Characterizing the Emotional Impacts of Haptic-Enhanced Mobile Media

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  • My name is Amaya Becvar Weddle and I am the UX Research Manager at Immersion Corporation. I’m going to be speaking to you today about a case study we did investigating the emotional impacts of haptic-enhanced media. In the process, I’d like to share some of our discoveries about measuring emotion in user experiences, and my hope is that you will walk away with some insights and new perspectives on emotion in UX studies.I’ll plan to stop periodically throughout the talk and take questions that you may have – and I also have an interactive exercise planned for the end of the session.
  • How many of you know what haptics is? “Haptics” is the study of touch. In technology terms, it refers to tactile feedback technology which takes advantage of the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user.Haptic effects (also known as touch or tactile feedback) are produced by actuators, such as motors, which are built into devices to create vibrations.  These actuators are combined with Immersion software to create haptic sensations, like the feel of a button “click” when you press a virtual button.  Haptics provide a sense of realism and improve the user experience.
  • Rolling Ball Demo
  • The algorithm processes the audio signal from multimedia content playing on a mobile device and converts low frequency audio into haptic feedback in real-time. The resulting signal is then fed into a vibration actuator in a mobile handset, delivering haptic effects that can be felt in the hands of a user as they hold the device while viewing the screen. In this way, the generated tactile feedback is synchronized with the magnitude and frequency of low frequency audio signals. For example, processing the audio track of gunfire may trigger a series of sharp vibrations that synchronize with the loud cracks of the gun.
  • With the proliferation of mobile devices, how people consume media is changing dramatically. People are watching more and more television and video content on mobile devices. So the screens upon which people are commonly consuming this content are shrinking. Immersion was interested in whether we could add value to these experiences by adding another sensory modality to the video experience.
  • We realized in this context, that emotional response was a very important variable to investigate. So I’m going to tell you about how we studied this problem, our findings, and how they impacted our company strategy. I hope you’ll also be able to take away some ideas about how you might use some of these methods for studying emotional response in your own work.
  • Does realism influence emotional response?
  • Before we measure it, we need to define what it is we are talking about
  • One of the most common frameworks in the emotions field proposes that affective experiences are best characterized by two main dimensions: arousal and valence. The dimension of valence ranges from highly positive to highly negative, whereas the dimension of arousal ranges from calming or soothing to exciting or agitating.
  • As a measure of arousal level, we chose to use “phasic” skin conductance measurements. These are characterized with abrupt increases in the skin conductance having discrete “peaks,” a distinctive attack, and a decay signature. These peaks are generally referred to as Skin Conductance Responses (SCRs). Electrodermal activity was captured during the testing sessions.
  • As a measure of arousal level, we chose to use “phasic” skin conductance measurements. These are characterized with abrupt increases in the skin conductance having discrete “peaks,” a distinctive attack, and a decay signature. These peaks are generally referred to as Skin Conductance Responses (SCRs). Electrodermal activity was captured during the testing sessions.
  • As a measure of arousal level, we chose to use “phasic” skin conductance measurements. These are characterized with abrupt increases in the skin conductance having discrete “peaks,” a distinctive attack, and a decay signature. These peaks are generally referred to as Skin Conductance Responses (SCRs). Electrodermal activity was captured during the testing sessions.
  • Tried to make a natural environment where participants could relax as they might in a home or waiting areaThey were instructed to hold the phones in their hands and use the headphones
  • Participants were presented videos within a special app that played the video and timestamped the data for comparison to their biometric readings later.
  • Longitudinal designFirst session, we gave participants a training session where they experienced “Reverb” for the first time on all devices. They also were trained in how to use the equipment and the rating scales/surveys we had them fill out. They then worked independently through a series of 24 video segments of ~1 min. each, and did a series of ratings after each video. Phone order was randomized between participants.We did not use the tonic skin conductance level (SCL) as a variable in the analysis due to the experimental design. To avoid habituation to the video content as much as possible, we showed subjects the repeated video content with a week’s separation. Thus, we compared electrodermal measurements of the same subjects on two different days, and because the SCL can be influenced by long-term physiological states, hydration, skin dryness, and autonomic regulation. SCR are independent of SCL and therefore not affected by long-term influences that cannot be controlled for. Comparing the number of specific SCRs per subject presented a more reliable and replicable measure for comparing affective responses from the same subject on different days.
  • Longitudinal designFirst session, was 90 minutes onsite. We gave participants a training session where they experienced “Reverb” for the first time on all devices. They also were trained in how to use the equipment and the rating scales/surveys we had them fill out. They then worked independently through a series of 24 video segments of ~1 min. each, and did a series of ratings after each video. Phone order was randomized between participants.
  • Longitudinal designFirst session, was 90 minutes onsite. We gave participants a training session where they experienced “Reverb” for the first time on all devices. They also were trained in how to use the equipment and the rating scales/surveys we had them fill out. They then worked independently through a series of 24 video segments of ~1 min. each, and did a series of ratings after each video. Phone order was randomized between participants.
  • The level of involvement was measured by a modified version of the Wells R Scale [17], a research instrument used to assess audience involvement in advertising messages. The instrument asks participants to rate their level of immersion, or feeling of “being there” in the video, as well as their level of emotional involvement with the content. We asked participants to rate on a scale of 1-9 based on how much they agreed with the following statements: “I felt like I was there in the video, experiencing the situation;” and “I really got involved with the emotions provoked by the video.” Finally, we had participants give us a numerical report on the overall quality of experience (QoE) of each video, using these landmarks: 0 – bad, 50 – average, 100 – excellent. Participants were instructed to rate their overall experience while watching videos (i.e. not simply rating the quality of the haptic experience).
  • The waveforms from the EDA recordings were compared to recorded timestamps of when subjects were watching specific videos during each session. The number of SCRs observed during video viewing segments was calculated, using standard thresholds for counting a skin conductance response (SCR) as documented in the literature. We imported the raw data into MATLAB and used an open source toolbox to perform waveform extraction and quantify the number of specific SCRs. Next, a comparison was made between the average number of SCRs per subject recorded as they viewed haptic-enhanced videos versus those recorded while they watched control videos. We did not use the tonic skin conductance level (SCL) as a variable in the analysis due to the experimental design. To avoid habituation to the video content as much as possible, we showed subjects the repeated video content with a week’s separation. Thus, we compared electrodermal measurements of the same subjects on two different days, and because the SCL can be influenced by long-term physiological states, hydration, skin dryness, and autonomic regulation. SCR are independent of SCL and therefore not affected by long-term influences that cannot be controlled for. Comparing the number of specific SCRs per subject presented a more reliable and replicable measure for comparing affective responses from the same subject on different days. 
  • Average skin conductance response rate for each condition. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. The skin conductance response rate was higher (M = 1.9, SD = 0.8) when participants were viewing haptic-enhanced videos as compared to those viewed without haptics (M=1.1, SD = 0.7); (UA=270, z=2.6, p<0.006). Student t-testThis indicates that participants were more physiologically aroused when watching video content with haptic enhancement. Many studies have reported that the arousal dimension of emotion is acritical factor contributing to the emotional enhancement effect on memory.It has also been shown as important in advertising persuasion. So showing that haptics can enhance the arousal dimension is interesting for those who are creating mobile ads.
  • We are seeing “2D” histograms of all the affect reports of all subjects for each of the two conditions. The number of ratings provided for that square of the affect grid are shown as a number and color intensity indicates the number of reports in that square. As you can see, the Reverb ratings were slightly up and to the right as compared to the Control ratings. Looking at the averages…(M = 6.3, SD = 1.3) compared to the control videos (M = 5.8, SD = 1.6). Although the effect size is relatively small, it is statistically significant (UA= 155.0, z=1.64, p < 0.05).  Participants also reported feeling more emotionally aroused after watching audio-haptic enhanced videos (M = 6.1, SD = 1.6) compared to the control videos (M = 5.1, SD = 1.5). The difference in conditions is also statistically significant (UA= 325.5, z=2.63, p < 0.004).
  • (M = 6.3, SD = 1.3) compared to the control videos (M = 5.8, SD = 1.6). Although the effect size is relatively small, it is statistically significant (UA= 155.0, z=1.64, p < 0.05).  Participants also reported feeling more emotionally aroused after watching audio-haptic enhanced videos (M = 6.1, SD = 1.6) compared to the control videos (M = 5.1, SD = 1.5). The difference in conditions is also statistically significant (UA= 325.5, z=2.63, p < 0.004).
  • (M = 6.3, SD = 1.3) compared to the control videos (M = 5.8, SD = 1.6). Although the effect size is relatively small, it is statistically significant (UA= 155.0, z=1.64, p < 0.05).  Participants also reported feeling more emotionally aroused after watching audio-haptic enhanced videos (M = 6.1, SD = 1.6) compared to the control videos (M = 5.1, SD = 1.5). The difference in conditions is also statistically significant (UA= 325.5, z=2.63, p < 0.004).
  • (M = 6.3, SD = 1.3) compared to the control videos (M = 5.8, SD = 1.6). Although the effect size is relatively small, it is statistically significant (UA= 155.0, z=1.64, p < 0.05).  Participants also reported feeling more emotionally aroused after watching audio-haptic enhanced videos (M = 6.1, SD = 1.6) compared to the control videos (M = 5.1, SD = 1.5). The difference in conditions is also statistically significant (UA= 325.5, z=2.63, p < 0.004).
  • The results indicate that participants reported feeling significantly more immersed in the situations portrayed in the haptic-enhanced videos (a feeling of “being there” in the video) (M = 6.8, SD = 1.7) versus the no haptic control videos (M = 5.6, 1.9); (UA= 109, z=2.79, p < 0.003). They also reported a higher level of emotional involvement with the emotions provoked by haptic-enhanced videos (M = 6.6, SD = 2.2) versus no haptic control videos (M = 5.8, SD = 1.6); (UA= 124.5, z=2.4, p < 0.008).
  • The mean QoE of the audio-haptic videos was consistently rated higher than no haptic control videos. Figure 7 depicts this pattern. This result is significant according to the Mann Whitney test (UA=93.5, z=2.87, p <0.002). As participants were instructed to rate their overall experience, small fluctuations in overall score pairs may be attributable to content preferences. When accompanied by audio-haptic enhancement, videos were rated an average 15% higher than the same videos without haptics.
  • Characterizing the Emotional Impacts of Haptic-Enhanced Mobile Media

    1. 1. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Characterizing the emotional impacts of haptic-enhanced mobile media Amaya Becvar Weddle, Ph.D. | UX Research Manager Immersion Corporation, San Jose, CA UXPA 2013 12 JULY
    2. 2. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential What is „haptics?‟ 2 Haptic interfaces simulate real-world tactile interactions Feeling a real bump on a surface Feeling a haptic simulation of a bump on a surface Vs. The study of how people sense their environment through touch OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    3. 3. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Immersion Haptic Technology 3 OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    4. 4. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential A UX Value of Haptics = Realism Multimodal experiences feel more realistic and immersive Haptics can reinforce the illusion of tangible reality Interactions feel natural and intuitive OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    5. 5. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Realism OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    6. 6. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Haptic Video Enhancement Feature OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    7. 7. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Haptic effects generated from audio signal in real-time Audio signal source Haptic output OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS Immersion‟s “Reverb” feature Low frequency, high amplitude
    8. 8. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Mobile video consumption is on the rise The overall time spent watching video on mobile devices (tablets & smartphones) grew by 19% in Q1 2013* *Ooyala Global Video Index Report, June 2013
    9. 9. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential
    10. 10. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential
    11. 11. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential How does haptic- enhancement impact the video viewing experience?
    12. 12. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Hypothesis Mobile video enhanced by haptics is more realistic, immersive, and emotionally involving. OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    13. 13. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Approach Compare emotional response to haptic-enhanced videos versus control videos with no haptics. OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    14. 14. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential What do we mean by emotional response? OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    15. 15. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Valence Arousal OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    16. 16. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    17. 17. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Why is emotion important in UX? In some contexts, usability is less relevant. Sometimes, two experiences are comparable usability- wise, but not emotionally*. Emotion is always part of human experience. *Agarwal, Anshu, and Andrew Meyer. "Beyond usability: evaluating emotional response as an integral part of the user experience." CHI'09 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 2009.
    18. 18. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential How can we measure emotional response in UX studies? OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    19. 19. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Two methods: 1. Self-report 2. Physiological measurements OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    20. 20. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Two methods: 1. Self-report 2. Physiological measurements OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    21. 21. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Self-Report Affect Grid Emo-cards Product Reaction Cards Wells R Scale OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    22. 22. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Self-Report Affect Grid Emo-cards Product Reaction Cards Wells R Scale Russell, James A., Anna Weiss, and Gerald A. Mendelsohn. "Affect grid: a single-item scale of pleasure and arousal." Journal of Personality and Social psychology 57.3 (1989): 493. Benedek, J., & Miner, T. (2002). Measuring desirability: New methods for evaluating desirability in a usability lab setting. Proceedings of UPA 2002 Conference, Orlando, FL, July 8-12, 2002. Desmet, Pieter, Kees Overbeeke, and Stefan Tax. "Designing Products with Added Emotional Value: Development and Appllcation of an Approach for Research Through Design." The design journal 4.1 (2001): 32-47. Wells, W. D. (1986). Three useful ideas. In R. J. Lutz (Ed.), Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 13, pp. 9–12). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research. OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    23. 23. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Self-Report Affect Grid Emo-cards Product Reaction Cards Wells R Scale Russell, James A., Anna Weiss, and Gerald A. Mendelsohn. "Affect grid: a single-item scale of pleasure and arousal." Journal of Personality and Social psychology 57.3 (1989): 493. Benedek, J., & Miner, T. (2002). Measuring desirability: New methods for evaluating desirability in a usability lab setting. Proceedings of UPA 2002 Conference, Orlando, FL, July 8-12, 2002. Desmet, Pieter, Kees Overbeeke, and Stefan Tax. "Designing Products with Added Emotional Value: Development and Appllcation of an Approach for Research Through Design." The design journal 4.1 (2001): 32-47. Wells, W. D. (1986). Three useful ideas. In R. J. Lutz (Ed.), Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 13, pp. 9–12). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research. OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    24. 24. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Self-Report Affect Grid Emo-cards Product Reaction Cards Wells R Scale Russell, James A., Anna Weiss, and Gerald A. Mendelsohn. "Affect grid: a single-item scale of pleasure and arousal." Journal of Personality and Social psychology 57.3 (1989): 493. Benedek, J., & Miner, T. (2002). Measuring desirability: New methods for evaluating desirability in a usability lab setting. Proceedings of UPA 2002 Conference, Orlando, FL, July 8-12, 2002. Desmet, Pieter, Kees Overbeeke, and Stefan Tax. "Designing Products with Added Emotional Value: Development and Appllcation of an Approach for Research Through Design." The design journal 4.1 (2001): 32-47. Wells, W. D. (1986). Three useful ideas. In R. J. Lutz (Ed.), Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 13, pp. 9–12). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research. OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    25. 25. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Self Report – Affect Grid OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    26. 26. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Self Report – Affect Grid x OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    27. 27. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Self Report – Affect Grid x Participants seem to learn to use Affect Grid quickly & intuitively Possible to derive quantitative measures of two dimensions of emotion, allowing for statistical comparisons OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    28. 28. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Self Report – Wells R Scale Emotional Involvement & “Being There” “I felt like I was right there in the video, experiencing the situation.” “I really got involved in the emotions provoked by the video.” Typically used to assess audience involvement in advertising messages OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    29. 29. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Two methods: 1. Self-report 2. Physiological measurements OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    30. 30. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Physiological Measurements Electrodermal Response Heart Rate Facial Expression Temperature OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    31. 31. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Physiological Measurements Electrodermal Response Heart Rate Facial Expression Temperature OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    32. 32. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Physiological Measurements Electrodermal Response • Measure of physiological arousal • # of “peaks” increase in heightened arousal state videos viewed on HD phoneSCR Q Sensor Affectiva, Inc. OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    33. 33. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Study Design OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    34. 34. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential 23 participants Gender balanced Own Android or iOS device 2 years old or less All watch media on smartphone or tablet regularly (2-3 times/week) Study Participants OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS©2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential
    35. 35. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Test Content Movie Trailers Music VideosCommercials User Created 8 videos 40 – 90s in length Downloaded from YouTube OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    36. 36. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Test Content Genre /# Content Movie Trailer 1 “Marvel‟s The Avengers” Movie Trailer 2 “House at the End of the Street” Commercial 1 Budweiser Commercial 2 Mercedes C63 AMG Black Series Music Video 1 “Put Your Graffiti on Me” – Kat Graham Music Video 2 “The Veldt” - Deadmau5 User-Created 1 Skydiving User-Created 2 Motocross race Played on Nexus S smartphones Reverb feature enabled/disabled in counterbalanced presentation OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    37. 37. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Laboratory Set-Up Headphones GSR SensorPaper survey Smartphone OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    38. 38. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Video App OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    39. 39. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Research methodsExperimental Design Training/Baseline Watch 8 videos; do ratings •Haptic Condition •Control Feature Assessments Session 1. OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    40. 40. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Research methodsExperimental Design Training/Baseline Watch 8 videos; do ratings •Haptic Condition •Control Feature Assessments Session 1. Watch video Complete questions Rest period X 8 OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    41. 41. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Research methodsExperimental Design Training/Baseline Watch 8 videos; do ratings •Haptic Condition •Control Feature Assessments Session 1. ~7 days Warm-Up Watch 8 videos; do ratings •Control •Haptic Condition Final Assessments Session 2. Watch video Complete questions Rest period X 8 OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    42. 42. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Research Methods - Data • Physiological measure – arousal (GSR) • Self-Reports • Affect Grid – valence & arousal • Wells R Scale - involvement with content • Quality of Experience (QoE) • Descriptive, qualitative feedback Haptic Enhancement No Enhancement OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    43. 43. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Results OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    44. 44. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Physiological Data EDR OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    45. 45. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Physiological Data Physiological data reflect higher arousal levels in response to videos with Reverb applied. Heightened psychological arousal has been linked to ad effectiveness and persuasion* p = 0.006 Reverb Control *(Sanbonmatsu and Kardes, 1988) OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    46. 46. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Affect Grid Data OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    47. 47. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Avg. Valence = 6.3 Avg. Arousal = 6.1 Avg. Valence = 5.8 Avg. Arousal = 5.1 Affect Grid Data OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    48. 48. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Avg. Valence = 6.3 Avg. Arousal = 6.1 Avg. Valence = 5.8 Avg. Arousal = 5.1 p < 0.05 Affect Grid Data OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    49. 49. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Avg. Valence = 6.3 Avg. Arousal = 6.1 Avg. Valence = 5.8 Avg. Arousal = 5.1 p < 0.05 p < 0.004 Affect Grid Data OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    50. 50. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Emotional Involvement Data Users reported feeling more immersed and more emotionally involved with video content enhanced by haptic effects. “I felt like I was right there in the video, experiencing the situation.” “I really got involved in the emotions provoked by the video.” p < 0.003 p < 0.008 - Reverb - Control OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    51. 51. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential QoE Data QoE ratings on average 15% higher for Reverb videos vs. controls. Quality of Experience - Reverb - Control OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    52. 52. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential “It‟s like the difference of making you want to dance and not dance.” “It was like supplementing or helped me recall true experience. It brought me back to the memory of something, like driving a cool car or skydiving.” “It totally enhances the experience. It kicks it up a notch. I feel like I‟m in a movie theater.” Qualitative Data OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    53. 53. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Haptic Enhanced Mobile Video  More positive and enthusiastic response to video content  Higher level of emotional involvement  Higher quality of experience ratings Summary OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    54. 54. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Haptic Content Strategic Initiative For end-users: Haptics as a value-added feature to mobile experiences For content producers: Haptics as a new medium for creative expression For advertisers: Haptics as a novel mechanism to engage customers For Immersion: A new business unit! Impact OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    55. 55. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Measuring Emotion in User Experiences Type Examples Discussed Advantages (+) Disadvantages (-) Physiological Measures Electrodermal Activity Powerful & persuasive data, “objective” measure Requires rigorous experimental design, very sensitive to exposure, expensive equipment & software, takes significant time & effort to analyze data; arousal, not valence Self-Report Affect Grid, Involvement (Wells R Scale) Easy to train participants to use, arousal & valence, relatively easy to analyze, quantitative analysis possible. Ultimately, a subjective measure; effect size can be hard for subjects to estimate OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    56. 56. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Thank You! aweddle@immersion.com OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    57. 57. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Discussion Interactive Exercise – Using Emotion Measures in UX Imagine using emotion measures in your own UX work. What would represent an ideal outcome? (Your island paradise). What is holding you back from achieving that goal? (Your anchors). OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    58. 58. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Discussion Interactive Exercise – Using Emotion Measures in UX Imagine using emotion measures in your own UX work. What would represent an ideal outcome? (Your island paradise). What is holding you back from achieving that goal? (Your anchors). OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS
    59. 59. © 2013 Immersion Corporation - Confidential Discussion Interactive Exercise – Using Emotion Measures in UX Imagine using emotion measures in your own UX work. What would represent an ideal outcome? (Your island paradise). What is holding you back from achieving that goal? (Your anchors). OVERVIEW | EMOTION| USER STUDY| RESULTS| TAKEAWAYS

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