The True or False Type of Test
One in which a correct response must be chosen from two alternatives.True or False is essentially a two-choice item which one is
the correct answer.
There are three forms of true and false:
1. Simple - two choices only
2. Complex - more than two choices
3. Compound - two choices plus conditional completion response.
Example: True or False
Water will boil at a higher temperature if more heat is applied to container.
It gives highly reliable scores.
It answers many questions in a short time.
It is relatively easy to construct.
It provides accurate scoring.
It provides an objective measurement of student ability.
Rules for Constructing True or False Test Items
Rule 1: Base true-false items upon statements that are absolutely true or false, without qualifications or expectations.
Rule 2: Express the item statement as simply and as clearly as possible.
Rule 3: Express a single idea in each test item.
Rule 4: Include enough background infomation and qualifications.
Rule 5: Avoid lifting statements from the text, lecture or other materials.
Rule 6: Avoid double negatives.
Rule 7: Avoid the use of unfamiliar vocabulary.
Rule 8: Avoid the use of specific determinants.
A TRUE FALSE ITEM CONSISTS OF A
STATEMENT OR PROPOSITION
WHICH THE EXAMINEE MUST JUDGE
AND MARK AS EITHER TRUE OR
• IT TAKES LESS TIME TO CONSTRUCT
TRUE FALSE ITEMS
• HIGH DEGREE OF OBJECTIVITY
• TEACHER CAN EXAMINE STUDENTS
ON MORE MATERIAL
• HIGH DEGREE OF GUESING
• LARGELY LIMITED TO
LEARNIGNOUTCOMES IN THE
• THEY EXPOSE STUDENTS TO ERROR
WHICH IS PSYCHOLOGICALLY
• THEY MAY ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO
STUDY AND ACCEPT ONLY
OVERSIMPLIFIED STATEMENTS OF TRUTH
ANS FACTUAL LEARNING
• BALANCE BETWEEN TRUE AND FALSE
• EACH STATEMENT SHOULD BE
UNEQUIVOCALLY TRUE OR FALSE. IT
SHOULD NOT BE PARTLY TRUE OR
• DOUBLE NEGATIVES SHOULD BE
• LONG AND COMPLEX STATEMENTS
SHOULD NOT BE USED AS THEY MEASURE
• ONLY ONE IDEA SHOULD BE MEASURED
IN ONE STATEMENT
• EXPLAIN WHICH JUDGEMENT IS TO BE
USED TRUE/FALSE, YES/NO,
• CLUES SHOULD BE AVOIDED
• STATEMENTS SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN
DIRECTLY FROM THE TEXTBOOK
Pros and Cons of True-False Test Items
Can ask more questions for greater
coverage of material
Does not allow test takers to demonstrate
broad range of knowledge
Can cover a wide range of difficulty levels Is difficult to construct effective true-false
items that test higher levels of learning
Usually requires less time for test takers to
Encourages guessing due to 50/50 chance
of being correct
Usually easily graded and scored Is easily faked, difficult to test attitudes
TYPES OF ESSAY TEST
SELECTIVE RECALL (BASIS GIVEN)
• EVALUATION RECALL (BASIS GIVEN)
• COMPARISON OF TWO THINGS ON A
SINGLE DESIGNATED BASIS
• COMPARISON OF TWO THINGS IN
• DECISIONS (FOR AND AGAINST)
• EXPLANATION OF THE USE EXACT
MEANING OF SOME WORD, PHRASE OR
• SUMMARY OF SOME UNIT OF THE TEXT
OR OF SOME ARTICLE
• ILLUSTRATIONS OR EXAMPLES
• APPLICATION OF RULES, LAWS, OR
PRINCIPLES TO NEW SITUATIONS
• INFRENTIAL THINKING
(W.S. MONROE AND R. E. CARTER)NORMAN E.
• RESTRICTED RESPONSE QUESTIONS
• EXTENDED RESPONSE QUESTIONS
• CAN MEASURE COMPLEX LEARNING
• EMPAHASIZE INTEGRATION AND
APPLICATION OF THINKING AND
• CAN BE EASILY CONSRUCTED
• EXAMINEE FREE TO RESPOND
• NO GUESSING AS IN OBJECTIVE ITEMCONT…
• REQUIRE LESS TIME FOR TYPING,
DUPLICATING OR PRINTING, CAN BE
WRITTEN ON BOARD
• CAN BE USED AS DEVICE FOR
MEASURING AND IMPROVING
LANGUAGE AND EXPRESSION
LACK OF CONSISTENCY IN JUDGEMENTS
EVEN AMONG COMPETENT EXAMINERS
• THEY HAVE HOLO EFFECT
• QUESTION TO QUESTION CARRY EFFECT
• EXAMINEE TO EXAMINEE CARRY EFFECT
• LANGUAGE MECHANIC EFFECT
• LIMITED CONTENT VALIDITYCONT…
• SOME EXAMINERS ARE TOO STRICT
AND SOME ARE TOO LINIENT
• DIFFICULT TO SCORE OBJECTIVELY
• TIME CONSUMING
• LANGTHY ENUMERATION OF
CONSRUCTION OF ESSaY
• ASK QUESTIONS THAT REQUIRE THE
EXAMINEE TO SHOW COMMAND OF
• MAKE QUESTIONS AS EXPLICIT AS
• SHOULD BE NO CHOICE IN QUESTIONIN
• TEST CONSTRUCTOR SHOULD PREPARE
IDEAL ANSWERS TO ALL QUESTIONS
• INTIMATE THE EXAMINEE ABOUT
DESIRED LANGTH OF THE ANSWERSCONT…
• MAKE EACH QUESTION RELATIVELY
SHORT BUT INCREASE NUMBER OF
• TEST CONSTRUCTOR SHOULD GET HIS
TEST REVIEWD Y ONE AO MORE
• QUESTIONS SHOULD BE SO WORDED
THAT ALL EXAMINEES INTERPRET THEM
IN THE SAME WAY AS THE EXAMINER
SCORING ESSAY TESTS
• PREPARE SCORING GUIDE IN THE FORM
• PARTICULAR QUESTION SHOULD BE
SCORED AT ONE TIME OF ALL THE
• TO AVOID HOLO EFFECT, IDENTITY OF
THE EXAMINEE SHOULD NOT BE
COMMUNICATED TO THE EXAMINER
• IF POSSIBLE APPOINT MORE THAN ONE
EXAMINERS. THE EXAMINERS SHOULD
NOT KNOW WHO IS THE OTHER
• THE CORRECTNESS OF THE SUBJECT
MATTER SHOULD NOT BE MIXED
WITH THE GOOD HANDWRITING,
BETTER LANGUAGE, IF THEY ARE TO
BE GIVEN ANY WEIGHT, IT SHOULD
BE CLEARLY INDICATEDSHORT ANSWER TYPE
• SHORT ANSWER ITEMS REQUIRES
THE EXAMINEE TO RESPOND TO THE
ITEM WITH A WORD, SHORT PHRASE,
NUMBER OR A SYMBOL.
(ANTHONY J. NITKO)
• THE TEST HAS SUPPLY RESPONSE
RATHER THAN SELECT OR IDENTIFY
• IN THE FORM OF QUESTION OR
• THE TEST CAN BE ANSWERED BY A
WORD, A PHRASE, A NUMBER OR
Pros and Cons of Essay Test Items
Can test complex learning objectives Usually takes more time to answer
Can test processes used to answer the
question such as the ability to integrate
ideas and synthesize information
Can be unreliable in assessing the entire
content of a course or topic area
Requires use of writing skills, correct
spelling, and grammar
Essay answers are often written poorly
because test takers may not have time to
organize and proofread answers
Can provide a more realistic and
generalizable task for test
Is typically graded or scored more
subjectively; non-test related information
may influence scoring process
Usually takes less time to construct Requires special effort to be graded in an
Is more difficult for test takers to guess
Requires more time to grade or score
Guidelines for Using Multiple Choice or True-False Test Items
It is generally best to use multiple-choice or true-false items when:
You want to test the breadth of learning because more material can be covered with this
You want to test different levels of learning.
You have little time for scoring.
You are not interested in evaluating how well a test taker can formulate a correct answer.
You have a clear idea of which material is important and which material is less important.
You have a large number of test takers.
Guidelines for Using Essay Test Items
It is generally best to use essay items when:
You want to evaluate a persons ability to formulate a correct answer.
You want to assess a peoples ability to express themselves in writing and writing is an
important aspect of the job.
You have time to score the essay items thoroughly.
You feel more confident about your ability to read written answers critically than to
construct effective multiple-choice items.
You want to test a persons ability to apply concepts and information to a new situation.
You have a clear idea of the most important information and concepts that should be