Peer to Peer File Sharing<br />Katherine Whelan<br />Copyright, Commerce and Culture<br />Fall 2009<br />
Napster Inc.<br />1999<br />Shawn Fanning<br />Sharing Files<br />Centralized network<br />15,000 users in first week<br />
RIAA vs. Napster Inc.<br />Free trade of copyrighted material<br />Recording Industry Association of America<br />Assistin...
Artists Speak Out…<br />Dr. Dreand Metallica against P2P<br />“Common Theives”<br />Limp Bizkit supporting P2P<br />Napste...
Kazaa and Grokster<br />Early 2000s<br />Used new model<br />No centralized network<br />Reduced Liability<br />Overseas<b...
Sharing Models - Napster<br />
Sharing Models – Kazaa and Grokster<br />
P2P Technology and Record Sales<br />Positive<br />Negative<br />Top Artist of 2008 only sold 3 million records in compari...
Today it encourages concert tickets and merchandise purchases
Gives the listeners the right to choose which songs are “worthy”</li></li></ul><li>Positive Affects<br />Remixing<br />Gar...
Controversy<br />The Entertainment Industry and Copyright Law<br />Culture and Creativity<br />P2P infringes owners’ right...
Changes in what Copyright Protects<br />Past<br />Present<br />18th Century<br />Physical Copy of Books<br />To Promote th...
Inflicting Fear<br />RIAA going after the individual<br />Students, Parents and Employers being notified of P2P risks<br /...
Inflicting Fear<br />
Joel Tenenbaum Lawsuit<br />August of 2009<br />Admitted to downloading and Sharing 30 songs through Kazaa<br />Settled at...
Dutch Government Advocates P2P<br />January 2009<br />Report found P2P technology is now a “good-thing.” <br />those who d...
New Online Models<br />
EFF has proposed a potential business model<br />Keep the “all-you-can-eat” model<br />Pay small monthly fee ($5-$10)<br /...
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Peerto Peer File Sharing

  1. 1. Peer to Peer File Sharing<br />Katherine Whelan<br />Copyright, Commerce and Culture<br />Fall 2009<br />
  2. 2. Napster Inc.<br />1999<br />Shawn Fanning<br />Sharing Files<br />Centralized network<br />15,000 users in first week<br />
  3. 3. RIAA vs. Napster Inc.<br />Free trade of copyrighted material<br />Recording Industry Association of America<br />Assisting in illegal file transfers<br />2.79 Billion Violations<br />ZeroTolerence<br />
  4. 4. Artists Speak Out…<br />Dr. Dreand Metallica against P2P<br />“Common Theives”<br />Limp Bizkit supporting P2P<br />Napster sponsoring LB’s tour<br />“dr.dre said-”<br />
  5. 5. Kazaa and Grokster<br />Early 2000s<br />Used new model<br />No centralized network<br />Reduced Liability<br />Overseas<br />Try to avoid U.S. Copyright Laws<br />Grokster shut down in 2005 for encouraging the sharing of illegal files.<br />
  6. 6. Sharing Models - Napster<br />
  7. 7. Sharing Models – Kazaa and Grokster<br />
  8. 8. P2P Technology and Record Sales<br />Positive<br />Negative<br />Top Artist of 2008 only sold 3 million records in comparison to 30 million in 1998<br />$12.5 Billion in losses<br />Loss of Jobs<br /><ul><li>Before iPod it encouraged CD purchases
  9. 9. Today it encourages concert tickets and merchandise purchases
  10. 10. Gives the listeners the right to choose which songs are “worthy”</li></li></ul><li>Positive Affects<br />Remixing<br />Garl Talk<br />Mashups<br />Parodies<br />Weird Al<br />Sharing other files besides music<br />“…allows them to ignore all the other extraordinarily creative and productive uses of this technology, which the “war on piracy” will also make impossible.” <br />– Lawrence Lessig<br />
  11. 11. Controversy<br />The Entertainment Industry and Copyright Law<br />Culture and Creativity<br />P2P infringes owners’ rights<br />Loss of profit<br />Without profit and protection creativity will decline<br />No Motivation to continue<br />Copyright law is delaying creativity<br />Copyright law is controlling the way artists/distributors get paid<br />Paying for songs would deter innovators<br />We will never see the full potential of computing<br />
  12. 12. Changes in what Copyright Protects<br />Past<br />Present<br />18th Century<br />Physical Copy of Books<br />To Promote thought, expansion of culture and creativity<br />“usemonopoly”<br />Owner completely controls work has almost unlimited rights<br />Fair use works case by case and is very unclear<br />This monopoly is now restricting culture<br />
  13. 13. Inflicting Fear<br />RIAA going after the individual<br />Students, Parents and Employers being notified of P2P risks<br />Spring of 2003 four college students paid between $12,500 to $17,000 each in settlements <br />Parents were at risk for what their kids were sharing<br />Employers at risk for what their employees were sharing<br />
  14. 14. Inflicting Fear<br />
  15. 15. Joel Tenenbaum Lawsuit<br />August of 2009<br />Admitted to downloading and Sharing 30 songs through Kazaa<br />Settled at 22,500 per song<br />That’s a grand total of 675,000 <br />30 songs for free or a nice house…<br />Argued Fair Use<br />Private enjoyment<br />Judge explained it was too broad<br />
  16. 16. Dutch Government Advocates P2P<br />January 2009<br />Report found P2P technology is now a “good-thing.” <br />those who download are more likely to attend concerts, and purchase CDs than those who don’t<br />
  17. 17. New Online Models<br />
  18. 18. EFF has proposed a potential business model<br />Keep the “all-you-can-eat” model<br />Pay small monthly fee ($5-$10)<br />Free from copyright infringement risks<br />Money distributed to artists depending on popularity<br />Future Business Model<br />
  19. 19. Works Consulted<br />Barlow, John. “The Economy of Ideas.” 1993-2003. Web. 7 Nov 2009.<br /> &lt;http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.03/economy.ideas_pr.html&gt;.<br />Bauwens, Michel. &quot;P2P and Human Evolution: Placing Peer to Peer Theory in an Integral Framework, Michel Bauwens.&quot; Integral World : Exploring Theories of Everything. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.integralworld.net/bauwens2.html&gt;.<br />Coronado, Kristin. &quot;Napster Ordered to Log Off.&quot; ProQuest. Richmond Newspapers, 28 July 2000. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=57348747&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&&cfc=1&gt;.<br />&quot;Dangers of file sharing programs such as Limewire |.&quot; UNC-Chapel Hill Help and Support. 30 Mar. 2009. Web. 13 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://help.unc.edu/6428&gt;.<br />&quot;Economy Profits From File-Sharing, Report Concludes | TorrentFreak.&quot; TorrentFreak | Torrent News, Torrent Sites and the latest Scoops. 19 Jan. 2009. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://torrentfreak.com/economy-profits-from-file-sharing-report-concludes-090119/&gt;.<br />&quot;File Sharing: Pros and Cons for Independent Artists - ArtistshouseMusic.&quot; Artists House Music: A learning resource for music and the music business. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.artistshousemusic.org/videos/file+sharing+pros+and+cons+for+independent+artists&gt;.<br />Good Copy, Bad Copy. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.goodcopybadcopy.net/&gt;.<br />Harvey, Fiona. &quot;Employers Need to Keep Their Eyes and Ears Open.&quot; ProQuest. Financial Times Ltd., 13 Apr. 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=617967551&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&&gt;.<br />Healy, Jon. &quot;An opportunity missed to apply &apos;fair use&apos; to file sharing | Opinion L.A. | Los Angeles Times.&quot; Opinion L.A. | Joe Lieberman, Medicare expansion and healthcare reform | Los Angeles Times. LA Times, 7 Dec. 2009. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://opinion.latimes.com/opinionla/2009/12/an-opportunity-missed-to-apply-fair-use-to-file-sharing.html&gt;.<br />Helprin, Mark. “A Great Idea Lives Forever. Shouldn’t Its Copyright?.” New York Times 20May 2007. Web. 8 Nov 2009.<br /> &lt;http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/20/opinion/20helprin.html?_r=1&gt;.<br />Henderson, Mark. &quot;IT for UM.&quot; Benefits and Consequences to Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Spring (2004). Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.oit.umd.edu/ITforUM/2004/Spring/Marks/CIOsMessage.pdf&gt;.<br />&quot;Kazaa Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia.&quot; Technology Product Reviews, News, Prices & Downloads | PCMag.com | PC Magazine. Web. 13 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=Kazaa&i=45734,00.asp&gt;.<br />Lessig, Lawrence. Free Culture. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.<br />Lethem, Jonathan. “The Ecstasy of Influence: A Plagiarism.” Harpers Magazine Feb. 2007: Web. 8 Nov 2009.<br /> &lt;http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/02/0081387&gt;.<br />Litman, Jessica. &quot;Exclusive Right to Read.&quot; U-M Personal World Wide Web Server. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jdlitman/papers/read.htm&gt;.<br />Mennecke, Thomas. &quot;Slyck News - Grokster Launches Fear Campaign.&quot; Slyck.com - File Sharing, Digital Media and Tech News. 2 Jan. 2006. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.slyck.com/story1047_Grokster_Launches_Fear_Campaign&gt;.<br />Moody, Glyn. &quot;Why Creativity needs Shorter Copyright Terms.&quot; Web log post. 9 Oct. 2009. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://opendotdotdot.blogspot.com/2009/10/why-creativity-needs-shorter-copyright.html&gt;.<br />MusicUnited.org. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.musicunited.org/&gt;.<br />Patry, William. Copyright Law and Practice. Bureau of National Affairs Inc., 2000<br />Riedel, Sarah. &quot;A Brief History of Filesharing: From Napster to Legal Music Downloads -.&quot; Associated Content - associatedcontent.com. 24 Feb. 2006. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/20644/a_brief_history_of_filesharing_from.html?cat=15&gt;.<br />Silverthorne, Sean. &quot;Music Downloads: Piratesor Customers? HBS Working Knowledge.&quot; HBS Working Knowledge - Faculty Research at Harvard Business School. 21 June 2004. Web. 13 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4206.html&gt;.<br />Smith, Seagrumn. &quot;FROM NAPSTER TO KAZAA: THE BATTLE OVER PEER-TO-PEER FILESHARING GOES INTERNATIONAL.&quot; Duke University School of Law. 28 Mar. 2003. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.law.duke.edu/journals/dltr/articles/2003dltr0008.html&gt;.<br />Tehranian, John. “INFRINGEMENT NATION: COPYRIGHT REFORM AND THE LAW/NORM GAP.” Web. 7 Nov 2009.<br /> &lt;http://www.epubs.utah.edu/index.php/ulr/article/view/7/11&gt;.<br />United States. Congress. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. &lt;http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html&gt;.<br />

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