The true or false and essay type of test

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The true or false and essay type of test

  1. 1. The True or False Type of Test One in which a correct response must be chosen from two alternatives.True or False is essentially a two-choice item which one is the correct answer. There are three forms of true and false: 1. Simple - two choices only 2. Complex - more than two choices 3. Compound - two choices plus conditional completion response. Example: True or False Water will boil at a higher temperature if more heat is applied to container. Advantages: It gives highly reliable scores. It answers many questions in a short time. It is relatively easy to construct. It provides accurate scoring. It provides an objective measurement of student ability. Rules for Constructing True or False Test Items Rule 1: Base true-false items upon statements that are absolutely true or false, without qualifications or expectations. Rule 2: Express the item statement as simply and as clearly as possible. Rule 3: Express a single idea in each test item. Rule 4: Include enough background infomation and qualifications. Rule 5: Avoid lifting statements from the text, lecture or other materials. Rule 6: Avoid double negatives. Rule 7: Avoid the use of unfamiliar vocabulary. Rule 8: Avoid the use of specific determinants. TRUE/FALSE TESTS (SHOOTING QUESTIONS) A TRUE FALSE ITEM CONSISTS OF A STATEMENT OR PROPOSITION WHICH THE EXAMINEE MUST JUDGE AND MARK AS EITHER TRUE OR FALSE ADVANTAGES • IT TAKES LESS TIME TO CONSTRUCT TRUE FALSE ITEMS • HIGH DEGREE OF OBJECTIVITY • TEACHER CAN EXAMINE STUDENTS ON MORE MATERIAL LIMITATIONS • HIGH DEGREE OF GUESING • LARGELY LIMITED TO LEARNIGNOUTCOMES IN THE KNOWLEDGE AREA • THEY EXPOSE STUDENTS TO ERROR WHICH IS PSYCHOLOGICALLY UNDESIREABLE • THEY MAY ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO STUDY AND ACCEPT ONLY OVERSIMPLIFIED STATEMENTS OF TRUTH ANS FACTUAL LEARNING SUGGESTIONS • BALANCE BETWEEN TRUE AND FALSE ITEMS • EACH STATEMENT SHOULD BE UNEQUIVOCALLY TRUE OR FALSE. IT SHOULD NOT BE PARTLY TRUE OR PARTLY FALSE • DOUBLE NEGATIVES SHOULD BE AVOIDED • LONG AND COMPLEX STATEMENTS SHOULD NOT BE USED AS THEY MEASURE READING COMPREHENSIONCONT… • ONLY ONE IDEA SHOULD BE MEASURED IN ONE STATEMENT • EXPLAIN WHICH JUDGEMENT IS TO BE USED TRUE/FALSE, YES/NO, CORRECT/INCORRECT
  2. 2. • CLUES SHOULD BE AVOIDED • STATEMENTS SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN DIRECTLY FROM THE TEXTBOOK Pros and Cons of True-False Test Items PROS CONS Can ask more questions for greater coverage of material Does not allow test takers to demonstrate broad range of knowledge Can cover a wide range of difficulty levels Is difficult to construct effective true-false items that test higher levels of learning Usually requires less time for test takers to answer Encourages guessing due to 50/50 chance of being correct Usually easily graded and scored Is easily faked, difficult to test attitudes toward learning TYPES OF ESSAY TEST SELECTIVE RECALL (BASIS GIVEN) • EVALUATION RECALL (BASIS GIVEN) • COMPARISON OF TWO THINGS ON A SINGLE DESIGNATED BASIS • COMPARISON OF TWO THINGS IN GENERAL • DECISIONS (FOR AND AGAINST) • EXPLANATION OF THE USE EXACT MEANING OF SOME WORD, PHRASE OR STATEMENTCONT.. • SUMMARY OF SOME UNIT OF THE TEXT OR OF SOME ARTICLE • ANALYSIS • ILLUSTRATIONS OR EXAMPLES • APPLICATION OF RULES, LAWS, OR PRINCIPLES TO NEW SITUATIONS • DISCUSSIONS • CRITICISM • INFRENTIAL THINKING (W.S. MONROE AND R. E. CARTER)NORMAN E. GRONLUND • RESTRICTED RESPONSE QUESTIONS • EXTENDED RESPONSE QUESTIONS
  3. 3. ADVANTAGES • CAN MEASURE COMPLEX LEARNING OUTCOMES • EMPAHASIZE INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION OF THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING • CAN BE EASILY CONSRUCTED • EXAMINEE FREE TO RESPOND • NO GUESSING AS IN OBJECTIVE ITEMCONT… • REQUIRE LESS TIME FOR TYPING, DUPLICATING OR PRINTING, CAN BE WRITTEN ON BOARD • CAN BE USED AS DEVICE FOR MEASURING AND IMPROVING LANGUAGE AND EXPRESSION SKILLS LIMITATIONS LACK OF CONSISTENCY IN JUDGEMENTS EVEN AMONG COMPETENT EXAMINERS • THEY HAVE HOLO EFFECT • QUESTION TO QUESTION CARRY EFFECT • EXAMINEE TO EXAMINEE CARRY EFFECT • LANGUAGE MECHANIC EFFECT • LIMITED CONTENT VALIDITYCONT… • SOME EXAMINERS ARE TOO STRICT AND SOME ARE TOO LINIENT • DIFFICULT TO SCORE OBJECTIVELY • TIME CONSUMING • LANGTHY ENUMERATION OF MEMORIZED FACTS SUGGESTIONS FOR CONSRUCTION OF ESSaY TESTS • ASK QUESTIONS THAT REQUIRE THE EXAMINEE TO SHOW COMMAND OF ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE • MAKE QUESTIONS AS EXPLICIT AS POSSIBLE • SHOULD BE NO CHOICE IN QUESTIONIN QUESTION PAPER • TEST CONSTRUCTOR SHOULD PREPARE IDEAL ANSWERS TO ALL QUESTIONS • INTIMATE THE EXAMINEE ABOUT DESIRED LANGTH OF THE ANSWERSCONT…
  4. 4. • MAKE EACH QUESTION RELATIVELY SHORT BUT INCREASE NUMBER OF QUESTIONS • TEST CONSTRUCTOR SHOULD GET HIS TEST REVIEWD Y ONE AO MORE COLLEAGUES • QUESTIONS SHOULD BE SO WORDED THAT ALL EXAMINEES INTERPRET THEM IN THE SAME WAY AS THE EXAMINER WANTS SUGGESTIONS FOR SCORING ESSAY TESTS • PREPARE SCORING GUIDE IN THE FORM OF OUTLINE • PARTICULAR QUESTION SHOULD BE SCORED AT ONE TIME OF ALL THE EXAMINEES • TO AVOID HOLO EFFECT, IDENTITY OF THE EXAMINEE SHOULD NOT BE COMMUNICATED TO THE EXAMINER • IF POSSIBLE APPOINT MORE THAN ONE EXAMINERS. THE EXAMINERS SHOULD NOT KNOW WHO IS THE OTHER EXAMINER • THE CORRECTNESS OF THE SUBJECT MATTER SHOULD NOT BE MIXED WITH THE GOOD HANDWRITING, BETTER LANGUAGE, IF THEY ARE TO BE GIVEN ANY WEIGHT, IT SHOULD BE CLEARLY INDICATEDSHORT ANSWER TYPE TESTS • SHORT ANSWER ITEMS REQUIRES THE EXAMINEE TO RESPOND TO THE ITEM WITH A WORD, SHORT PHRASE, NUMBER OR A SYMBOL. (ANTHONY J. NITKO) CHARACTERISTICS • THE TEST HAS SUPPLY RESPONSE RATHER THAN SELECT OR IDENTIFY • IN THE FORM OF QUESTION OR INCOMPLETE STATEMENT • THE TEST CAN BE ANSWERED BY A WORD, A PHRASE, A NUMBER OR SYMBOL
  5. 5. Pros and Cons of Essay Test Items PROS CONS Can test complex learning objectives Usually takes more time to answer Can test processes used to answer the question such as the ability to integrate ideas and synthesize information Can be unreliable in assessing the entire content of a course or topic area Requires use of writing skills, correct spelling, and grammar Essay answers are often written poorly because test takers may not have time to organize and proofread answers Can provide a more realistic and generalizable task for test Is typically graded or scored more subjectively; non-test related information may influence scoring process Usually takes less time to construct Requires special effort to be graded in an objective manner Is more difficult for test takers to guess correct answer Requires more time to grade or score Guidelines for Using Multiple Choice or True-False Test Items It is generally best to use multiple-choice or true-false items when: You want to test the breadth of learning because more material can be covered with this format. You want to test different levels of learning. You have little time for scoring. You are not interested in evaluating how well a test taker can formulate a correct answer. You have a clear idea of which material is important and which material is less important. You have a large number of test takers.
  6. 6. Guidelines for Using Essay Test Items It is generally best to use essay items when: You want to evaluate a persons ability to formulate a correct answer. You want to assess a peoples ability to express themselves in writing and writing is an important aspect of the job. You have time to score the essay items thoroughly. You feel more confident about your ability to read written answers critically than to construct effective multiple-choice items. You want to test a persons ability to apply concepts and information to a new situation. You have a clear idea of the most important information and concepts that should be tested.

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