Nwmp & Treaties

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Canadian social studies 10 history.

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Nwmp & Treaties

  1. 1. WHISKEY TRADE <ul><li>1869-1874 WHISKEY WAS TRADED IN THE CANADIAN WEST BY AMERICANS OUT OF FORT WHOOP-UP IN WHAT WAS TO BECOME SOUTHERN ALBERTA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FIRST NATIONS SUFFERED AS ALCOHOLISM DESTROYED TRADITIONAL HUNTING & FOOD GATHERING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRIME MINISTER MACDONALD HAD REPORTS OF THIS PROBLEM BUT FELT NO PRESSURE TO ACT UNTIL THE CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE OF MAY 1874 </li></ul>FORT WHOOP-UP NEAR PRESENT DAY LETHBRIDGE ALBERTA
  2. 2. CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE <ul><li>IN MAY 1873, (note error in your text, pg. 188) AMERICAN AND CANADIAN WHISKEY TRADERS ATTACK ASSINIBOINE INDIANS THEY SUSPECTED OF STEALING THEIR HORSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE AMERICAN HORSES HAD WANDERED OFF AND THE TRADERS WERE DRUNK DURING THE ATTACK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20-36 NATIVES AND ONE AMERICAN WERE KILLED, 5 ASSINIBOINE WOMEN WERE RAPED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE AMERICANS LATER BRAG OF THIS INCIDENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IN THE UNITED STATES NEWS OF THE CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE WAS GREETED AS A VICTORY OVER LAWLESS SAVAGES </li></ul><ul><li>IN CANADA THE EVENT WAS TREATED AS AN UNPROVOKED AMERICAN ATTACK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CANADIANS DEMANDED LAWLESSNESS END IN THE WEST </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PREVIOUSLY STALLED PLANS TO ESTABLISH A POLICE FORCE FOR THE WEST PROCEED </li></ul>
  3. 3. NORTH WEST MOUNTED POLICE <ul><li>AMID MUCH FOOT DRAGGING, THE BILL AUTHORIZING A POLICE FORCE FOR THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY WAS APPROVED THE SAME MONTH AS THE CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE </li></ul><ul><li>RECRUITING BEGAN IN AUGUST - THE INITIAL FORCE OF 150 FORMER MILITIA REACHING LOWER FORT GARRY IN OCTOBER 1873 </li></ul><ul><li>AN ADDITIONAL 150 ARRIVE THE NEXT SUMMER BEFORE THE FORCE SET OUT FOR FORT WHOOP-UP ON 8 JULY 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER MANY DIFFICULTIES THE NWMP FINDS THE ABANDONED FORT AT THE END OF SEPTEMBER </li></ul>JOHN FRENCH, 1 ST COMMISSIONER OF THE NWMP, RECRUITING NEW MEMBERS
  4. 4. NUMBERED TREATIES <ul><li>SEVEN TREATIES WERE SIGNED BETWEEN 1871 AND 1877 THAT SAW LAND OWNERSHIP SHIFT TO THE GOVERNMENT IN OTTAWA </li></ul><ul><li>MOST NATIVE LEADERS BELIEVED THEY HAD NO CHOICE BUT TO SEEK THE BEST TERMS POSSIBLE FROM THE GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BUFFALO HERDS WERE ON THE VERGE OF EXTINCTION FROM OVER HUNTING AND EXTERMINATION IN THE U.S. AS A MILITARY TACTIC IN THE INDIAN WARS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SETTLEMENT WAS A FACT AND PRIOR EXPERIENCE SHOWED IT COULD NOT BE HALTED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CANADIAN GOVERNMENT BELIEVED THAT ABORIGINAL RIGHTS HAD TO BE PURCHASED BEFORE SETTLEMENT COULD BEGIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRECEDENT SET BY PROCLAMATION OF 1763 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CANADIAN GOVERNMENT HAS LITTLE REAL POWER IN THE WEST – LOW EUROPEAN POPULATION </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. NUMBERED TREATIES <ul><li>FIRST NATIONS INITIALLY SOUGHT TO GRANT ROUTES THROUGH THEIR TERRITORY WHILE RETAINING THE BULK OF THE LAND </li></ul><ul><li>SOME HISTORIANS HAVE ARGUED THAT FIRST NATIONS CONCEPTS OF PROPERTY OWNERSHIP WERE AT ODDS WITH THE EUROPEAN DEFINITIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A PERSON OR GROUP COULD OWN THE RIGHT TO CONDUCT A PARTICULAR ACTIVITY ON A SPECIFIC PIECE OF LAND BUT COMPLETE TITLE WAS NOT PART OF FIRST NATIONS CULTURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TREATIES MEANT EUROPEAN SETTLERS RECEIVED THE RIGHT TO FARM ON PROPERTY BUT NATIVES RETAINED RIGHTS FOR FISHING, HUNTING AND EXTRACTING OTHER RESOURCES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LAST HOLDOUTS WANT A CONTINUOUS SWATH OF INDIAN TERRITORY </li></ul>NUMBERED TREATIES OF THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES
  6. 6. NUMBERED TREATIES <ul><li>TREATIES 1 & 2 WITH CHIPPEWA AND CREE IN SOUTHERN MANITOBA, 1871 </li></ul><ul><li>TREATY 3 WITH SALTEAUX AND OJIBWAY IN WESTERN ONTARIO, 1871 </li></ul><ul><li>TREATY 4 WITH CREE AND SALTEAUX IN SOUTHERN SASKATCHEWAN, 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>TREATY 5 WITH SALTEAUX AND SWAMPY CREE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA, 1875 </li></ul><ul><li>TREATY 6 WITH PLAIN AND WOOD CREE IN CENTRAL ALBERTA AND SASKATCHEWAN, 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>TREATY 7 WITH BLACKFEET IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA, 1877 </li></ul>

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