• The name Germanium is derived from the Latin
word Germania, which is after Germany.
• It was discovered by Clemens A. Winkler in
Freiberg, Germany in 1886.
• This element was predicted also by Dmitri
Mendeleev in 1871, but he called it ekasilicon.
• He predict some of its properties due to the
location of the element on the periodic table.
• He came to the conclusion that it would have the
same characteristics as silicon, so he named it
• Color: Grey white metallic
with a crystalline
• State at Room Temp: Solid
• Melting Point: 1210.6 K
(938 degrees Celsius)
• Boiling points: 3103 K
(2830 degrees Celsius)
• Density @ 293K: 5.323
• Atomic Number:
• Number of Protons: 32
• Number of Electrons: 32
• Number of Neutrons: 41
• Filling Orbital: 4p2
• Valence Electrons: 4s2p2
• Isotopes:24 whose half-lives
are unknown with mass
numbers 58-85 with 74Ge
being most abundant
• Germanium are transparent to the infrared
and are used in infrared spectroscopes and
other optical equipment
• Most common is as a semiconductor, it being
a metalloid it is very useful as a conductor.
• Also use in wide- angle camera lenses,
microscope objectives, and as an catalyst.
• Germanium is found in many metals, such as
– Zinc ores, coal , argyrodite( sulfide of germanium
and silver, and germanite and many others.
• It is acquired by retrieving the metal from the
by products of smelting the metals listed
• It is most commonly found in germanite.
• Cost of pure: $360 per 100g
• Cost of Bulk: $120 per 100g