Class 1 __hist_1_1


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  • Changing orientation of libraries from collection building to access services Electronic sources brings into question the usefulness of the reference desk
  • Ready reference questions - where is…, when did…, what is the purpose of MADD???? . a question that can be answered quickly using 1 or 2 reference sources (events, people, places, organizations) . usually factual . constitutes the majority of the questions in public and academic libraries Bibliographic verification - students come without full citation "Heard about this on the radio" . Search bibliographic tools such as indexes, catalogs, bibliographies, and library catalogs to "verify" that the users information about a document (e.g. a bibliographic citation) is correct and complete . Like putting together the pieces of a puzzle Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery . Electronic bibliographic utilities such as OCLC (Online Computer Library Center), RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network), WLN (Western Library Network) make ILL faster and easier. . Between electronic transfer of files and fax commjunication, most ILL functions are conducted today. -Information and Referral two types: 1. provide info about agencies and make referral 2. Just provide name of agency and info about the agency Computer networks and WWW making the second type of service easier. Research Questions - In SLMC the LMS provides instruction on how to conduct the research rather than actually finding the answer. Fee based/info broker - rarely found in SLMC
  • teach how to use library effectively suggest strategies to be used in locating and evaluating information instruction on the use of specific information sources Types of instruction . one-to-one instruction organization and use of sources is most common topic . taught by demonstration on use, etc. Group instruction . Library tour/orientation program (well known) . Course-related instruction reference sources for a given subject Course integrated instruction - teacher/librarian collaborate, discuss assignment, strategies for meeting . objectives and sources which will help meet objectives (problem-based approach)
  • Guidance . Originally readers' advisory services (1920s and 1930s…died out in 1950s) . Bibliotherapy - requires specialized training . clinical = used by doctors and hospital librarians for emotional and behavioral problems . developmental = school and public libraries to promote self knowledge, personal growth and lifestage growth Term paper counselling or research consultation. often separate function . librarian will list sources to be checked . term paper clinics - group instruction on research skills . Research assistance and consulting . mainly guidance on most effective strategy for search Can be SDI (Selective Dissemination of Information) which is sometimes called “current awareness service” distribution of information as you see it on a topic of the patron’s interest
  • . Questions Questions: Recall your early experiences in a school library setting and how has reference work changed in the past 20 years? . 50-60% of ready reference questions are answered correctly (how do we know when we are unsuccessful?) or What is called the 55% rule. . What is the role of Instruction vs. Information in the K-12 program Future - tools will change/less focus on physical location/more emphasis on accuracy
  • Class 1 __hist_1_1

    1. 1. History and Varieties of Reference Service
    2. 2. The Reference and User Services Association (RUSA), <ul><li>Reference Transactions are information consultations in which library staff recommend, interpret, evaluate, and/or use information resources to help others to meet particular information needs. Reference transactions do not include formal instruction or exchanges that provide assistance with locations, schedules, equipment, supplies, or policy statements. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Reference librarian <ul><li>Link between the user and the source </li></ul><ul><li>Requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Reference Work is: <ul><li>Based on size and characteristics of users (e.g. special library vs. elementary school </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently utilizes reference interview - a structured conversation to define the information need. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes requires that you instruct the user on use of the sources </li></ul><ul><li>Is in a state of radical change </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Past <ul><li>As early as 1876 Samuel Green described the reference process as including information, instruction and guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>1887 Columbia College started first library school </li></ul><ul><li>1900s many public libraries had reference room and were promoting the information function rather than instruction and guidance </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Present <ul><li>networks allow library systems to share materials/resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MeL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology poses problems and opportunities </li></ul>
    7. 7. Technology challenges <ul><li>Can users use technology without help/knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Can library find a way to provide database access at no charge? </li></ul><ul><li>Access to onlline classes </li></ul>
    8. 8. Opportunities <ul><li>Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social networking </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Sources of Information <ul><li>SLM periodical have occasional articles or regular columns on reference services. </li></ul><ul><li>Some well-known devoted solely to Reference services are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RQ (Reference Quarterly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Reference Librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listservs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LIBREF-L may be subscribed to at </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. References Services <ul><li>Information - provides answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ready reference questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and Referral Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fee-based Services and Information Brokering </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Instruction <ul><ul><li>Is a major part of reference service in School Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-one instruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group instruction </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Guidance <ul><ul><li>Assistance provided for a continuing interest or project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually Reader’s Advisory (assure user’s freedom of choice and privacy) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Change <ul><li>Cooperative reference service Instruction on the use of equipment and software </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction on information seeking techniques (Information Literacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and burnout are a factor in the fast paced need for information </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness performance appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>What will future reference service look like? </li></ul>
    14. 14. New Definition of Reference Services <ul><ul><ul><li>combines searching, mediated instruction and assistance (both formal and informal) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Characteristics of the Reference Librarian <ul><li>Nonjudgmental desire to help others </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to shift focus </li></ul><ul><li>General knowledge/Current awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Good memory </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul><ul><li>Joy of the hunt </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul>