Sodium (Emily Esham)

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Sodium (Emily Esham)

  1. 1. Na - Sodium One of the most abundant elements on Earth! By: Emily Esham
  2. 2. The History and Uses of Sodium • Sir Humphry Davy in 1807, first isolated pure sodium, through the electrolysis of caustic soda (NaOH).1 • Is used to make titanium, sodamide, sodium cyanide, sodium peroxide, and sodium hydride.1 • Nuclear reactors use liquid sodium as a coolant.1 • Sodium vapor is used in streetlights and produces a brilliant yellow light.1 • Most common uses include: table salt, soda ash, baking soda, caustic soda, Chile saltpeter and borax.1
  3. 3. How we Use Sodium to make Products • When Sodium is used to make titanium it is used in the form of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride. 8 • To make sodamide, Sodium is mixed with liquid ammonia.9 • When making sodium cyanide, sodium is used in the form of sodium hydroxide. 10 • Sodium Peroxide is made by using the peroxide of hydrogen, alcohol and excess sodium hydroxide.11 • Sodium is used as chunks as well as naphthalene to produce sodium hydride. 12
  4. 4. Who?,What?,When, andWhere? • Sodium was discovered in England by Sir Humphry Davy.2 • In the year of 1807.2 • Sodium, from the English word soda and from the Medieval Latin word sodanum, means “headache remedy.”1 • Sodium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for sodium carbonate, natrium.1
  5. 5. Properties  Symbol of Element: Na3  Atomic Number of Sodium: 113  Atomic Mass: 22.98977 amu3  Melting Point: 97.8 °C - 370.95 °K3  Boiling Point: 552.9 °C - 826.05005 °K3  Number of Protons/Electrons in Sodium:113  Number of Neutrons in Sodium: 123  Crystal Structure: Cubic3  Density @ 293 K: 0.971 g/cm33  Color of Sodium: Silver-white3  State at Room Temperature: Solid1  Sodium is easy to oxidize.  And it is also a very malleable metal.
  6. 6. Major Isotopes of Sodium 20Na • Half Life: 447.9 milliseconds4 21Na • Half Life: 22.49 seconds4 22Na • Half Life: 2.605 years to Neon4 24Na • Half Life: 14.997 hours4 25Na • Half Life: 59.1 seconds4 26Na • Half Life: 1.077 seconds4
  7. 7. Sodium’s Availability, Cost, and Where we can find it • Sodium makes up 2.6% of the Earth’s crust.1 • It is found as a compound in common household items such as, table salt, bleach and baking soda.1 • It is found as a pure element in sodium streetlights to produce a bright yellow light.1 • It is rarely found in nature as a pure element.1 • The cost of pure sodium is $25 per 100 grams.5
  8. 8. Common Compounds of Sodium • NaCl- Sodium Chloride or table salt. Used for flavoring or preserving food, ect.7 • NaHCO3- Sodium Bicarbonate or baking soda. Used as a teeth whitener or a riser in batter when baking.7 • NaNO3- Sodium Nitrate or Chili saltpeter. Used as a diuretic or found in fertilizers.7 • Na2CO3- Sodium Carbonate, washing soda or soda ash. Used as a water softener.7 • Na2O2- Sodium Peroxide is a strong base and a potent oxidizing agent.7 • Na2S- Sodium Sulfite is used in detergents.7 • NaOH- Sodium Hydroxide, Lye or Caustic Soda. Used in detergents, textiles, soaps and drinking water.7 • NaCN- Sodium Cyanide is an inorganic compound and was commonly used for mining gold.7
  9. 9. Fun Facts about Sodium Sodium is used to make vapor lamps which is found in street lamps.6 It plays a very important role in the body’s fluid balances.6 Sodium along with fatty acids are found in soap.6 Sodium is very reactive in water so it must be stored in liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene.6 It has 13 isotopes, only one of which is stable.6
  10. 10. References • http://periodictable.com/Elements/011/index.html • http://www.search.com/reference/Sodium_vapor_lamp • http://wiki.chemeddl.org/index.php/PTL:Sodium 1. http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele011.html 2. http://www.webelements.com/sodium/history.html 3. http://www.facts-about.org.uk/science-element-sodium.htm 4. http://www.wolframalpha.com/ 5. http://www.chemicool.com/elements/sodium.html 6. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/interesting-facts-about-sodium.html 7. http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Na-compounds.html 8. http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-make-titanium-metal/ 9. http://www.answers.com/topic/sodium-amide 10. http://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/chemistry/nacn.txt 11. http://chestofbooks.com/health/materia-medica-drugs/Manual-Of-Dental- Materia-Medica-And-Therapeutics/Peroxide-Of-Sodium-Sodium-Peroxide- Sodium-Di-Oxide.html 12. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja01026a057

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