Sociology Chapter 10 inequalities of gender and age


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Sociology Chapter 10 inequalities of gender and age

  1. 1. Sex and Gender Identity Ch. 10, Sec. 1, pp. 308-115 What do you believe plays a larger role in determining gender, culture or biology? Explain.
  2. 2. Defining Male and Female Sex-biological distinction between male and female Biological determinism is the belief that behavioral differences are the result of physical differences Males are built to provide and protect Women are built to be passive and perform domestic work
  3. 3. Defining Male and Female Biological tendencies have been shown to be weak Gender Identity is formed by culture and is not biological Becoming a man or woman is a cultural process Sex-Biological Gender-Cultural
  4. 4. Biology of Males and Females Males have larger muscle-bone ratios Different reproductive organs produce different hormones Male brain-more specialized, more activity in adaptive, evolutionary responses side of brain Female brain-tend to use both sides together, more developed region for social expression, use both ears
  5. 5. Biological Debate Male babies are more aggressive Men-physical appearance, younger mate Women-slightly older, less emphasis on looks Still aren’t sure the extent of biology and culture
  6. 6. Margaret Meade’s Study Arapesh tribe study in which both genders were cooperative, unaggressive, and empathetic (female)  Mundugumor tribe showed both genders to be ruthless and unresponsive to others needs Tchambuli showed gender role reversal when compared to Western Society
  7. 7. Sociologists Perspective Gender roles are not fixed at birth Children treated like the opposite sex by parents are easily socialized to it and resist changing back There are many variations within each sex Competitive, aggressive women; submissive, non-competitive men
  8. 8. Conclusions While biological characteristics exist, gender identity can be modified through social influences (primary groups)
  10. 10. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Ch. 10, Sec. 2 pp. 316-321
  11. 11. Functionalism & Gender Any behavior that does not help society will become unimportant Division of male and female roles helped society Men were larger and muscular, but were also expendable Women were much more vital to group’s chances of survival
  12. 12. Conflict and Gender Men prevent women from gaining influence to sustain their status Gender roles are outdated Marrying and having families later have allowed women to enter the workforce
  13. 13. Symbolic Interactionism & Gender Focus is on gender socialization, how boy’s and girl’s learn how to act Parents, peers, teachers, media
  14. 14. Role of Parents Transfer values and attitudes regarding how boys and girls should behave Toys given to each sex Infant girls are handled more gently Boys are often given more “masculine” chores
  15. 15. Role of Schools Teachers encourage different behaviors from boys and girls Girls may be taught to be passive Boys were expected to be assertive
  16. 16. Role of Peers Peer acceptance or rejection greatly impacts self-concepts Respect is given to those who most closely mirror traditional gender roles Those who go against traditional roles are labeled
  17. 17. Gender Inequality Ch. 10, Sec. 3 pp. 323-329
  18. 18. Women as a Minority Biological determinism has led to racism as well as sexism. Sexist ideology justifies male social leadership positions While women are gaining ground in society, wide inequality gaps exist
  19. 19. Occupational Inequality Over the last 30 years, women in the work force have increased significantly (46% of work force) Occupational sex segregation has kept most of these women at lowstatus occupations Women rarely hold high-status positions in the business world
  20. 20. Economic Inequality In 1997, women earned $.75 to every $1.00 of men. Gap has closed from $.60 in 1980 This trend exists across all occupations, even traditionally female jobs World wide women almost always earn less, except in Australia
  21. 21. Legal Inequality Biases exist in some state laws Health benefits for pregnancy Refusal to keep surname (last name) Protective legislation to limit work hours, work load (Civil Rights Act) Women are more likely to miss work than men which leads to hiring bias
  22. 22. Political Inequality Number of women in elective positions (governors, legislators) has been growing Make up 50% of population but 13% of House of Representatives and 9% of Senate Low percentages of women in appointed positions (cabinet, judges)
  23. 23. STOP HERE ON FRIDAY!!!
  24. 24. Aging and the Elderly in America Ch. 10, sec. 4 & 5 pp.330-343 What is your overall opinion of the elderly? What role should they have in our society?
  25. 25. What is Ageism Age stratification is one more way that society can be divided Many elderly and young people face discrimination based on ageism.
  26. 26. Functionalism and Ageism Elderly are treated according to the role they play If they play important roles they are more highly regarded If they are less useful to society their status level drops Increased suicide rates at age 65 for men
  27. 27. Conflict and Ageism The elderly are competing with other age groups for economic resources, power and prestige Elderly are more necessary in a preindustrial society Ageism and stereotypes are weapons used by the dominant group to force the elderly from the labor market
  28. 28. Symbolic Interactionism and Ageism Children learn negative stereotypes of elderly through the socialization process Stereotypes of senility, forgetfulness, and stubbornness can not be applied to all members of the group (just like any other stereotype)
  29. 29. The Elderly Minority Negative view of elderly came from early studies, most of which were done in institutions Why are they a minority?
  30. 30. Elderly Economics Elderly spend more money on health care and housing About 20% of elderly are “poor” While some elderly live well off of assets and retirement savings, most do not
  31. 31. Elderly Economics (cont) Discrimination and poor economic situations for African American and Latino elderly are magnified w/ old age Women of these same groups are one of the poorest segments of society Discrimination in the workforce earlier has put elderly women at a high economic disadvantage
  32. 32. “Gray Power” Elderly have power in the political system Voter turnout for elderly is nearly double that of those half their age If elderly could put differences aside, they could become a very strong political voice Membership in interest groups gains more power for the elderly