The Senses Chapter 8.2
How Does Vision Occur?
 
Pathway <ul><li>Light enters through pupil </li></ul><ul><li>Lens focuses light on retina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photorecep...
Binocular Fusion <ul><li>Images received  from two eyes into a single image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retinal disparity is the...
How Do We Hear?
Pathway of Sound <ul><li>Outer ear receives sound </li></ul><ul><li>Earflap directs sound down the auditory canal </li></u...
Deafness <ul><li>Conduction Deafness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinders physical motion through rigidness of outer/middle ear b...
Vestibular system <ul><li>Regulates balance </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 semicircular canals provide ...
 
Chemical Senses <ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vapors enter nose and come into contact with a special membrane w/ rec...
 
 
 
Touch <ul><li>Provides information on: Pressure, warm, cold, and pain </li></ul><ul><li>The more receptors the more sensit...
 
Perceptions of Pain <ul><li>Results from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul...
 
Gate Control Theory of Pain  <ul><li>Lesson the pain by shifting our attention away from the pain impulses </li></ul><ul><...
Kinesthesis <ul><li>The sense of movement and body position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works together with vestibular and visua...
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The senses

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The senses

  1. 1. The Senses Chapter 8.2
  2. 2. How Does Vision Occur?
  3. 4. Pathway <ul><li>Light enters through pupil </li></ul><ul><li>Lens focuses light on retina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photoreceptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Night vision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>75 – 150 million </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not color sensitive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require more light </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best for daytime </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6/7 million </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive to color </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Light energy changes into neuronal impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Optic nerve carries impulses from retina to the brain </li></ul>
  4. 5. Binocular Fusion <ul><li>Images received from two eyes into a single image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retinal disparity is the difference between the images stimulating each eye </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. How Do We Hear?
  6. 7. Pathway of Sound <ul><li>Outer ear receives sound </li></ul><ul><li>Earflap directs sound down the auditory canal </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrations occur in the canal and vibrate the eardrum </li></ul><ul><li>Middle ear is filled with 3 tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrates and pushes against the cochlea </li></ul><ul><li>Inner ear= cochlea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains fluids and neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure causes liquid to move hairs which are attached to sensory cells that pick up the motion and turn it into neuronal impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory nerve carries impulses to the brain (temporal lobe) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Deafness <ul><li>Conduction Deafness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinders physical motion through rigidness of outer/middle ear bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing aids can help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensorineural Deafness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged cochlea, hair cells, or auditory neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing aids don’t help, cochlear implant might </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Vestibular system <ul><li>Regulates balance </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 semicircular canals provide the sense of balance, located in the inner ear and connected to the brain by a nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair cells project into the fluid in the canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you move, canals move, and inertia causes the fluid to move which bends the receptor cells that are in the fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over stimulated – causes dizziness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Chemical Senses <ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vapors enter nose and come into contact with a special membrane w/ receptors in the upper nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptors send messages about smell through the olfactory nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals stimulate receptors on the taste buds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste, texture, and temperature info are relayed to brain </li></ul></ul>
  10. 15. Touch <ul><li>Provides information on: Pressure, warm, cold, and pain </li></ul><ul><li>The more receptors the more sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is sensitive to temperature, but it has to be different than that of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Pain is a warning sign to prevent damage </li></ul>
  11. 17. Perceptions of Pain <ul><li>Results from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp localized pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you feel immediately </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dull generalized pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain you feel later </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 19. Gate Control Theory of Pain <ul><li>Lesson the pain by shifting our attention away from the pain impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Send other signals to compete with the pain signals </li></ul><ul><li>The gate limits the number of impulses that can be transmitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Athletes can finish a game injured </li></ul></ul>
  13. 20. Kinesthesis <ul><li>The sense of movement and body position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works together with vestibular and visual senses for posture and balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes from receptors of muscles and tendons, and joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No kinesthetic sensation, movements would be jerky and uncoordinated </li></ul></ul>

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