Chapter 12 rise of medieval europe


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Rise of Medieval Europe

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Chapter 12 rise of medieval europe

  1. 1. Frankish Rulers Chapter 12, Section 1
  2. 2. The Merovingians After the fall of Rome, there were constant wars  Franks arose as the strongest group (Merovingians)  Clovis was first to accept Christianity in 481  Charles Martel defeated Muslims-732 
  3. 3. Pepin the Short Anointed by Pope-Divine Ruler  Gave Pope protection & papal states  Pope relied on the Franks for protection, tying Catholicism and western Europe together 
  4. 4. Charlemagne’s Empire Pepin’s son became king in 768  Charles doubled the Frankish lands  After defending Pope Leo in Rome, Charles was crowned as a Roman Emperor by Leo  After Charles death, empire was divided into three parts, the middle remained the Roman Empire 
  5. 5. Invasions Vikings attacked Europe in the 800’s  Explored Europe and even to North America  Constant attacks weakened the central monarchies, leading to more local control 
  6. 6. Medieval Life
  7. 7. Political and Economic Change  Germanic Tribes not able to understand Roman Laws  Divided rule among cheiftans  Commerce became more localized  Subsistence economy/Barter System  Feudal System
  8. 8. Feudalism Weaker central gov’ts led to power and land distributed to nobles in exchange for military services  Each level of feudalism had obligations to the level above them  Serfs were tied to the land 
  9. 9. Features of this Era Castles were built for protection  Knights were financed by lords, but would often serve the king  Code of Chivalry used by knights became the basis for good manners today  Tournaments were the entertainment 
  10. 10. Life on a Manor Warfare made it necessary for manors to be self-sufficient  Peasants farmed the land and were the public workers as well  Some were craft workers  Usually manors provided only enough food for survival  Life was hard for everyone 
  11. 11. The Medieval Church
  12. 12. Spiritual Role Church taught all were dependant on God’s Grace  Grace was received through sacraments  Peasants learned Christianity through art 
  13. 13. Political and Social Role After the decline of Rome, the pope began to gain more power  Church was the central structure in most people’s lives  Began to dictate who had control (Charlemagne) as well as the social norms of medieval society 
  14. 14. Monasteries Benedict founded a monastery in 529 that laid the framework for future monasteries  Monks preserved ancient texts  Provided schools, charity, & hospitals  Served as missionaries, converting many throughout Europe 
  15. 15. Political and Social Role Church had its own courts and laws which were applied to rich and poor  Many church officials were nobles who had land and knights to fight for them  Led to corruption and a change of focus from the spiritual mission of the church 
  16. 16. Church Reform Monks modeled way of life  Cardinals elected the pope  Innocent III fought to remove heresy from the church and offenders were excommunicated  Excommunication
  17. 17. Finding the Truth… More Reforms Inquisition was established to seek and punish heretics  Franciscan and Dominican Friars lived lives of simplicity and poverty that gained the clergy more respect  Punishment for Heresy
  18. 18. Anti-Semitism By 1100 Christians blamed Jews for their problems  Some church leaders required Jews to wear ID badges  Were forced from their land and had to become peddlers and money lenders  Many moved to Eastern Europe 
  19. 19. Rise of European Monarchy
  20. 20. England Angles, Saxons, and Jutes took over Britain after Rome  William the Conqueror set up a tax system and took a census  Henry II set up common law so that everyone was tried equally 
  21. 21. Change in England King John’s abuse of power led the nobles to force him to sign the Magna Carta  The Magna Carta guaranteed representation and fair trials to citizens  Under Henry III, the middle class helped create the Parliament 
  22. 22. France Unlike in England, French gov’t was not representative  As population grew, towns grew, and more power went to town leaders rather than feudal lords  As monarchy gained land and power, nobles’ power was lessened 
  23. 23. Holy Roman Empire While France and England grew strong central gov’t, Germany remained fragmented  German Emperors claimed the right to appoint popes, while the pope claimed to anoint the Emperor  Concordat of Worms gave Emperor power to choose bishops 