Greek Philosophers


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Greek Philosophers

  1. 1. Greek and Hellenistic Philosophers
  2. 2. Greek Philosophers (Lovers of Wisdom) Socrates Socrates was born in the mid 400's B.C He taught philosophy and taught Plato. Before 400 B.C., he began questioning Athenian values, laws, customs, and religion. In 399, he was brought to trial and found guilty of treason to the gods. He was sentenced to death. His teachings were written down by his student, Plato. He was the first to make a clear distinction between the body and soul, placing a higher value on the soul. He had a noble life, and his calm acceptance of death made him a model for other philosophers to follow.
  3. 3. Greek Philosophers (Lovers of Wisdom) Plato Plato, one of the most famous Greek philosophers, was born in Athens. In 403 B.C., democracy was restored to Athens. Plato then tried to get involved in politics, but was repelled again when his friend and teacher Socrates was sentenced to death in 399 B.C. Plato left Athens after Socrates was killed. He returned in 387 B.C., and founded a school of philosophy called the Academy. The Academy was considered the first university by many people. He wrote the republic in which he described a perfectly governed society divided into three groups: Farmers and Artisans; Warriors; and the Ruling Class. In his book the person with Greatest Insight and the best Philosopher was the King.
  4. 4. Greek Philosophers (Lovers of Wisdom) Aristotle Aristotle was born in Stagira. His father was Nichomachus, who was the personal physician to Amyntas II, king of Macedonia. King Amyntas was the grandfather of Alexander the Great. Aristotle's parents died when he was young, so a man named Proxemus raised him as his own. When he was 18, he attended the Academy, where he was a student for 20 years. He was known as "the intelligence of the school" and "reader". In 347 B.C., when Plato died, Aristotle joined a group of Plato's disciples that lived with Hermias, a former Academy student. In 343 or 342 B.C., Philip II of Macedonia asked Aristotle to supervise the education of his son, Alexander, who later conquered Greece. Aristotle returned to Athens in 334 B.C. and founded the Lyceum, a school of philosophy. After Alexander the Great died in 323 B.C., Aristotle was charged with impiety, which was a lack of reverence for the gods, by the Athenian people. The Athenians resented his friendship with Alexander, who conquered them. Aristotle went to Chalcis, remembering similar charges against Socrates in 349 B.C. He died one year later in Chalcis.
  5. 5. The Great Library at Alexandria. Egypt
  6. 6. Library at Alexandria (333B.C.E.)
  7. 7. Hellenistic Philosophers Cynics  Diogenes  ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries.  citizens of the world.  live a humble, simple life. Epicurians  Epicurus  avoid pain & seek pleasure.  all excess leads to pain!  politics should be avoided.
  8. 8. Hellenistic Philosophers Stoics  Zeno  nature is the expansion of divine will.  concept of natural law.  get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good of all.  true happiness is found in great achievements.
  9. 9. Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences Scientists / Mathematicians:  Aristarchus  heliocentric theory.  Euclid  geometry.  Archimedes  pulley.  Ptolemy  geocentric theory.