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Germanium (Charles Bach)


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Germanium (Charles Bach)

  1. 1. History • The name Germanium is derived from the Latin word Germania, which is after Germany. • It was discovered by Clemens A. Winkler in Freiberg, Germany in 1886. • This element was predicted also by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1871, but he called it ekasilicon. • He predict some of its properties due to the location of the element on the periodic table. • He came to the conclusion that it would have the same characteristics as silicon, so he named it ekasilicon.
  2. 2. Properties • Color: Grey white metallic with a crystalline structure • State at Room Temp: Solid • Melting Point: 1210.6 K (938 degrees Celsius) • Boiling points: 3103 K (2830 degrees Celsius) • Density @ 293K: 5.323 g/cm3
  3. 3. Properties • Atomic Number: • Number of Protons: 32 • Number of Electrons: 32 • Number of Neutrons: 41 • Filling Orbital: 4p2 • Valence Electrons: 4s2p2 • Isotopes:24 whose half-lives are unknown with mass numbers 58-85 with 74Ge being most abundant
  4. 4. Uses • Germanium are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment • Most common is as a semiconductor, it being a metalloid it is very useful as a conductor. • Also use in wide- angle camera lenses, microscope objectives, and as an catalyst.
  5. 5. Availability • Germanium is found in many metals, such as – Zinc ores, coal , argyrodite( sulfide of germanium and silver, and germanite and many others. • It is acquired by retrieving the metal from the by products of smelting the metals listed above. • It is most commonly found in germanite. • Cost of pure: $360 per 100g • Cost of Bulk: $120 per 100g