how we see others. Science. 320(5880):1177-80.
  59. 59. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Biology: Individuals are not a Privileged Unit  What are the appropriate units in biology?  Organisms do not play a privileged role  Genes, genomes, mechanisms, phenotypes, gene pools, organisms, populations, ecologies  Individual is merely convenient terminology  Individuals are spatiotemporally localized entities that have reasonably sharp beginnings and endings in time 58 Hull, David (1980), "Individuality and Selection," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11: 311-332.
  60. 60. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Multidisciplinary Conclusion: Personal Identity is Ephemeral and Constructive  Hypothesis is supported by multiple fields  If the evolutionary biological drivers that caused personal identity to develop as a fitness adaptation were to change, the need for personal identity too would change/disappear  Biology  Individuality is not personal identity  Psychology/Sociology  Malleability of self  Philosophy  Relationality and subjectivation  Evolutionary Biology  Fitness adaptation 59
  61. 61. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Personal Identity: custom and familiarity  Preferencing of personal identity and humans as an organizational unit is custom and familiarity - so far there been no other alternative  Having known only one mode of existence we may have developed a natural attachment  Assumption (bias?) that memory, emotion, and ‘meaning’ can only be instantiated in humans, but it is possible that in the future, any pattern associated with the human brain might be stored as information 60
  62. 62. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cognitive Enhancement Agenda 61  Human-Machine Relations  Artificial Intelligence-Intelligence Augmentation  Problem  Defining human identity in the context of machines  Solutions  Biomedical Advance  Personal Identity  Cloudminds  Conclusion
  63. 63. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement What is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)?  A brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology linking the brain to a computer  An external or internally-implanted computational system that allows a person to control a computer using only brainwaves  Example: reading the electrical signals from the brain as a person focuses on a computer screen to perform an operation  Used to repair human cognitive and sensory-motor function  Over 324,200 worldwide cochlear implants 62 Source: https://www.asha.org/public/hearing/cochlear-implant/
  64. 64. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Consumer BCIs 24/7 Consumer EEG, Eye-tracking, Emotion-Mapping, Augmented Reality Glasses 63 Consumer EEG Rigs 1.0 2.0 Augmented Reality Glasses Source: Swan, M. Sensor Mania! The Internet of Things, Objective Metrics, and the Quantified Self 2.0. J Sens Actuator Netw 2012.
  65. 65. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Current status of BCIs 64 Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3408826/Type-BRAIN-High-quality-portable-mind-monitor-lead-breakthrough- human-machine-interaction.html, https://www.cognionics.net  Dry-attached EEG BCI (2016)  In-ear (2018)
  66. 66. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 65 BCI Future Application Experience-sharing Source: https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10101319050523971 Immersive Reality Headsets Real-time experiences: “you feel like you are actually present with others in another place”
  67. 67. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 66 Think through the problem of human-machine collaboration in one of the most vulnerable cases: opening our brains up to big data in BCI Cloudminds
  68. 68. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Concept Advanced Internal BCI Implementation 67 Physiological integration of possibly billions of dedicated autonomous nanorobots, which would self- migrate and directly connect with the neurons, synapses, and glial cells of the neocortex, toward the collective provision of a stable and robust interface with the Cloud Embedded Wireless A constellation of autonomous nanorobots possibly programmed to self- embed into the peripheral calvaria or pericranium of the skull to form a highly organized and interconnected streaming data transfer complex that would interact with specifically targeted neurons and synapses within the neocortex Source: Boehm, F. (2013). Nanomedical Device and Systems Design: Challenges, Possibilities, Visions.
  69. 69. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement BCIs: Future Implications 24-7 connectivity to the Internet and other minds  BCI functionality of typing on a keyboard with the mind suggests the possibility of having an always-on brain-Internet connection  Ubiquitous BCIs  Cell phones connected every individual to the internet  BCIs connect every brain? (cloudmind, telepathic noosphere)  Key functionality: 24-7 connectivity  Human cognitive processing continuously linked to the internet and other minds in cloudminds via BCI, VR headsets, QS wearables, smart contact lenses 68 Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).
  70. 70. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 69 “Better horse” Cloudmind “Horseless carriage” “Car” 3.0 2.0 1.0 “Smartphone on board” Pathology Resolution Cognitive Enhancement Platform for human-machine collaboration Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).
  71. 71. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 70 A Cloudmind is a cloud-based collaboration of human and machine minds (with safeguards and permissions) ‘Mind’ is generally denoting an entity with some capacity for processing, not the volitionary action and free will of a consciousness agent What is a Cloudmind? Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).
  72. 72. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Types of Cloudminds  Machine minds  Deep Learners  Deep Thinkers  Human minds (unitary)  Backups, sims, digital selves  Human-human minds  Human-machine minds  A person plus a cloud-based personal assistant ‘thinker helper’ (Siri) or companion (Her)  Mind-pools  Multi-agent minds operating together 71
  73. 73. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Company: Cloudminds 72  Cloud-based systems for intelligent robots  Human-augmented robotic intelligence, secure smart terminals, and robot control technology
  74. 74. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Prototypical Cloudminds  Functionality already exists  Automated cloud-based coordination of processing activity by multiple agents  Mechanical Turk  Orchestrated tasks requiring human intelligence  Crowdsourced eLabor marketplaces  Topcoder, Elance, Upwork (formerly Odesk), etc.  Humans as a community computing network  Each person a computing node operating on data  Big data algorithms  Classifiers, recommendation parsers, sentiment engines, neural nets 73 Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).
  75. 75. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cloudmind Starter App: SETI@home for the brain  Sell permissioned braincycles to the cloud (like selling generated electricity back into the power grid)  Sharing unused computing resource  Community computing projects such as SETI@home or protein Folding@home  Timesharing cognitive processing power during sleep cycles or other down time  Securely and unobtrusively share one’s own unused resources, downtime braincycles 74 Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).
  76. 76. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 3 Levels of BCI Cloudmind Applications 1. Health and Biology  Survival, pathology resolution, cure and enhancement, health-tracking, daily health check, neural data-logging to EMRs, virtual patient modeling 2. Information and Entertainment  In-mind 24-7 information query (antiquated device lookup), permissioned experience- sharing, crowdfile event memories 3. Actualization and Self-creating  Realization of individual cognitive and artistic potential, individual and collaborative sense 75 Source: EMR: Electronic Medical Record
  77. 77. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cloudmind App Crowdminding an IoT Archipelago  Home and building security: commanding IoT-connected objects in the environment  Sense of feeling as one entity: commander and ship, remote telepresencing robot  Control physical objects in a local or remote environment  Security guard commands whole smart building or complex  Link with smarthome IoT security system  Concept  One cloudmind entity that is a human plus IoT objects, functioning together 76 Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).
  78. 78. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Adoption Risks  Privacy, security, etc.  Graduated adoption paths  Credit-assignation  Idea-tracking  Identity loss  Identity multiplicity 77 Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).
  79. 79. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Fear of Personal Identity loss  Identity multiplicity  Already multiple online personas  BCI cloudminds do not necessarily preclude or curtail personal identity, and some rather accentuate and extend it  One or more digital selves participate in cloudminds on a limited basis  ‘Classic meatspace brains’  Different configurations of selves (for example, a team of selves, what Hanson calls a ‘self clan’ or an ‘em[ulation] clan’) 78 Source: Hanson, R. (2016). The Age of Em: Work, Love and Life when Robots Rule the Earth. Oxford University Press.
  80. 80. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Fear of being Absorbed A. Groupmind  Loss of personal identity  Inability to exit B. Addiction  Virtual reality is entrancing and addictive  Inability to ‘participate in a meaningful life’ in physical reality 79
  81. 81. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Video Game Addiction: mixed research  Negative  Susceptibility to addiction, player fatigue, etc.  Positive  Physical-world social interaction remains a priority  Ultimately novelty preferred to pleasure, turn away from pleasure-center stimulation out of boredom  Gamers have more grey matter and better brain connectivity  Conclusion  Video games are not only for fun, entertainment, community, and status-garnering, but also for brain development and intelligence amplification: “brainjack our potential”  BCI cloudmind design challenge: produce applications that safely extend our being as humans while balancing risks 80 Source: References cited in Swan, M. The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Cognitive Enhancementing your way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. In review.
  82. 82. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Credit-Assignation and IP Tracking  Blockchain administration of Cloudminds  Cryptographic ledgers unobtrusively track and reward contributions (the smart network’s accounting system)  Privacy  Security  Credit-tracking  Intellectual property licensing 81 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  83. 83. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Blockchain Line-item Tracking  Like “Github (SVN, CVS) for brainstorming”  Unobtrusively track and reward line-item contributions  Deep-learning algorithms automatically transcribe BCI thoughts, like creating a written transcript from Skype calls or YouTube videos  Ideas logged to blockchains with time date-stamped hashes  Line-item contributions tracked in cloudminds  Acknowledging and rewarding new ideas in a trustable annuity stream, an open inconspicuous ledger that facilitates idea generation  Basic research re: genesis of ideas, innovation 82 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  84. 84. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Responsible Technology Adoption  Accommodate a wide range of adoption and non-adoption  Clear pathways to increased engagement  Uncoerced and reversible adoption  Responsible technology design principles  Monitoring ecosystem with external referees  Industry standards bodies (BCIs: IEEE 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) working group)  Security, anti-virus protection, mind-hacking safeguards  Privacy: transparency, opt-out, and monetization selections regarding data collection and use 83 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  85. 85. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement BCI Cloudminds Gradual Adoption Strategies  Share unused brain processing cycles  SETI@home for your brain  Backup, archival, storage  Life-logging, memory-logging  Digital self as opposed to original self  Permissioning limited access to certain domains of the brain and cognitive activity  Demarcating structural borders  Personal connectome files limit cortical access  Limited time blocks (sleep cycles) for mindstream access  Full cloudmind participation: problem-solving, creative-expression, idea-generation 84
  86. 86. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Cognitive Enhancement Agenda 85  Human-Machine Relations  Artificial Intelligence-Intelligence Augmentation  Problem  Defining human identity in the context of machines  Solutions  Biomedical Advance  Personal Identity  Cloudminds  Conclusion
  87. 87. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 86 The future… Image: http://www.sydmead.com
  88. 88. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 87 But wait…Risks and Limitations  Increasing dependence on technology and lack of  Risk mitigation strategies  Responses and resources  EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse)  Large-scale network failure or disruption  Natural or malicious electromagnetic pulse attack (EMP)  Hello Skynet  Backlash due to an overly technologized experience of reality; too much of reality being controlled by technology  Social isolation (increasing suicide rates) Source: Swan, M. (2018). Transhuman Crypto Cloudminds.
  89. 89. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Conclusion  Human-machine relations and the concept of personal identity evolving over time 88 Near-term Medium-term Long-term Future of Work Biomedical Advance Cloudmind
  90. 90. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Multi-species Society  Safe models to support the development and flourishing of each 89 Human Algorithm Machine
  91. 91. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 90 Conclusion Sources: Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of Cognitive Enhancement Technology. Cognitive Science 2015. Hildt, Cognitive Enhancement, 2013; www.nickbostrom.com/cognitive.pdf  Automation Economy  Cognitive offload produces more time for innovation, creativity, and enjoyment, and starts redefining human identity  Biomedical Advance  Ability to work with learning, memory, attention, and disease means new forms of awareness about existence and reality  BCI Cloudminds  Possibility of Brain-Computer Interfaces with continuous connection to the internet and other minds in cloudmind formats
  92. 92. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement What is Cognitive Enhancement? 91 Cognitive enhancement is the amplification or extension of the core capacities of the mind through improvement or augmentation of information processing systems Source: Bostrom, N. and Sandberg, A. (2009). Cognitive Enhancement: Methods, Ethics, Regulatory Challenges. Sci Eng Ethics 15:311–341
  93. 93. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 92 Implications  One near-term challenge is codifying human-machine relations and redefining human identity in the context of the Automation Economy  Biomedical advance is leading to improved understanding and manipulation of cognitive processes which may open up rigid conceptualizations of personal identity to pluralistic models with safeguards
  94. 94. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 93 Implications  One way to expand beyond the unitary limitations of the mind is through cloudmind collaborations that might safely harness the thinking and processing power of multiple human and machine minds  Risks include fear of absorption into virtual reality, over-dependence on technology, and social backlash
  95. 95. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement 94 Theory of Cognitive Enhancement Independent Variables Research Question: How do technology and mindset influence cognitive enhancement? Hypothesis: A sequential evolution of changes in technology and mindset is necessary for cognitive enhancement Cognitive Enhancement Dependent Variable Tools and Techniques Technical Conceptual Shift Social Biomedical Advance Cloudmind Personal Identity 1 2 3 Near-term Long-term Source: Swan, M. (2018). Cognitive Enhancement Theoretical Model.
  96. 96. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Thesis 95 Exceeding current cognitive limitations will require both technological advance and progression in mindset as to the notion of personal identity and its confines, for example to contemplate joining a collaborative mind community since biomedical advance can only do so much so fast
  97. 97. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement The path ahead, our multi-species future… 96 Cognitive Enhancement Artificial Intelligence – Intelligence Augmentation
  98. 98. Mensa World Gathering 2018 Indianapolis IN, July 4, 2018 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Cognitive Enhancement Melanie Swan Philosophy, Purdue University melanie@Cognitive EnhancementStudies.org Artificial Intelligence-Intelligence Augmentation
  99. 99. 4 Jul 2018 Cognitive Enhancement Discussion Questions 98 1. Would you consider joining a Cloudmind (a cloud- based collaboration of human and machine minds)?  Premise: safely harness additional resources 2. What would you want to do in a cloudmind? 1. Solve problems? (math, science, political, social) 2. Pursue creativity? (the Yes-and Cloudmind) 3. Discuss or debate topics of interest? 4. Learn new things? Visit new places? 3. What safeguards would have to be in place? 1. Guaranteed exit and no loss of personal identity 2. Autonomy preserved (cloudmind is not groupmind) ? ?? Source: Swan, M. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind. Journal of Evolution and Technology. 26(2).

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