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  1. 1. Energy Systems for Exercise Presenter: Ms. Lea Green
  2. 2. The human body is made to move in many ways: <ul><li>Quick and powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Graceful & coordinated </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained for many hours </li></ul><ul><li>And is dependent upon the capacity to produce energy </li></ul>
  3. 3. We have a great amount of diversity <ul><li>Quick movements-lasts a few seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced speed-lasts for several minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced intensity(50%)-lasts for several hours </li></ul><ul><li>The body uses different energy systems for each activity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cells in the body need energy to function FOOD=ENERGY (E)
  5. 5. Cells don’t get Energy directly from food, it must be broken down into: ATP -Adensosine TRIphosphate ATP = a form of energy one can immediately use, it is needed for cells to function & muscles to contract
  6. 6. Nutrients that give us energy: <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>Digestion Absorbed into the blood & transported to cells (muscle, liver & nerve) They are used to produce ATP or stored
  7. 7. <ul><li>ATP is stored in small amounts, therefore the rest is stored as: </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose = Glycogen (muscle & liver) </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty Acids = Body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids = Growth, repair or excreted as waste </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Predominant Energy Pathways </li></ul><ul><li>ATP (2-3 seconds) </li></ul><ul><li>ATP-CP Energy System (8-10 seconds) </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic Energy System (2-3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic Energy System (3 minutes +) </li></ul>
  9. 9. 0 sec 4 sec 10 sec 1.5 min 3 min + Strength – Power: power lift, shot put, golf swing Sustained Power: sprints, fast breaks, football Anaerobic Power – Endurance: 200-400 m dash, 100 m swim Aerobic Endurance: Beyond 800 m run Immediate/short-term Aerobic-oxidative non-oxidative systems system
  10. 10. ATP-CP Energy System <ul><li>ATP is stored in the muscle & liver for “Quick Energy” </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve impulses trigger breakdown of ATP into ADP </li></ul><ul><li>ADP = Adenosine Diphosphate & 1 Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>The splitting of the Phosphate bond = Energy for work </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Muscle Contraction, Moving hand from a hot stove, Jumping & Throwing </li></ul>
  11. 11. The ATP Molecule Adenosine Adenosine Energy a. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) b. The breakdown of ATP: P P P P P P ATP = ADP + energy for biological work + P (ADP = Adenosine Diphosphate) Energy for cellular function
  12. 12. For contractions to continue… ATP must be REBUILT This comes from the splitting of CP (Creatine Phosphate a Hi energy source, automatic) When ATP is used – it is rebuilt – as long as there is CP Energy released from CP breaking down, resynthesizes the ADP & P
  13. 13. REMEMBER – only small amounts of ATP are stored = only 2-3 sec. of Energy ATP-CP = 8-10 sec. of Energy The usefulness isn’t the AMOUNT of Energy but the QUICK & POWERFUL movements For longer periods of work = The Aerobic & Anaerobic Energy System must be utilized
  14. 14. The Immediate Resynthesis of ATP by CP Creatine P Creatine P Energy High energy bond a. Creatine Phosphate (CP) b. CP = Creatine + energy for resynthesis of ATP + P Adenosine P P P c. ADP + energy from CP + P = ATP (reversal of ATP = ADP + P + energy for work)
  15. 15. Anaerobic Energy System <ul><li>Without oxygen = Activities that require a large burst of energy over a short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic Glycolysis = Production of ATP from Carbohydrates without oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>(breakdown of glucose) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Since glycogen is stored in the muscle & liver, it is available quickly This system provides ATP when ATP-CP runs out Again, ATP-CP lasts for a few seconds, the Anaerobic Energy System allows for 2-3 minutes of work
  17. 17. <ul><li>The process to produce ATP is not as fast as ATP-CP, which makes muscle contraction slower </li></ul><ul><li>When oxygen is not present the end product of glycolisis is lactic acid, which causes the muscles to fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic Glycolisis is less efficient in producing ATP than Aerobic Glycolisis, BUT is needed for a large burst of energy lasting a few minutes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Without Oxygen Glucose = 2ATP + 2LA (digested component of carbohydrates) Glycogen = 3ATP + 2LA (the storage form of glucose)
  19. 19. With Oxygen Glucose + O2 = 36ATP + H2O + CO2 Fatty Acids + O2 = 129ATP Body Fat is a great source of ENERGY
  20. 20. <ul><li>Oxygen Deficit = The body can not supply enough O2 to the muscles that the muscles demand </li></ul><ul><li>When the muscle does not get enough oxygen, exhaustion is reached causing immediate and involuntary reduction in intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen Debt = “pays back” the deficit </li></ul><ul><li> recovery time </li></ul>
  21. 21. Aerobic Energy System <ul><li>With Oxygen = Using large muscle groups continuously over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic Glycolisis & Fatty Acid Oxidation = The production of ATP from Carbohydrates & Fat </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>O2 enters the system, stopping the breakdown of glycogen to lactic acid </li></ul><ul><li>With oxygen, glycogen breaks down into: ATP + CO2 + H20 </li></ul><ul><li>These byproducts are easier to get rid of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO2 is expelled by the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H20 is used in the muscle </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 4.Anaerobic Energy System = Carbohydrates are the only fuel source 5.With prolonged exercise, Carbohydrates are the first fuel choice, as exercise continues, FAT becomes predominant 6.Protein is not a main fuel source except in an emergency
  24. 24. <ul><li>Each system plays an important role in energy production </li></ul><ul><li>This gives us a variety of movements </li></ul><ul><li>The systems interact to supply Energy for the activity </li></ul>
  25. 25. Examples Anaerobic 70-80% Anaerobic Aerobic 20-30% Aerobic Wt. Training Stop & Go Sports Jogging Gymnastics Tennis Marathons Football Soccer Cycling Baseball Field Hockey Aerobic Dance
  26. 26. Shelton State Wellness Center PED 223 Methods of Instruction