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Introduction To Survey Research 1204374176684974 5 (1)

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Introduction To Survey Research 1204374176684974 5 (1)

  1. 1. Lecture 1 Survey Research & Design in Psychology James Neill, 2010 Introduction to Survey Research
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Types of research
  3. 3. Survey research characteristics
  4. 4. Purposes of survey research
  5. 5. Goals of survey research
  6. 6. Pros and cons
  7. 7. Summary </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Research
  9. 9. Types of Research ( Research Methods ) There are 3 main research methods: <ul><li>Experimental
  10. 10. Quasi-experimental
  11. 11. Non-experimental </li></ul>Surveys and questionnaires may be applied in each type of research.
  12. 12. Types of Research - Experimental Characterised by: <ul><li>Random assignment
  13. 13. Control over extraneous variables
  14. 14. Powerful method, but can be difficult to do and may not be ecologically valid </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Research - Quasi-experimental Characterised by: <ul><li>Use of “naturally occuring” groups e.g., fans of different football codes
  16. 16. Non-random assignment
  17. 17. Control over some extraneous variables e.g., use criteria for selecting codes and fans </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Research - Non-experimental Characterised by: <ul><li>No “groups” or “conditions” are used e.g., students at a university
  19. 19. Minimal control over extraneous variables </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Research - Non-experimental Characterised by: <ul><li>No “groups” or “conditions” are used e.g., students at a university
  21. 21. Minimal control over extraneous variables </li></ul>
  22. 22. Quiz question 1 What type of research is the following? A researcher seeks to survey community attitudes to eating non-traditional meat (e.g. venison, kangaroo). <ul><li>Experimental
  23. 23. Quasi-experimental
  24. 24. Non-experimental </li></ul>
  25. 25. Quiz question 2 What type of research is the following? A researcher conducts a study in which the study habits of university students who regularly use marijuana are compared with uni students who do not regular use marijuana. <ul><li>Experimental
  26. 26. Quasi-experimental
  27. 27. Non-experimental </li></ul>
  28. 28. Quiz question 3 What type of research is the following? A researcher randomly allocates volunteers to either a morning or evening exercise routine and measures their sleep patterns. <ul><li>Experimental
  29. 29. Quasi-experimental
  30. 30. Non-experimental </li></ul>
  31. 31. Survey Research Characteristics
  32. 32. History of survey research <ul><li>Survey research methodology was initially developed in the 1940's – 1960's.
  33. 33. Since the 1980's, theories and principles evolved to create a unified perspective on the design, conduct, and evaluation of surveys ( survey science ). </li></ul>
  34. 34. Some Fields Which Use Survey Research Field Examples Demographics Census Marketing Customer satisfation Politics Polls Psychology Attitudes, Emotions Sociology Social trends
  35. 35. Some Psychological Topics in Survey Research <ul><li>Attitudes and opinions: o/55's feelings about extending retirement age
  36. 36. Behaviours: extent to which households recycle
  37. 37. Motivations: reasons for attending university
  38. 38. Emotions: Levels of stress and anxiety
  39. 39. Satisfaction: Custom experiences </li></ul>
  40. 40. Survey research characteristics <ul><li>Usage : Surveys are widely used in the social sciences.
  41. 41. Systematic : Follows specific procedures based on survey science and the scientific method.
  42. 42. Types : Often presented as interviews or questionnaires. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Survey research characteristics <ul><li>Impartial sampling: Units are selected from the population without prejudice or preference and so as to be representative.
  44. 44. Data : Often quantitative, but can be qualitative.
  45. 45. Replicable : Other people using the same methods are likely to get essentially the same results </li></ul>
  46. 46. Purposes of Survey Research
  47. 47. Purposes of Survey Research There are two broad purposes of survey-based research:
  48. 48. Purposes of Survey Research – Information Gathering The goal is to gather information e.g., <ul><li>polls
  49. 49. census
  50. 50. customer satisfaction
  51. 51. attitudes </li></ul>
  52. 52. Purposes of Research – Theory Testing & Building The goal is to test and build theory e.g., <ul><li>Personality and social psychology theories </li></ul> Often surveys do some info gathering and some theory testing.
  53. 53. Survey Research Purposes Further consider four possible purposes of survey research: Exploratory Descriptive Explanatory Predictive
  54. 54. Survey Research Purposes - Exploratory The goal is to discover and explore phenomena e.g., “ What psychological issues are being experienced by survivors of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004?”
  55. 55. Survey Research Purposes - Descriptive The goal is to describe phenomena e.g., <ul><li>Consumer profiles (age, gender)
  56. 56. Working conditions (hours, pay) </li></ul>
  57. 57. Survey Research Purposes - Explanatory The goal is to explain phenomena by looking at the relations between, and patterns amongst, variables e.g., <ul><li>“ Are extraverts happier than introverts? Why? ( or why not?) </li></ul>
  58. 58. Survey Research Purposes - Predictive The goal is to be able to make accurate/useful predictions – i.e., what will happen?, e.g., <ul><li>“ Does a couple’s length of time together prior to having children predict relationship satisfaction after having children?” </li></ul>
  59. 59. Quiz question 4 What is the purpose of this study? A researcher surveys conducts an ethnographic study to investigate what its like to live as a member of a particular religious commune. <ul><li>Exploratory
  60. 60. Descriptive
  61. 61. Explanatory
  62. 62. Predictive </li></ul>
  63. 63. Quiz question 5 What is the purpose of this study? A researcher surveys community attitudes to eating non-traditional meat (e.g. venison, kangaroo). <ul><li>Exploratory
  64. 64. Descriptive
  65. 65. Explanatory
  66. 66. Predictive </li></ul>
  67. 67. Quiz question 6 What is the purpose of this study? A researcher surveys student attitudes towards attending lectures and tutorial and also measures the Big 5 personality variables. <ul><li>Exploratory
  68. 68. Descriptive
  69. 69. Explanatory
  70. 70. Predictive </li></ul>
  71. 71. Pros and Cons
  72. 72. Advantages of Survey-Based Research <ul><ul><li>Ecological validity
  73. 73. Access to wide range of participants
  74. 74. Potentially large amounts of data
  75. 75. May be more ethical (than experiments) </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Disadvantages of Survey-Based Research <ul><ul><li>Lack of control -> less internal validity
  77. 77. Data may be 'superficial'
  78. 78. Can be costly to obtain representative data
  79. 79. Self-report data only
  80. 80. Potentially low compliance rates </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Survey Research Exercise (Part of Quiz 1) Worth 50% of Quiz 1 (~1% overall) Deadline: Midnight, Sunday 28th February, 2010
  82. 82. Survey Research Exercise Start a new forum thread and post : <ul><li>Descriptive title/subject line
  83. 83. APA style reference and link to an openly-available survey-based research study in the psychological sciences
  84. 84. 1-para summary of the survey research method
  85. 85. 1-para summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the survey-based research method
  86. 86. Approx. 250 to 300 words </li></ul>
  87. 87. Summary
  88. 88. Summary - 1 <ul><ul><li>Three main types of research: experimental, quasi-experimental, or non-experimental.
  89. 89. Survey research is often non-experimental, using interviews or questionnaires.
  90. 90. Survey research is characterised by its systemic approach to sampling representative units. </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Summary - 2 <ul><ul><li>Two main purposes of research are info gathering and theory testing/building (and both).
  92. 92. Four research goals are: exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, or predictive goals. </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Summary - 3 Survey research pros: <ul><li>ecological validity
  94. 94. efficiency </li></ul>Cons include: <ul><li>lack of control over extraneous variables,
  95. 95. low compliance, and
  96. 96. reliance on self-report data. </li></ul>
  97. 97. References Backstrom, C. H., & Hursh-César, G. (1981). Survey research (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

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