Types of reactions year 10

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Types of reactions year 10

  1. 1. YEAR 10 SCIENCE 2012 – CHEMISTRY UNIT
  2. 2. Types of reactions• There are five main types of chemical reactions we will talk about: 1) Combination reactions 2) Decomposition reactions 3) Single displacement reactions 4) Double displacement reactions 5) Combustion reactions• You need to be able to identify the type of reaction and predict the product(s)
  3. 3. Types of reactions• Some steps for doing reactions 1) Identify the type of reaction 2) Predict the product(s) using the type of reaction as a model 3) Write a worded equation for the reaction 4) Balance it –the formulae & the equation• Don’t forget to check the states of matter: • (s) = solid; (l) = liquid; (g) = gas; • (aq) = aqeous = soluble salt dissolved in water
  4. 4. COMBINATION reactions• Combination reactions occur when two substances (generally elements) combine and form a compound.• Sometimes these are called synthesis or addition reactions. reactant + reactant  1 product A + B  AB• Example: 2H2 + O2  2H2O• Example: C + O2  CO2
  5. 5. COMBINATION reactions
  6. 6. COMBINATION reactions• Predict the products. Write and balance the following synthesis reaction equations. • Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas • Solid Magnesium reacts with fluorine gas • Aluminum metal reacts with fluorine gas
  7. 7. DECOMPOSITION reactions• Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into the elements or in a few to simpler compounds 1 reactant  product + product AB  A + B • Example: 2 H2O  2H2 + O2 • Example: 2 HgO  2Hg + O2
  8. 8. DECOMPOSITION reactions
  9. 9. DECOMPOSITION reactions• Predict the products. Then, write and balance the following decomposition reaction equations. • Solid Lead (IV) oxide decomposes • Aluminum nitride decomposes
  10. 10. SINGLE DISPLACEMENT reactions• Single Displacement Reactions occur when one element replaces another in a compound.• Two displacements are possible: • a metal can replace a metal (+ ions) • a non-metal can replace a non-metal (- ions).
  11. 11. SINGLE DISPLACEMENT reactionselement + compound  element + compound A + BC  AC + B (if A is a metal) A + BC  BA + C (if A is a non-metal)
  12. 12. SINGLE DISPLACEMENT reactions
  13. 13. SINGLE DISPLACEMENT reactions• Write and balance the following single replacement reaction equation: • Zinc metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid • Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas • Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate
  14. 14. Double DISPLACEMENT reactions• Double Replacement Reactions occur when a metal replaces a metal in a compound and a non-metal replaces a non-metal in a compound Compound + compound  compound+ compound AB + CD  AD + CB
  15. 15. DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT reactions• Example:• Solid sodium chloride is dissolved into silver nitrate solution: AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (s)  AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq)• Another example:• Two solutions of potassium sulfate and barium nitrate are mixed together: K2SO4 (aq) + Ba(NO3)2 (aq)  2 KNO3 (aq) + BaSO4 (s)
  16. 16. DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT reactions• Predict the products. Balance the equations: 1. Hydrochloric acid + silver nitrate 2. Calcium chloride + sodium phosphate 3. Lead (II) nitrate + barium chloride 4. Iron (III) cholride + sodium hydroxide 5. Sulfuric acid + sodium hydroxide 6. Potassium hydroxide + copper sulfate
  17. 17. Combustion reactions• Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas.• This is also called burning!!!• In order to burn something you need the 3 things in the “fire triangle”: 1) A Fuel (hydrocarbon) 2) Oxygen to burn it with 3) Something to ignite the reaction (spark)
  18. 18. Combustion reactions• In general: CxHy + O2  CO2 + H2O• Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning does cause some by-products like carbon monoxide)• Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (octane, as in gasoline, is C8H18)
  19. 19. Combustion reactions• Example• pentane (C5H12) + O2  CO2 + H2O• Write the products of the following combustion reaction:• Combustion of decane
  20. 20. CORROSION reactions• Type of combination reaction.• Oxygen combines with a metal to form an ionic compound. metal + O2  metal oxide
  21. 21. Precipitation reactions• Type of double displacement reaction.• Two solutions of soluble salts are mixed, resulting in an insoluble solid (precipitate) forming. Soluble salt A + Soluble salt B (aq) (aq)  precipitate + Soluble salt C (S) (aq)
  22. 22. Precipitation reactions• Solubility rules are needed to work out whether a precipitate will form. Form a soluble compound when Form an insoluble compoundIons joined with these ions when joined with these ionsSodium, Ammonium,Potassium, Lithium, All NoneNitrateChloride, SilverBromide, All (with exceptions) MercuryIodide Lead BariumSulphate All (with exceptions) Lead Calcium SodiumCarbonate, Phosphate Ammonium All (with exceptions)and Hydroxide Potassium Lithium
  23. 23. Neutralisation reaction• Type of double displacement reaction.• An acid and a base react with each other.• Generally, the product of this reaction is a salt and water. acid + base  salt + water
  24. 24. Acid + metal reaction• Type of single displacement reaction.• An acid and a metal react with each other.• Generally, the product of this reaction is a salt and hydrogen gas. acid + metal  salt + H2
  25. 25. Acid + metal carbonate reaction• An acid and a metal carbonate react with each other.• Generally, the product of this reaction is a salt, water and carbon dioxide gas. acid + metal carbonate  salt + H2O + CO2
  26. 26. PRACTICEIdentify the type of reaction and try to write acorrectly balanced chemical equation for each of thefollowing reactions: Copper + silver nitrate  silver + copper nitrate Lead nitrate + potassium iodide  lead iodide + potassium nitrate Methane gas + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water Zinc carbonate  zinc oxide + carbon dioxide Magnesium + oxygen  magnesium oxide Corrosion of zinc

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