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Classification
LOs
•Define and describe the binomial system of
naming species
•Classify the five main classes and describe...
Starter: Place the following organisms
into groups of your choosing.

ClickBiology
ClickBiology
Dolphins and sharks

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmLYGzlPL

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjFqO16w_

ClickBiology
Whales and sharks

Whales and sharks both live in the sea, and could be
considered to look quite similar. However, they ar...
What is a species?
A group of
organisms that look
the same

A group of
organisms that look
different but can
breed

A grou...
What is a species?
A huge variety of organisms live on our planet.
Scientists have put living things into groups to make t...
The grouping together of
animals is called classification.
A group of similar organisms is
called a taxon. The study of
cl...
The importance of habitat
Sometimes organisms with a recent common ancestor live in
different environments. They may evolv...
Living in similar habitats
• Organisms that are not closely related
may share several features
• They have to solve the sa...
Closely related species can look very different
• The share certain characteristics and are classified close
together but ...
Problems with classifying species

Sometimes it is not easy to classify organisms into species.
Bacteria usually reproduce...
Problems with classifying species
Mules are hybrids, made by breeding a donkey with a horse.

+

=

Most are infertile, bu...
62 chromosomes

44 chromosomes

53 chromosomes

ClickBiology
Linnaeus (1707-1778)

ClickBiology
Binomial classification
The classification system that scientists
use today was developed by
Carl Linnaeus in the 18th cen...
Evolution and classification
Classification enables us to explore the evolutionary origins of
an organism.
Two organisms i...
Evolutionary trees
An evolutionary tree represents the evolutionary relationship
between organisms. Organisms with recent ...
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

ClickBiology
ClickBiology
Prokaryotes
• Unicellular
• Microscopic
• No nuclear membrane

ClickBiology
Protoctista
• Eukaryotes
• Mainly single cells.

ClickBiology
Plantae
• Multicellular eukaryotes
• Photosynthetic
• Cellulose cell wall.

ClickBiology
Fungi
• Heterotrophic eukaryotes
• Rigid cell wall of chitin
• Reproduce by spores

ClickBiology
Animalia

•
•
•
•

Heterotropic
Multicellular eukaryotes
No cell wall
Nervous coordination

ClickBiology
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

ClickBiology
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
ClickBiology
Animal phylums

ClickBiology
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates)
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Cli...
Classes of vertebrates

Fish

Amphibians

Birds

Mammals

Reptiles

ClickBiology
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates)
Class : Mammals
Order
Family
Genus
S...
Orders
Primates
Proboscidia

Rodentia

Carnivora

ClickBiology
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates)
Class : Mammals
Order: Primates
Fami...
Family

ClickBiology
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates)
Class : Mammals
Order: Primates
Fami...
Genus
Pan

Pongo

Gorilla

Homo

ClickBiology
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates)
Class : Mammals
Order: Primates
Fami...
Species

ClickBiology
Hierarchical classification system
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates)
Class : Mammals
Order: Primates
Fami...
Evolutionary tree – mammals
This evolutionary tree shows some examples of mammals.
platypus
opossum
cow
human
chimp
monkey...
Mnemonics to help you remember
the taxons
King
penguins
Climb
Over
Frozen
Grassy
Slopes
ClickBiology
Mnemonics to help you remember
the taxons
King
Prawn
Curry
Or
Fat
Greasy
Sausages
ClickBiology
Plantae
• Multicellular eukaryotes
• Photosynthetic
• Cellulose cell wall.

ClickBiology
Flowering plants are classified into two
groups:
Monocotyledonous plants
1 cotyledon
strap like leaves
parallel veins
flow...
Flowering plants are classified into two
groups:
Dicotyledonous plants
2 cotyledons
broad leaves
branching veins
flower pa...
Which plant is a monocotyledon and
which is a dicotyledon?

dicotyledon

monocotyledon

ClickBiology
What about micro-organisms?

ClickBiology
Bacteria are single celled organisms
• Bacteria cells are about 1/1000th the size of animal or
plant cells.
cell membrane
...
Prokaryotes
• Unicellular
• Microscopic
• No nuclear membrane

ClickBiology
The main body of a fungus is the
mycelium, which is made of hyphae
• Fungal cells have cell walls made of substances
such ...
Viruses are not classified as living
things as they are not made of cells
• Viruses are very small, approximately 100nm
ac...
Viruses reproduce by invading other
cells
White blood cell (lymphocyte)

6. New viruses
leave the cell
5. Virus cores
are ...
Using the book (Pg 5, 6 ,7)…
Practice at Classifying
different Invertebrates…
EXT: Make a Key to identify unknown
organism...
Biological classification:
Kingdom
Phylum

Chordata

Class
Taxonomic
ranks

Animalia

Mammalia

Order

Carnivore

Family

...
The binomial system gives organisms a two word
name showing the genus and species
Genus

species Genus

Panthera leo

spec...
There are other classification systems:
• Cladistics:
Based on similarity and differences
between DNA and RNA sequences

A...
You will need to be able to:
• Define and describe the binomial system of naming
species
• Use a dichotomous key to identi...
Keys use a series of questions to identify
unknown organisms
cap

Identify the fungus
1. Stalk does not have a frill
Stalk...
Now you should be able to
• Define and describe the
binomial system of naming
species
• Use a dichotomous key to
identify ...
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Classification and Keys

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Classification and Keys

  1. 1. Classification LOs •Define and describe the binomial system of naming species •Classify the five main classes and describe their features •Use simple dichotomous keys based on features ClickBiology
  2. 2. Starter: Place the following organisms into groups of your choosing. ClickBiology
  3. 3. ClickBiology
  4. 4. Dolphins and sharks • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmLYGzlPL • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjFqO16w_ ClickBiology
  5. 5. Whales and sharks Whales and sharks both live in the sea, and could be considered to look quite similar. However, they are entirely different species: whales sharks have lungs have gills warm-blooded give birth to live young cold-blooded mammal fish lay eggs Whales and sharks look similar because they have developed structures such as fins and a streamlined body to help them to live in the sea environment. ClickBiology
  6. 6. What is a species? A group of organisms that look the same A group of organisms that look different but can breed A group of organisms that can breed A group of similar organisms that are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring ClickBiology
  7. 7. What is a species? A huge variety of organisms live on our planet. Scientists have put living things into groups to make them easier to identify. This is called classification. Organisms can be classified into different species. A species is a group of similar organisms that are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. So far, scientists have identified around 290,000 species of plants, 1,250,000 species of animals and 5 million species of bacteria living on our planet. ClickBiology
  8. 8. The grouping together of animals is called classification. A group of similar organisms is called a taxon. The study of classification is called taxonomy. ClickBiology
  9. 9. The importance of habitat Sometimes organisms with a recent common ancestor live in different environments. They may evolve quite differently, even though their DNA is similar. The Galapagos Islands are home to many species of finch that all evolved from a recent common ancestor. However, today the finch species have different features to help them survive on their particular islands. Some finches have beaks that are best for eating fruit, while others have beaks adapted to eating seed or insects. This varies according to what the main source of food is on the island where they live. ClickBiology
  10. 10. Living in similar habitats • Organisms that are not closely related may share several features • They have to solve the same environmental problems Belong to the phylum Cnidaria Belong to the phylum Mollusca ClickBiology
  11. 11. Closely related species can look very different • The share certain characteristics and are classified close together but live in very different habitats. • Habitats determine their features Arctic fox lives in the arctic Fennec fox lives in the desert ClickBiology
  12. 12. Problems with classifying species Sometimes it is not easy to classify organisms into species. Bacteria usually reproduce asexually. However, our definition of ‘species’ is based on organisms that can breed together. This definition therefore does not work for bacteria. Many common duck species can breed together to produce hybrids. There have been over 400 types of duck hybrid recorded. These are often fertile, and can breed with each other or the native ducks, producing ducks with a variety of characteristics. ClickBiology
  13. 13. Problems with classifying species Mules are hybrids, made by breeding a donkey with a horse. + = Most are infertile, but occasionally female mules do mate with donkeys or horses to produce offspring. This does not fit with our definition of species, and makes it hard to classify the animals. ClickBiology
  14. 14. 62 chromosomes 44 chromosomes 53 chromosomes ClickBiology
  15. 15. Linnaeus (1707-1778) ClickBiology
  16. 16. Binomial classification The classification system that scientists use today was developed by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. This system is known as binomial classification. It uses Latin names, so scientists around the world can use the same names without confusion. The first part of an organism’s scientific name is its genus, and the second part is the species. e.g. Tyrannosaurus rex Genus species ClickBiology
  17. 17. Evolution and classification Classification enables us to explore the evolutionary origins of an organism. Two organisms in the same genus are generally very similar, and are therefore likely to share an ancestor in the recent past. For example, the genus Canis includes dogs, jackals and wolves. Two organisms in the same kingdom (e.g. dogs and spiders) share some characteristics, but are different in many ways. Consequently, their common ancestor is likely to be in the distant past. ClickBiology
  18. 18. Evolutionary trees An evolutionary tree represents the evolutionary relationship between organisms. Organisms with recent common ancestors are closer together on the tree. Scientists use the following evidence to construct evolutionary trees:  genetics and DNA  fossil records  the structures of organisms  patterns of embryonic development. ClickBiology
  19. 19. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species ClickBiology
  20. 20. ClickBiology
  21. 21. Prokaryotes • Unicellular • Microscopic • No nuclear membrane ClickBiology
  22. 22. Protoctista • Eukaryotes • Mainly single cells. ClickBiology
  23. 23. Plantae • Multicellular eukaryotes • Photosynthetic • Cellulose cell wall. ClickBiology
  24. 24. Fungi • Heterotrophic eukaryotes • Rigid cell wall of chitin • Reproduce by spores ClickBiology
  25. 25. Animalia • • • • Heterotropic Multicellular eukaryotes No cell wall Nervous coordination ClickBiology
  26. 26. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species ClickBiology
  27. 27. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom : Animalia Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species ClickBiology
  28. 28. Animal phylums ClickBiology
  29. 29. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates) Class Order Family Genus Species ClickBiology
  30. 30. Classes of vertebrates Fish Amphibians Birds Mammals Reptiles ClickBiology
  31. 31. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates) Class : Mammals Order Family Genus Species ClickBiology
  32. 32. Orders Primates Proboscidia Rodentia Carnivora ClickBiology
  33. 33. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates) Class : Mammals Order: Primates Family Genus Species ClickBiology
  34. 34. Family ClickBiology
  35. 35. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates) Class : Mammals Order: Primates Family : Hominidae Genus Species ClickBiology
  36. 36. Genus Pan Pongo Gorilla Homo ClickBiology
  37. 37. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates) Class : Mammals Order: Primates Family : Hominidae Genus : Homo Species ClickBiology
  38. 38. Species ClickBiology
  39. 39. Hierarchical classification system Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata (vertebrates) Class : Mammals Order: Primates Family : Hominidae Genus : Homo Species: Homo sapiens ClickBiology
  40. 40. Evolutionary tree – mammals This evolutionary tree shows some examples of mammals. platypus opossum cow human chimp monkey mouse rat horse Which animal is most closely related to the human? Which animal is most closely related to the horse? Which animal branched out from the others furthest back in evolutionary time? dog ClickBiology
  41. 41. Mnemonics to help you remember the taxons King penguins Climb Over Frozen Grassy Slopes ClickBiology
  42. 42. Mnemonics to help you remember the taxons King Prawn Curry Or Fat Greasy Sausages ClickBiology
  43. 43. Plantae • Multicellular eukaryotes • Photosynthetic • Cellulose cell wall. ClickBiology
  44. 44. Flowering plants are classified into two groups: Monocotyledonous plants 1 cotyledon strap like leaves parallel veins flower parts divisible by 3 example: kaffir lily ClickBiology
  45. 45. Flowering plants are classified into two groups: Dicotyledonous plants 2 cotyledons broad leaves branching veins flower parts divisible by 4 or 5 ClickBiology
  46. 46. Which plant is a monocotyledon and which is a dicotyledon? dicotyledon monocotyledon ClickBiology
  47. 47. What about micro-organisms? ClickBiology
  48. 48. Bacteria are single celled organisms • Bacteria cells are about 1/1000th the size of animal or plant cells. cell membrane cytoplasm DNA no nucleus, DNA is one long strand kept in the cytoplasm cell wall made of peptidoglycans slime capsule ClickBiology
  49. 49. Prokaryotes • Unicellular • Microscopic • No nuclear membrane ClickBiology
  50. 50. The main body of a fungus is the mycelium, which is made of hyphae • Fungal cells have cell walls made of substances such as chitin mushroom sporangium containing spores spores produced here hyphae of mushroom mycelium Mucor growing on moist bread hyphae of Mucor mycelium: Secrete digestive enzymes ClickBiology
  51. 51. Viruses are not classified as living things as they are not made of cells • Viruses are very small, approximately 100nm across (1nm = 1/1000 000 of a mm) 10nm proteins of the virus coat RNA cross section of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ClickBiology
  52. 52. Viruses reproduce by invading other cells White blood cell (lymphocyte) 6. New viruses leave the cell 5. Virus cores are made in the cytoplasm 1. Virus attaches to cell membrane 2. Virus RNA enters cell 3. DNA copy of the RNA is made 4. Nucleus makes copies of the virus RNA ClickBiology
  53. 53. Using the book (Pg 5, 6 ,7)… Practice at Classifying different Invertebrates… EXT: Make a Key to identify unknown organisms…? ClickBiology
  54. 54. Biological classification: Kingdom Phylum Chordata Class Taxonomic ranks Animalia Mammalia Order Carnivore Family Felidae Genus Panthera Species Panthera pardus pardus ClickBiology
  55. 55. The binomial system gives organisms a two word name showing the genus and species Genus species Genus Panthera leo species Panthera tigris Genus species Panthera pardus ClickBiology
  56. 56. There are other classification systems: • Cladistics: Based on similarity and differences between DNA and RNA sequences AAAA Extended AGAA AACA AGTA AGGA ClickBiology
  57. 57. You will need to be able to: • Define and describe the binomial system of naming species • Use a dichotomous key to identify an unknown organism ClickBiology
  58. 58. Keys use a series of questions to identify unknown organisms cap Identify the fungus 1. Stalk does not have a frill Stalk has a frill 2. Stem is brown Stem is yellow frill go to 2 go to 3 Fungus A Fungus B 3. Cap has spots Cap does not have spots go to 4 Fungus C 4. Cap is red Cap is brown Fungus D Fungus E ClickBiology
  59. 59. Now you should be able to • Define and describe the binomial system of naming species • Use a dichotomous key to identify an unknown organism ClickBiology

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