Introduction To Survey Research 1204374176684974 5 (1)

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  • 7126/6667 Survey Research & Design in Psychology Semester 1, 2010, University of Canberra, ACT, Australia James T. Neill http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7126 http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Survey_research http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7126/Lecture+-+Survey+Research
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg License: Public domain Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg License: CC-BY-A 2.5 Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/File:Nuvola_apps_edu_science.svg License: GFDL
  • Answer: Non-experimental
  • Answer: Experimental
  • Answer: Quasi-experimental
  • Groves et al. (2004)
  • Partially based on Backstrom & Hursh-C é sar (1981, pp. 3-4)
  • Partially based on Backstrom & Hursh-C é sar (1981, pp. 3-4)
  • Information-gathering Theory testing and building
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thumb_up_icon.svg License: GFDL
  • Exploratory Descriptive Explanatory Predictive
  • Answer: Exploratory
  • Answer: Descriptive
  • Answer: Its debatable whether this study has an explanatory or predictive purpose. More information needed.
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  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crystal_Clear_action_edit_remove.png License: GFDL
  • http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Survey_research_and_design_in_psychology/Overview
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crystal_Clear_action_edit_remove.png License: GFDL
  • Introduction To Survey Research 1204374176684974 5 (1)

    1. 1. Lecture 1 Survey Research & Design in Psychology James Neill, 2010 Introduction to Survey Research
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Types of research
    3. 3. Survey research characteristics
    4. 4. Purposes of survey research
    5. 5. Goals of survey research
    6. 6. Pros and cons
    7. 7. Summary </li></ul>
    8. 8. Types of Research
    9. 9. Types of Research ( Research Methods ) There are 3 main research methods: <ul><li>Experimental
    10. 10. Quasi-experimental
    11. 11. Non-experimental </li></ul>Surveys and questionnaires may be applied in each type of research.
    12. 12. Types of Research - Experimental Characterised by: <ul><li>Random assignment
    13. 13. Control over extraneous variables
    14. 14. Powerful method, but can be difficult to do and may not be ecologically valid </li></ul>
    15. 15. Types of Research - Quasi-experimental Characterised by: <ul><li>Use of “naturally occuring” groups e.g., fans of different football codes
    16. 16. Non-random assignment
    17. 17. Control over some extraneous variables e.g., use criteria for selecting codes and fans </li></ul>
    18. 18. Types of Research - Non-experimental Characterised by: <ul><li>No “groups” or “conditions” are used e.g., students at a university
    19. 19. Minimal control over extraneous variables </li></ul>
    20. 20. Types of Research - Non-experimental Characterised by: <ul><li>No “groups” or “conditions” are used e.g., students at a university
    21. 21. Minimal control over extraneous variables </li></ul>
    22. 22. Quiz question 1 What type of research is the following? A researcher seeks to survey community attitudes to eating non-traditional meat (e.g. venison, kangaroo). <ul><li>Experimental
    23. 23. Quasi-experimental
    24. 24. Non-experimental </li></ul>
    25. 25. Quiz question 2 What type of research is the following? A researcher conducts a study in which the study habits of university students who regularly use marijuana are compared with uni students who do not regular use marijuana. <ul><li>Experimental
    26. 26. Quasi-experimental
    27. 27. Non-experimental </li></ul>
    28. 28. Quiz question 3 What type of research is the following? A researcher randomly allocates volunteers to either a morning or evening exercise routine and measures their sleep patterns. <ul><li>Experimental
    29. 29. Quasi-experimental
    30. 30. Non-experimental </li></ul>
    31. 31. Survey Research Characteristics
    32. 32. History of survey research <ul><li>Survey research methodology was initially developed in the 1940's – 1960's.
    33. 33. Since the 1980's, theories and principles evolved to create a unified perspective on the design, conduct, and evaluation of surveys ( survey science ). </li></ul>
    34. 34. Some Fields Which Use Survey Research Field Examples Demographics Census Marketing Customer satisfation Politics Polls Psychology Attitudes, Emotions Sociology Social trends
    35. 35. Some Psychological Topics in Survey Research <ul><li>Attitudes and opinions: o/55's feelings about extending retirement age
    36. 36. Behaviours: extent to which households recycle
    37. 37. Motivations: reasons for attending university
    38. 38. Emotions: Levels of stress and anxiety
    39. 39. Satisfaction: Custom experiences </li></ul>
    40. 40. Survey research characteristics <ul><li>Usage : Surveys are widely used in the social sciences.
    41. 41. Systematic : Follows specific procedures based on survey science and the scientific method.
    42. 42. Types : Often presented as interviews or questionnaires. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Survey research characteristics <ul><li>Impartial sampling: Units are selected from the population without prejudice or preference and so as to be representative.
    44. 44. Data : Often quantitative, but can be qualitative.
    45. 45. Replicable : Other people using the same methods are likely to get essentially the same results </li></ul>
    46. 46. Purposes of Survey Research
    47. 47. Purposes of Survey Research There are two broad purposes of survey-based research:
    48. 48. Purposes of Survey Research – Information Gathering The goal is to gather information e.g., <ul><li>polls
    49. 49. census
    50. 50. customer satisfaction
    51. 51. attitudes </li></ul>
    52. 52. Purposes of Research – Theory Testing & Building The goal is to test and build theory e.g., <ul><li>Personality and social psychology theories </li></ul> Often surveys do some info gathering and some theory testing.
    53. 53. Survey Research Purposes Further consider four possible purposes of survey research: Exploratory Descriptive Explanatory Predictive
    54. 54. Survey Research Purposes - Exploratory The goal is to discover and explore phenomena e.g., “ What psychological issues are being experienced by survivors of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004?”
    55. 55. Survey Research Purposes - Descriptive The goal is to describe phenomena e.g., <ul><li>Consumer profiles (age, gender)
    56. 56. Working conditions (hours, pay) </li></ul>
    57. 57. Survey Research Purposes - Explanatory The goal is to explain phenomena by looking at the relations between, and patterns amongst, variables e.g., <ul><li>“ Are extraverts happier than introverts? Why? ( or why not?) </li></ul>
    58. 58. Survey Research Purposes - Predictive The goal is to be able to make accurate/useful predictions – i.e., what will happen?, e.g., <ul><li>“ Does a couple’s length of time together prior to having children predict relationship satisfaction after having children?” </li></ul>
    59. 59. Quiz question 4 What is the purpose of this study? A researcher surveys conducts an ethnographic study to investigate what its like to live as a member of a particular religious commune. <ul><li>Exploratory
    60. 60. Descriptive
    61. 61. Explanatory
    62. 62. Predictive </li></ul>
    63. 63. Quiz question 5 What is the purpose of this study? A researcher surveys community attitudes to eating non-traditional meat (e.g. venison, kangaroo). <ul><li>Exploratory
    64. 64. Descriptive
    65. 65. Explanatory
    66. 66. Predictive </li></ul>
    67. 67. Quiz question 6 What is the purpose of this study? A researcher surveys student attitudes towards attending lectures and tutorial and also measures the Big 5 personality variables. <ul><li>Exploratory
    68. 68. Descriptive
    69. 69. Explanatory
    70. 70. Predictive </li></ul>
    71. 71. Pros and Cons
    72. 72. Advantages of Survey-Based Research <ul><ul><li>Ecological validity
    73. 73. Access to wide range of participants
    74. 74. Potentially large amounts of data
    75. 75. May be more ethical (than experiments) </li></ul></ul>
    76. 76. Disadvantages of Survey-Based Research <ul><ul><li>Lack of control -> less internal validity
    77. 77. Data may be 'superficial'
    78. 78. Can be costly to obtain representative data
    79. 79. Self-report data only
    80. 80. Potentially low compliance rates </li></ul></ul>
    81. 81. Survey Research Exercise (Part of Quiz 1) Worth 50% of Quiz 1 (~1% overall) Deadline: Midnight, Sunday 28th February, 2010
    82. 82. Survey Research Exercise Start a new forum thread and post : <ul><li>Descriptive title/subject line
    83. 83. APA style reference and link to an openly-available survey-based research study in the psychological sciences
    84. 84. 1-para summary of the survey research method
    85. 85. 1-para summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the survey-based research method
    86. 86. Approx. 250 to 300 words </li></ul>
    87. 87. Summary
    88. 88. Summary - 1 <ul><ul><li>Three main types of research: experimental, quasi-experimental, or non-experimental.
    89. 89. Survey research is often non-experimental, using interviews or questionnaires.
    90. 90. Survey research is characterised by its systemic approach to sampling representative units. </li></ul></ul>
    91. 91. Summary - 2 <ul><ul><li>Two main purposes of research are info gathering and theory testing/building (and both).
    92. 92. Four research goals are: exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, or predictive goals. </li></ul></ul>
    93. 93. Summary - 3 Survey research pros: <ul><li>ecological validity
    94. 94. efficiency </li></ul>Cons include: <ul><li>lack of control over extraneous variables,
    95. 95. low compliance, and
    96. 96. reliance on self-report data. </li></ul>
    97. 97. References Backstrom, C. H., & Hursh-César, G. (1981). Survey research (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

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