67576548 e-banking


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67576548 e-banking

  1. 1. E- Banking
  2. 2. ABSTRACT
  3. 3. “Internet banking” refers to systems that enable bank customers to accessaccounts and general information on bank products and services through apersonal computer (PC) or other intelligent device.Internet banking products and services can include wholesale products forCorporate customers as well as retail and fiduciary products for consumers.Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet banking maymirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels.Some examples of wholesale products and services include:* Cash management.* Wire transfer.* Automated clearinghouse (ACH) transactions.* Bill presentment and paymentExamples of retail and fiduciary products and services include:* Balance inquiry.* Funds transfer.* Downloading transaction information.* Loan applications.* Investment activity.* Other value-added services.Other Internet banking services may include providing Internet access as anInternet Service Provider (ISP). The OCC has determined that a national banksubsidiary may provide home banking services through an Internet connectionto the bank’s home banking system and, incidental to that service, may alsoprovide Internet access to bank customers using that service. Historically, bankshave used information systems technology to process checks (item processing), driveATM machines (transaction processing), and produce reports (managements In the past,the computer systems that made the information systems operate were rarely noticed by
  4. 4. customers. Today, Web sites, electronic mail, and electronic bill presentment andpayment systems are an important way for banks to reach their customers.National banks have experimented with various forms of online banking formany years. Some of the early experiments involved closed systems where thecustomers accessed banks through a dial-in or cable TV connection. Thesesystems limited a bank’s potential customer base because they required out-ofareacustomers to either incur long-distance charges on their phone bills orsubscribe to a particular cable TV service to access the bank. With thewidespread growth of the Internet, customers can use this technology anywherein the world to access a bank’s network. The Internet, as an enablingtechnology, has made banking products and services available to morecustomers and eliminated geographic and proprietary systems barriers. Withan expanded market, banks also may have opportunities to expand or changetheir product and service offerings.
  5. 5. Manual Process Customer physically visits the bank Inquires for an existing service or some specific information Leaves The incharge clerk checks the Associated and integrates the the specification and answers the information as needed bank query Customer physically visits Raises a request for new checkbook by filling in the prescribed form the bank Customer makes a The cheque book is sent for The incharge clerk accepts the counter sign manages initials request and prepares the and receives cheque book with respect to the checkbook given specificationWhy the New SystemThe development of the new system contains the following activities which try toautomate the entire process keeping in view of the database integration approach. 1. The administrators have grates accessibility in collecting the consistent information that is very much necessary for the system to exist and coordinate.
  6. 6. 2. The system at any point of time can give the customers information related to their  Accounts and accounts status  The balance enquiry  The fund transfer standards  The cheque book request3.The system can provide information related to the different types of accounts thatare existing within the bank.4.The system can provide the bank administration with information on the number ofcustomers who are existing in the system.5.The system at any point of time can provide the information related to the executedtransactions by the customer.6.The system with respect to the necessities can identify all the history details of thetrial participants along with their outcome of the results.7.The system with respect to the necessities can provide the status of research anddevelopment process that is under schedule within the organization currently.8.With proper storage of the data in a relational environment the system canApplegate itself to cater to the standards of providing a clear and easy path for futureresearch standards that may arise due to organizational policies.
  7. 7. Growth in Internet BankingNumerous factors — including competitive cost, customer service, andDemographic considerations — are motivating banks to evaluate theirtechnology and assess their electronic commerce and Internet bankingstrategies. Many researchers expect rapid growth in customers using onlinebanking products and services. The challenge for national banks is to makesure the savings from Internet banking technology more than offset the costsand risks associated with conducting business in cyberspace.Marketing strategies will vary as national banks seek to expand their marketsand employ lower cost delivery channels. Examiners will need to understandthe strategies used and technologies employed on a bank-by-bank basis toassess the risk. Evaluating a bank’s data on the use of their Web sites, mayhelp examiners determine the bank’s strategic objectives, how well the bank ismeeting its Internet banking product plan, and whether the business is expectedto be profitable.Some of the market factors that may drive a bank’s strategy include thefollowing:Competition — Studies show that competitive pressure is the chief drivingforce behind increasing use of Internet banking technology, ranking ahead ofcost reduction and revenue enhancement, in second and third placerespectively. Banks see Internet banking as a way to keep existing customersand attract new ones to the bank.
  8. 8. Cost Efficiencies — National banks can deliver banking services on the Internetat transaction costs far lower than traditional brick-and-mortar branches. Theactual costs to execute a transaction will vary depending on the deliverychannel used. For example, according to Booz, Allen & Hamilton, as of mid-1999, the cost to deliver manual transactions at a branch was typically morethan a dollar, ATM and call center transactions cost about 25 cents, andInternet transactions cost about a penny. These costs are expected to continueto decline.National banks have significant reasons to develop the technologies that willhelp them deliver banking products and services by the most cost-effectivechannels. Many bankers believe that shifting only a small portion of theestimated 19-billion payments mailed annually in the U.S. to electronicdelivery channels could save banks and other businesses substantial sums ofmoney. However, national banks should use care in making product decisions.Management should include in their decision making the development andongoing costs associated with a new product or service, including thetechnology, marketing, maintenance, and customer support functions. Thiswill help management exercise due diligence, make more informed decisions,and measure the success of their business venture.Geographical Reach — Internet banking allows expanded customer contactthrough increased geographical reach and lower cost delivery channels.In fact some banks are doing business exclusively via the Internet — they donot have traditional banking offices and only reach their customers online.Other financial institutions are using the Internet as an alternative deliverychannel to reach existing customers and attract new customers.
  9. 9. Branding — Relationship building is a strategic priority for many nationalbanks. Internet banking technology and products can provide a means fornational banks to develop and maintain an ongoing relationship with theircustomers by offering easy access to a broad array of products and services.By capitalizing on brand identification and by providing a broad array offinancial services, banks hope to build customer loyalty, cross-sell, andenhance repeat business.Customer Demographics — Internet banking allows national banks to offer awide array of options to their banking customers. Some customers will rely ontraditional branches to conduct their banking business. For many, this is themost comfortable way for them to transact their banking business. Thosecustomers place a premium on person-to-person contact. Other customers areearly adopters of new technologies that arrive in the marketplace. Thesecustomers were the first to obtain PCs and the first to employ them inconducting their banking business. The demographics of banking customerswill continue to change. The challenge to national banks is to understand theircustomer base and find the right mix of delivery channels to deliver productsand services profitably to their various market segments.
  10. 10. Possible Consequence:After Possible ways of gaining unauthorized access to e banking fat client locally storeddata are explained possible consequence of this access are presented.Consequence will be explained as violations of combination information andcryptographic security.Information security can be usally expressed through sop calledCIA triad of confidentiality , integrity, availability.Cryptographic security includesConfidendiality, data integrity authentication and non repudiation.Confidentiality:Confidentiality is a service used to keep the content of information from all but thoseauthorized to have it.Financial data should to private and ebanking application shouldenforce privacy.Authorized access to that local storage where E-banking data is storedwould enable the intruder to read the data. This clearly violates confidentiality.Data Integrity:Data Integrity is a service which addresses the unauthorized alteration of data.E-banking clients must be sure that the data they enter or get through fat clientapplication were not changed in any way on the way to or from the bank. Intrudersthat gain unauthorized access to local e-banking data storage that might be ableto change the data in that storage. In this way data entered through fat clientapplication could be altered before it is sent to the bank.
  11. 11. Availability:Availability is a service that ensures the information system and necessary datasare available for use.When they are needed. Malicious users that gains access toe-banking local storage could make data unavailable without need for anyknowledge about data meaning or structure. Simple deletion or alteration ofrecords or even the whole storage could render the data and application useless.Authentication:Authentication is a service related to identification. This function applies to bothentities and information itself. Only authenticated users should be able to viewfinancial view financial data and monetary transactions. E-banking clients requireauthentication before they can start.Non Repudiation:Non Repudiation is a service which prevents an entity from denying previouscommitments or actions. Banks and its clients should not be able deny transactionsexecuted through an e-banking application. Without proper authentication ensureddata integrity it would be very difficult to prove if bank client actually createdand authorized transaction and even if he did if the transaction data are the samedata that client entered.
  12. 12. Types of Internet BankingUnderstanding the various types of Internet banking products will helpexaminers assess the risks involved. Currently, the following three basic kindsof Internet banking are being employed in the marketplace:C Informational — This is the basic level of Internet banking. Typically,the bank has marketing information about the bank’s products andservices on a stand-alone server. The risk is relatively low, asinformational systems typically have no path between the server and thebank’s internal network. This level of Internet banking can be providedby the bank or outsourced. While the risk to a bank is relatively low,the server or Web site may be vulnerable to alteration. Appropriatecontrols therefore must be in place to prevent unauthorized alterations tothe bank’s server or Web site.C Communicative — This type of Internet banking system allowssome interaction between the bank’s systems and the customer. Theinteraction may be limited to electronic mail, account inquiry, loanapplications, or static file updates (name and address changes). Becausethese servers may have a path to the bank’s internal networks, the risk ishigher with this configuration than with informational systems.Appropriate controls need to be in place to prevent, monitor, and alertmanagement of any unauthorized attempt to access the bank’s internalComptroller’s Handbook 5 InternetBankingnetworks and computer systems. Virus controls also become muchmore critical in this environment.
  13. 13. C Transactional — This level of Internet banking allows customers toexecute transactions. Since a path typically exists between the serverand the bank’s or outsourcer’s internal network, this is the highest riskarchitecture and must have the strongest controls. Customertransactions can include accessing accounts, paying bills, transferringfunds, etc.Number of Modules:The system after careful analysis has been identified to be presented with the followingmodules.1. Employee information module: The module manages the information of all theemployees who practically exist for this organization. Each employee is exclusivelyassociated through a specific department and authorized designation. The modulemanages all the transactional relations that generically arise as and when the system hasbeen executed, upon the requirements.2. Banks Information module: This module specifies the integrated andinterrelation information alert the banks and their branches. The module also specificallystates the different services each bank can provide and integrates itself with customer’saccounts information.3. Customers accounts information module: The module maintains the actualcustomers list that have availed bank accounts upon this system. The module integratesitself with the banks and the types of services the bank can provide.4. Customer transaction module: This module maintains the information related toall the transaction that are executed by the customer upon the E-Banking application. The
  14. 14. module integrates itself with entities like transaction types to check the consistency of thetransaction.5. Fund Transfer module: This module maintains the information related to thefunds that have been transferred by the customer from one of his account to anotheraccount of his own. This module helps the customer in executing the fund transfer without the physical visit to the banks premises.6. Chequebook request module: This module maintains the information relatedand issues by the bank. This module facilitates the customer with requesting thechequebook through online process eradicating the physical
  15. 15. System Requirements: Hardware Specification: Processor : Pentium IV Speed : 1.5 GHz Main Memory : 256 MB Hard Disk Drive : 40 GB Floppy Drive : 1.44 inches Monitor : SVGA Color Keyboard : Multimedia Software Specification: Front-end : PHP 5.0 Back-end : MYSQL 5.2.1 Server : Appache Wampserver2.0 Operating System : windows Xp
  16. 16. User Authentication: Authentication is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) asauthentic, that is, that claims made by or about the thing are true. Authenticating anobject may mean confirming its provenance, whereas authenticating a person oftenconsists of verifying their identity. Authentication depends upon one or moreauthentication factors. To start a session with a system, usually by giving a {user name} and {password}as a means of user {authentication}. The term is also used to mean the ability to access aservice (also called an account), e.g. "Have you been given a login yet?" "Log in/on" isoccasionally misused to refer to starting a session where no authorization is involved, orto access where there is no session involved. Upon entering the program, all users will encounter the “Login Screen”. Eachuser will have a personalized profile and database that is password-protected from otherusers. To begin using Connect, a user must select his/her profile. The user then enterstheir personal password and left-clicks the “Go” button once with their mouse. The usermay also choose to exit the program from here by clicking “Exit”. If a user does not havea profile, s/he must select “New User” from the menu.
  17. 17. Advantage of Internet banking: As per the Internet and Mobile Association of Indias report on online banking 2006,"There are many advantages of online banking. It is convenient, it isnt bound byoperational timings, there are no geographical barriers and the services can be offered at aminiscule cost." Through Internet banking, you can check your transactions at any time of the day, andas many times as you want to. Where in a traditional method, you get quarterlystatements from the bank. If the fund transfer has to be made outstation, where the bankdoes not have a branch, the bank would demand outstation charges. Whereas with thehelp of online banking, it will be absolutely free for you. Security Precautions:Customers should never share personal information like PIN numbers, passwords etcwith anyone, including employees of the bank. It is important that documents that containconfidential information are safeguarded. PIN or password mailers should not be stored,the PIN and/or passwords should be changed immediately and memorised beforedestroying the mailers.Customers are advised not to provide sensitive account-related information overunsecured e-mails or over the phone. Take simple precautions like changing the ATMPIN and online login and transaction passwords on a regular basis. Also ensure that thelogged in session is properly signed out.
  18. 18. Software configuration:FRONT END OF SOFTWARE:Introduction to PHP:PHP is a language that has outgrown its name. It was originally conceived as a set ofmacros to help coders maintain personal home pages, and its name grew from its purpose.Since then, PHPs capabilities have been extended, taking it beyond a set of utilities to afull-featured programming language, capable of managing huge database-driven onlineenvironments. As PHPs capabilities have grown, so too has its popularity. According toNetCraft (http://www.netcraft.com), PHP was running on more than 1 million hosts inNovember 1999. As of February 2000, that figure had already risen to 1.4 million hosts.According to E-Soft, PHP is the most popular Apache module available, beating evenModPerl. PHP is now officially known as PHP: Hyper Text Preprocessor. It is a server-sidescripting language usually written in an HTML context. Unlike an ordinary HTML page,a PHP script is not sent directly to a client by the server; instead, it is parsed by the PHPbinary or module. HTML elements in the script are left alone, but PHP code is interpretedand executed. PHP code in a script can query databases, create images, read and writefiles, talk to remote servers— the possibilities are endless. The output from PHP code is combined with the HTML in the script and theresult sent to the user.
  19. 19. How Did PHP Evolve? The first version of PHP was created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994 as a set of Webpublishing macros. These were released as the Personal Home Page Tools and laterrewritten and extended to include a package called the Form Interpreter (PHP/FI). From ausers perspective, PHP/FI was already an attractive proposition, and its popularity grewsteadily. It also began to attract interest from the developer community. By 1997, a teamof programmers was working on the project. The next release— PHP3— was born out ofthis collaborative effort. PHP3 was aneffective rewrite of PHP, with an entirely new parser created by Zeev Suraski and AndiGutmans, as well as differences in syntax and new features. This release established PHPas one of the most exciting server scripting languages available, and the growth in usagewas enormous. PHPs support for Apache and MySQL further secured its popularity. Apache isnow the most-used Web server in the world, and PHP3 can be compiled as an Apachemodule. MySQL is a powerful free SQL database, and PHP provides a comprehensive setof functions for working with it. The combination of Apache, MySQL, and PHP is all butunbeatable. That isnt to say that PHP is not designed to work in other environments andwith other tools. In fact, PHP supports a bewildering array of databases and servers. The rise in popularity of PHP has coincided with a change of approach in Webpublishing. In the mid-1990s it was normal to build sites, even relatively large sites, withhundreds of individual hard-coded HTML pages. Increasingly, though, site publishers areharnessing the
  20. 20. power of databases to manage their content more effectively and to personalize their sitesaccording to individual user preferences. The use of databases to store content, and of a scripting language to retrieve thisdata, will become further necessary as data is sent from a single source to multipleenvironments, including mobile phones and PDAs, digital television, and broadbandInternet environments. In this context, it is not surprising that a tool of PHPssophistication and flexibility is becoming so popular. At the time of this writing, PHP4 is in its final beta stage and is due for releaseshortly. By the time you read this book, PHP4 will be making waves!Why Choose PHP? There are some compelling reasons to work with PHP4. For many projects youwill find that the production process is significantly faster than you might expect if youare used to working with other scripting languages. As an open source product, PHP4 iswell supported by a talented production team and a committed user community. Furthermore, PHP can be run on all the major operating systems with mostservers.Speed of Development Because PHP allows you to separate HTML code from scripted elements, youwill notice a significant decrease in development time on many projects. In manyinstances, you will be able to separate the coding stage of a project from the design andbuild stages. Not only can this make life easier for you as a programmer, it also canremove obstacles that stand in the way of effective and flexible design.
  21. 21. PHP Is Open Source To many people, "open source" simply means free, which is, of course, a benefitin itself. To quote from the official PHP site at http://www.php.net/: This may sound alittle foreign to all you folks coming from a non-UNIX background, but PHP doesnt costanything. You can use it for commercial and/or non-commercial use all you want. Youcan give it to your friends, print it out and hang it on your wall or eat it for lunch.Welcome to the world of Open Source software! Smile, be happy, the world is good. Forthe full legalese, see the official license.Well-maintained open source projects offer users additional benefits, though. You benefitfrom an accessible and committed community who offer a wealth of experience in thesubject. Chances are that any problem you encounter in your coding can be answeredswiftly and easily with a little research. If that fails, a question sent to a mailing list canyield an intelligent, authoritative response. You also can be sure that bugs will be addressed as they are found, and that newfeatures will be made available as the need is defined. You will not have to wait for thenext commercial release before taking advantage of improvements. There is no vestedinterest in a particular server product or operating system. You are free to make choicesthat suit your needs or those of your clients, secure that your code will run whatever youdecide.Performance Because of the powerful Zend engine, PHP4 compares well with ASP inbenchmark tests, beating it in some tests. Compiled PHP leaves ASP far behind.Portability
  22. 22. PHP is designed to run on many operating systems and to cooperate with manyservers and databases. You can build for a UNIX environment and shift your work to NTwithout a problem. You can test a project with Personal Web Server and install it on aUNIX system running on PHP as an Apache module. MySQLHistory of MySQL We started out with the intention of using MY SQL to connect to our tables usingour own fast low-level (ISAM) routines. However, after some testing, we came to theconclusion that My SQL was not fast enough or flexible enough for our needs. Thisresulted in a new SQL interface to our database but with almost the same API interface asMY SQL. This API was designed to allow third-party code that was written for use withMY SQL to be ported easily for use with My SQL. The derivation of the name My SQL is not clear. Our base directory and a largenumber of our libraries and tools have had the prefix “my” for well over 10 years.However, co-founder Monty Widenius’s daughter is also named My. Which of the twogave its name to MY SQL is still a mystery, even for us. 6 My SQL Technical Referencefor Version 5.0.1-alpha The name of the My SQL Dolphin (our logo) is “Sakila,” whichwas chosen by the founders of MY SQL AB from a huge list of names suggested by usersin our “Name the Dolphin” contest. The winning name was submitted by AmbroseTwebaze, an Open Source software developer from Swaziland, Africa. According toAmbrose, the name Sakila has its roots in SiSwati, the local language of Swaziland.Sakila is also the name of a town in Arusha, Tanzania, near Ambrose’s country of origin,Uganda.
  23. 23. The Main Features of MY SQL The following list describes some of the important characteristics of the My SQLDatabase Software.Internals and Portability • Written in C and C++. • Tested with a broad range of different compilers. • Works on many different platforms. • Uses GNU Automake, Autoconf, and Libtool for portability. • APIs for C, C++, Eiffel, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and Tcl are available. • Fully multi-threaded using kernel threads. It can easily use multiple CPUs • Provides transactional and non-transactional storage engines. • Uses very fast B-tree disk tables (MyISAM) with index compression. • Relatively easy to add another storage engine. This is useful if you want to add an SQL interface to an in-house database. • A very fast thread-based memory allocation system. • Very fast joins using an optimized one-sweep multi-join. • In-memory hash tables, which are used as temporary tables. • SQL functions are implemented using a highly optimized class library and should be as fast as possible. Usually there is no memory allocation at all after query initialization. • The MySQL code is tested with Purify (a commercial memory leakage detector) as well as with Valgrind, a GPL tool (http://developer.kde.org/~sewardj/). • The server is available as a separate program for use in a client/server networked environment. It is also available as a library that can be embedded (linked) into
  24. 24. standalone applications. Such applications can be used in isolation or in environments where no network is available.• Fixed-length and variable-length records.• Statements and Functions• Full operator and function support in the SELECT and WHERE clauses of queries. For example: mysql> SELECT CONCAT(first_name, , last_name)  FROM citizen  WHERE income/dependents > 10000 AND age > 30;• Full support for SQL GROUP BY and ORDER BY clauses. Support for group functions (COUNT(), COUNT(DISTINCT ...), AVG(), STD(), SUM(), MAX(), MIN(), and GROUP_CONCAT()).• Support for LEFT OUTER JOIN and RIGHT OUTER JOIN with both standard SQL and ODBC syntax.• Support for aliases on tables and columns as required by standard SQL.• DELETE, INSERT, REPLACE, and UPDATE return the number of rows that were changed (affected). It is possible to return the number of rows matched instead by setting a flag when connecting to the server.• The MySQL-specific SHOW command can be used to retrieve information about databases, tables, and indexes. The EXPLAIN command can be used to determine how the optimizer resolves a query.• Function names do not clash with table or column names. For example, ABS is a valid column name. The only restriction is that for a function call, no spaces are allowed between the function name and the ‘(’ that follows it.• You can mix tables from different databases in the same query.• Security
  25. 25. • A privilege and password system that is very flexible and secure, and that allows host-based verification. Passwords are secure because all password traffic is encrypted when you connect to a server.• Scalability and Limits• Handles large databases. We use MySQL Server with databases that contain 50 million records. We also know of users who use MySQL Server with 60,000 tables and about 5,000,000,000 rows.• Up to 64 indexes per table are allowed. Each index may consist of 1 to 16 columns or parts of columns. The maximum index width is 1000 bytes (500 before MySQL 4.1.2). An index may use a prefix of a column for CHAR, VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT column types.• Connectivity• Clients can connect to the MySQL server using TCP/IP sockets on any platform. On Windows systems in the NT family (NT, 2000, or XP), clients can connect using named pipes. On Unix systems, clients can connect using Unix domain socket files.• MySQL Technical Reference for Version 5.0.1-alpha• The Connector/ODBC (MyODBC) interface provides MySQL support for client programs that use ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) connections.• For example, you can use MS Access to connect to your MySQL server. Clients can be run on Windows or Unix. MyODBC source is available.• All ODBC 2.5 functions are supported, as are many others.• The Connector/J interface provides MySQL support for Java client programs that use JDBC connections. Clients can be run on Windows or Unix. Connector/J source is available.• Localization• The server can provide error messages to clients in many languages.• All data is saved in the chosen character set. All comparisons for normal string columns are case-insensitive.
  26. 26. • Sorting is done according to the chosen character set (using swedish collation by default). It is possible to change this when the MySQL server is started. To see an example of very advanced sorting, look at the Czech sorting code. MySQL Server supports many different character sets that can be specified at compile time and runtime. • Clients and Tools • All MySQL programs can be invoked with the --help or -? options to obtain online assistance. 4. DESIGN ISSUE Design is the process of translation requirements defined during analysis in toseveral design activities for user consideration, designer, select equipments needed toimplement the system. In this phase, design of the database, input design, code designand output design are considered.SYSTEM DESIGN The design of an information system provided the details state how a systemwhich meet the requirements identified during the system analysis, this stage is oftenreferred to as logical design in contrast to the process of developing program software,which is referred to as physical design, and this also describes the data to input,calculated or stored. Requirement are translated into specification, this system design involve firstlogical design than physical construction of the system.LOGICAL DESIGN
  27. 27. Show the major feature and how they are related to one another, it also specifiesinput box and screen layout for all forms.PHYSICAL DESIGN Logical design produce programs, software, files and working system. 4.1 INPUT DESIGN Input using the process of converting user – oriented handling input specify how data are accepted for computer processing, input design can ensure the reliability of the system output of error ones information, it determines whether the user interact with the computer efficiently. The input design is the link ties the information system into the world of its users. Some aspects of the design vary, depending on whether the system is batch oriented or online. But regardless of the system, there are general input concerns that all analysts should have. Input design consists of developing specifications and procedures for data preparation those steps necessary to put data into a usable form for processing, and data entry, the activity of putting the data into computer for processing. As obviously data from a written or printed document or it can occur by having people key data directly into the system. Four objectives guiding the design of input focus on: • Controlling the amount of input required. • Avoiding delay.
  28. 28. • Controlling errors. • Keeping steps simple.4.2 OUTPUT DESIGN Computer output is the most important and direct source of information to theuser. Designing computer output should proceed in an organized manner. The rightoutput element is designed so that people will find the system easy to use efficiently. • Identify the specific output that is needed to meet the information requirements. • Select methods for presenting information. • Create document, report or other formats that contain information produced by the system. The output from an information system should accomplish one or more of thefollowing objective: • Convey information about past activities, current status. • Signal important events, opportunities and problems. • Trigger an action. • Confirm an action. Output is the main reason for developing the system. The points that have to beconsidered when designing an output are as follows: • Determining what information to present.
  29. 29. • Decide whether to display, or print and select the output medium. • Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format. • Decide how to distribute the output to intended recipients. The arrangement of information on a display or printed document if termed aslayout. The output design is specified as layout form sheets that describe the locationcharacteristics and format of column heading and pagination. Output design of thesystem is concerned with the convergence of information to the end user in a user-friendly manner.CODE DESIGN Coding state encompasses a coding philosophy that stresses simplicity and clarity.The coding design styled followed in the system includes, • Using intonation. Parenthesis, blank space and boards around the block of commands and enhance readability. • Providing standard documentation for each program and unit • Avoiding side effect. • Avoiding use of an identifier for multiple purposes. • Method of data declaration. • Compiling and debugging. • The debugging is very easy.
  30. 30. 4.3 DATABASE DESIGN It is very important the files designed are capable of storing the same informationneeded repetition of filed, (i.e), storing the same information should be kept minimum.That ensures thus the database is considered. This system is developed with some database, each having one table is beinglisted here in order to explain the database. Database design runs parallel without application design. As we calledinformation about what is to be done, we will obviously collect the information what dataneeds to be entered, stored, messaged and printed on the reports, we have to use our dataentry screens and forward what will need to be in our database or pickup the report andwork backward.
  31. 31. Data Flow Diagrams:There are only five symbols that are used in the drawing of business processdiagrams (data flow diagrams). These are now explained, together with the rulesthat apply to them.This diagram represents a banking process, which maintains customer accounts. Inthis example, customers can withdraw or deposit cash, request information abouttheir account or update their account details. The five different symbols used in thisexample represent the full set of symbols required to draw any business processdiagram.External EntityAn external entity is a source or destination of a data flow which is outside the areaof study. Only those entities which originate or receive data are represented on abusiness process diagram. The symbol used is an oval containing a meaningful andunique identifier.
  32. 32. ProcessA process shows a transformation or manipulation of data flows within the system.The symbol used is a rectangular box which contains 3 descriptive elements:Firstly an identification number appears in the upper left hand corner. This isallocated arbitrarily at the top level and serves as a unique reference.Secondly, a location appears to the right of the identifier and describes where in thesystem the process takes place. This may, for example, be a department or a pieceof hardware. Finally, a descriptive title is placed in the centre of the box. This shouldbe a simple imperative sentence with a specific verb, for example maintain customerrecords or find driver.Data FlowA data flow shows the flow of information from its source to its destination. A dataflow is represented by a line, with arrowheads showing the direction of flow.Information always flows to or from a process and may be written, verbal orelectronic. Each data flow may be referenced by the processes or data stores at itshead and tail, or by a description of its contents.Data StoreA data store is a holding place for information within the system:It is represented by an open ended narrow rectangle.Data stores may be long-term files such as sales ledgers, or may be short-termaccumulations: for example batches of documents that are waiting to be processed.Each data store should be given a reference followed by an arbitrary number.Resource FlowA resource flow shows the flow of any physical material from its source to itsdestination. For this reason they are sometimes referred to as physical flows.The physical material in question should be given a meaningful name. Resource flowsare usually restricted to early, high-level diagrams and are used when a descriptionof the physical flow of materials is considered to be important to help the analysis.Data Flow Diagrams – The Rules
  33. 33. SYSTEM DESIGN: System Design transforms a logical representation of a given system intothe physical specification. The specifications are converted into a physical reality duringdevelopment. The design forms a blueprint of the system and how the components relateto each other. The design of the system reflects the strength of the software. Better thedesign; better the quality, efficiency and reliability of the software.System design goes through two phases of development. Logical Design  Physical Design Logical design is concerned with reviewing the current physical system,preparing input specification, preparing output specification, preparing edit and securitycontrol specification, specify the implementation plan, preparing logical walkthrough ofthe information flow, output, input, control and implementation plans and reviewingbenefits, cost, target date and system constraints. Physical design is concerned with specification of input and output media,designing database, specify the backup procedure, designing information flow throughoutthe system. Physical design walkthrough preparing a conversion schedule and a targetdate, determining training procedure, courses and timetable, devising a test andimplementation plan, specifying a new hardware and software and updating benefits,cost, conversion date and system constraints.DESIGN OF INPUT: Input design is the process of converting user originated inputs to acomputer based format. The goal of designing input data to make the data entry as easy,logical and free from errors as possible. The input design details to be considered. • What data to input? • What medium to use?
  34. 34. • How the data should be arranged? • The dialogue to guide user in providing input. • Data items transaction needing a validation to detect errors. • Methods for performing inputs validation and steps to follow when errors occur. The design decisions for handling input specify how data is accepted for computerprocessing. The design of input also includes specifying the means by which users andsystem operators direct the system in which actions to take.DESIGN OF OUTPUT: Computer output is the most important and direct sources of informationto the user. Efficiency, intelligible, output design should improve system’s relationshipwith the user and help in decision making. When designing output, the following shouldbe accomplished. • Determine what information to present. • Decide whether to display, print or speak and select the output media. • Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format.
  35. 35. Database DesignMyacct:S.no Field name Datatype1 id int(11)2 acct varchar(255)3 Card varchar(255)4 name varchar(255)5 depo varchar(255)6 day varchar(255)7 address varchar(255)8 acctype varchar(255)9 mail varchar(255)10 accnomini varchar(255)11 nomadd varchar(255)12 addproof varchar(255)13 other varchar(255)this project makes it project makes it easy for the patients to get theirMRIs
  36. 36. login:doctors with an online sS.no Field name Datatype1 id int(11)2 acct varchar(100)3 card varchar(100)4 name varchar(100)5 pword varchar(100)Service:S.no Field name Datatype1 id int(11)2 acct varchar(100)3 name varchar(100)4 branch varchar(100)5 service varchar(100)6 ser_status varchar(100)
  37. 37. TestingSYSTEM TESTING: The objective of software testing is to uncover errors. To fulfill this objective, aseries of test steps, unit, integration, validation, and system tests are conducted. At lastUAT (User Acceptance Testing) is conducted. Unit and integration tests concentrate onfunctional verification of a module and incorporation of modules into a softwarestructure. Validation testing demonstrates trace ability to software requirements, andsystem testing validates software once it has been incorporated into larger system. Thendebugging is made to clear all errors. AT is conducted in users environment, they givefeedback is system is not to their expectation. They test with the data, with which they areworking and check all the possibilities.TESTING STRATEGIS: •White box testing or Code testing. •Black box testing or Behavioral testing.WHITE BOX TESTING: The code testing strategy checks for the correctness of every statement in theprogram. To follow this testing strategy, there should be test cases that result in executionof every instruction in the program or module; that is every path in the program is tested.The test cases should guarantee that independent paths within a module are executed atleast once. BLACK BOX TESTING: To perform black box testing, the analyst examines the specifications stating whatthe program or module should do and how it should perform under various conditions.
  38. 38. Then, test cases are developed for various conditions and submitted for processing. Byexamining the results, the analyst can examine whether the program performs accordingthe specified requirements.Unit Testing: Instead of testing the system as a whole, unit testing focuses on the modules thatmake up the system. Each module is taken up individually and tested for corrections incoding and logic. Errors resulting from interaction of modules are initially avoided. The advantages of unit testing are Size of a module is quite small that errors can be easily located. Confusing interactions of multiple errors in widely different parts Of the software eliminated. Module level testing can be exhaustive.Integration Testing: The strategies for integrating software component product include the bottom-upstrategy, the top-down strategy and send which strategy careful planning and schedulingare required. To ensure that modules will be available for integration into the evolvingsoftware product when needed. The integration strategy dictates the order in whichmodules must be available & thus exerts a strong influence on the order in whichmodules are written, debugged and unit tested.Validation Testing: At the culmination of integration testing, software is completely assembled as apackage. Interfacing errors have been uncovered and corrected and a final series of
  39. 39. software test-validation testing begins. Validation testing can be defined in many ways,but a simple definition is that validation succeeds when the software functions in mannerthat is reasonably expected by the customer. Software validation is achieved through aseries of black box tests that demonstrate conformity with requirement. After validationtest has been conducted, one of two conditions exists.• The function or performance characteristics confirm to specifications and areaccepted.• A validation from specification is uncovered and a deficiency created. Deviation or errors discovered at this step in this project is corrected prior tocompletion of the project with the help of the user by negotiating to establish a methodfor resolving deficiencies. Thus the proposed system under consideration has been testedby using validation testing and found to be working satisfactorily. Though there weredeficiencies in the system they were not catastrophic.User Acceptance Testing: User acceptance of the system is key factor for the success of any system. Thesystem under consideration is tested for user acceptance by constantly keeping in touchwith prospective system and user at the time of developing and making changeswhenever required. This is done in regarding to the following points.
  40. 40. Screen Shot:User Main Page:
  41. 41. Login Page:
  42. 42. Customer’s Details:
  43. 43. Transaction Details:
  44. 44. Service Request:
  45. 45. Check Book Request:
  46. 46. Admin Part:Customer’s details:
  47. 47. Service Request:
  48. 48. Conclusion:E Banking is becoming immensely popular globally, and India is no exception to it. Thedeclining Internet rates, falling PC prices, broad bandwidth access through cable anddigital subscriber lines, accessing the NET through cable TV etc., would definitely encourage the boom in EBanking in India. With the globalization of business and services, our country cannot lagbehind in niche areas of Electronic Banking. In the new global era of multi currency,multi-legal and multi regulatory systems, with the freedom of E-Commerce, banks haveto operate like multinational corporations to grow and survive by adopting E banking.