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  1. 1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) <ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Lauren Berg </li></ul>
  2. 2. About 8% of children in the U.S, have received a diagnosis of ADHD. It's estimated that 4.3% of American children are taking medications to treat the disorder. It's estimated that 4.3% of American children are taking medications to treat the disorder.
  3. 3. Could you have ADHD? <ul><li>Grading System: </li></ul><ul><li>0-not at all </li></ul><ul><li>1-just a little </li></ul><ul><li>2-somewhat </li></ul><ul><li>3-moderately </li></ul><ul><li>4-quite a lot </li></ul><ul><li>5-very much </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. At home, work, or school, I find my mind wandering from tasks that are not interesting or seem difficult. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>2. I find it difficult to read written material unless it is very interesting or very easy. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>3. Especially in groups, I find it hard to stay focused on what is being said in conversations. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>4. I am irritable, and get upset by minor annoyances. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>5. I say things without thinking, and later regret having said them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>6. I have trouble planning in what order to do a series of tasks or activities. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>8. I usually work on more than one project at a time, and fail to finish many of them. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>9. Even when sitting quietly, I am usually moving my hands or feet. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>10. My mind gets so cluttered that it is hard for it to function. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>11. I am unable to stop daydreaming. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Scoring Guide <ul><li>0-19 = Not likely </li></ul><ul><li>20-29 = Borderline </li></ul><ul><li>30-39 = Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>40-50 = Severe </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is ADHD? <ul><li>ADHD appears to be related to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies of neurotransmitters in the brain - particularly Dopamine and Norepinephrine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A smaller right frontal lobe than one of a normal brain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in function in areas of the frontal lobe that affect attention and impulse control. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Types of ADHD <ul><li>Inattentive type , this is known as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactive-impulsive type . </li></ul><ul><li>Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive combination , which is considered to be the worst state of ADHD to have. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ADHD Symptoms <ul><li>Inattentive symptoms include: </li></ul><ul><li>procrastination </li></ul><ul><li>disorganization </li></ul><ul><li>forgetfulness in daily activities </li></ul><ul><li>failure to complete tasks </li></ul><ul><li>frequent shifts in conversation </li></ul><ul><li>not listening to others </li></ul><ul><li>not keeping one's mind on conversations </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty paying attention to details </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity symptoms include:impatiencedifficulty delaying responsesblurting out answers before questions have been completed </li></ul><ul><li>impatiencedifficulty delaying responsesblurting out answers before questions have been completed </li></ul><ul><li>frequently interrupting or intruding on others to the point of causing problems in social or work settingsinitiating conversations at inappropriate times </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty awaiting one's turn </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity symptoms include: </li></ul><ul><li>fidgetinggetting up frequently to walk or run aroundrunning or climbing excessively when it's inappropriatehaving difficulty being quietbeing always on the gotalking excessively </li></ul>
  18. 18. Background <ul><li>First discovered in the 1900’s but wasn’t fully explored until after WWI in the 1940’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>believed it was linked to brain damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As years passed it was thought to be largely genetic/mutations </li></ul><ul><li>1990 believed to be a natural condition </li></ul>
  19. 19. Possible causes of ADHD <ul><li>Genetic Inherence </li></ul><ul><li>During pregnancy, mothers use of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cigarettes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor infant care </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to lead </li></ul>
  20. 20. Diagnosing <ul><li>Three different customs: </li></ul><ul><li>Go through every aspect and angle possible </li></ul><ul><li>Large sequence of tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Rating Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous Performance Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brief rating </li></ul>
  21. 21. ADHD Medications <ul><li>ADHD medications work by increasing the amount of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulant medications are the most common treatment for ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>-There are 2 classes of stimulants: Amphetamines (Adderall, and Vyvanse) and Methylphenidates (Ritalin) </li></ul><ul><li>~Misuse or abuse of these medications may result in serious (possibly fatal) heart and blood pressure problems. </li></ul><ul><li>~Can be habit-forming. </li></ul><ul><li>Strattera is the only non-stimulant approved by the FDA. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The drugs that are being prescribed to our youth are quite similar to the drugs we are trying to rid from our society; such as Speed . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methylphenidates Side effects of Ritalin: Headache, stomach pain, loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness, irritability, nervousness, blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation or (rarely) drowsiness may occur.
  24. 24. Ritalin's major “WARNING” label
  25. 25. Amphetamines Side effects of Adderall XR : Loss of appetite, weight loss, dry mouth, stomach upset/pain, nausea/vomiting, dizziness, headache, diarrhea, fever, nervousness, and trouble sleeping
  26. 26. Strattera <ul><ul><li>-not proven to be as effective as stimulants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-less abused by people that do not have ADHD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-alternative for people that can not tolerate stimulant medications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects: Stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, constipation, fatigue, loss of appetite, dry mouth, dizziness, trouble sleeping, menstrual cycle changes, or mood changes may occur. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. ADHD in the Classroom <ul><li>Some teachers cannot deal with one-on-one time with students so they tend to push stimulants. </li></ul><ul><li>Other teachers try and help students who are less interested in certain subjects instead of using drugs as a first resort. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Alternative treatments <ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visits to a trained counselor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parent Skills Training </li></ul><ul><li>- Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>-elimination of artificial colorings, flavorings, preservatives, and refined carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases levels of neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Benefits of having ADHD <ul><li>Creativeness in the arts, sciences and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Outgoing </li></ul><ul><li>Compassionate </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Forgives mistakes easily </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Takes risks </li></ul>
  30. 30. In conclusion…
  31. 31. Bibliography <ul><li>&quot;Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD) Test.&quot; Phych Central . 6 Mar. 1992. 8 Mar. 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Breggin, P. R. (2001). Talking Back to Ritalin. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Everett, C.A., & Everett, S. V. (1999). Family Therapy for ADHD (pp. 127-163). New </li></ul><ul><ul><li>York: The Guildford Press. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morgan, J. (1997). Hyperthyroidism: Overactivity of the Thyroid Gland. Retrieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>February 11, 2009, from </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter, B.R. (2001). Talking Back to Ritalin: What Doctors Aren’t Telling You About </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants and ADHD (pp. 216-287). Cambridge, MA: Peruses Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Wicks-Nelson, R., & Israel, A. C. (2006). Behavioral Disorders of Childhood (6 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ed., pp. 240-269). New York: Pearson. </li></ul></ul>