Chapter 5 Summary


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Chapter 5 Summary

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Modeling With Technologies
  2. 2. Learning by Building Models <ul><li>Technologies are developed by instructional designers to “teach” students </li></ul><ul><li>Students often reply to the technology by answering questions which determine if they understood or remembered the information </li></ul><ul><li>Computers are used to present information, judge answers, diagnose student understanding, and adapt to meet student needs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning by Building Models cont. <ul><li>When working with technologies, ask learners to conceptualize, organize, and solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Computers are meant to memorize and retrieve information so students can actually teach the computers </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are natural model builders </li></ul><ul><li>and have models in the mind </li></ul><ul><li>called mental models </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mindtools (Purpose) <ul><li>Model domain knowledge (which is content that is supposed to be learned in school) </li></ul><ul><li>Mindtools make people think harder in a different way about what they are studying </li></ul><ul><li>They build models of systems </li></ul><ul><li>They organize what people are learning </li></ul><ul><li>They build models of problems by mentally constructing problem space in the mind </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of Mindtools Mindtools Databases Concept Mapping Spreadsheets Microworlds Systems Modeling Tools Expert Systems Visualization Tools Constraint-based Discussion boards Hypermedia Construction Tools
  6. 6. Modeling Knowledge With Concept Maps <ul><li>Concept maps are diagrams showing spatial representations and relationships of concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as: Cognitive Structures </li></ul><ul><li> Conceptual Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li> Structural Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li> Semantic Networks </li></ul><ul><li>They contain pictures and texts </li></ul><ul><li>They provide learners with the tools to represent the semantic structure of domain knowledge </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example of a Concept Map <ul><li>Example courtesy of Google Images </li></ul>
  8. 8. Modeling Systems With Systems Dynamics Tools <ul><li>Illustrates causal interrelationships among the components of a system </li></ul><ul><li>Components of a system affect other components which can affect the original </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based tools which include Stella, VenSim, and PowerSim, can help build these dynamic systems </li></ul><ul><li>Once they are built, students can model and observe the output in graphs, tables, or animations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Modeling Problems With Spreadsheets <ul><li>Spreadsheets are computerized record-keeping systems </li></ul><ul><li>They are examples of a mindtool that amplifies and reorganizes mental functioning </li></ul><ul><li>The information can consist of text, numbers, and/or formulas </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 primary functions- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calculating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting Information </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Example of a Spreadsheet <ul><li>Example courtesy of Google Images </li></ul>
  11. 11. Modeling Thinking With Expert Systems <ul><li>Computer programs that are designed to simulate expert reasoning to facilitate decision making for all problems </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of knowledge base of facts about objects and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Basically an artificial decision maker-(simulates the way human </li></ul><ul><li>experts solve problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Approached by a novice with </li></ul><ul><li>a problem </li></ul>
  12. 12. Modeling Experiences With Databases <ul><li>Computerized record-keeping systems (electronic filing cabinets) </li></ul><ul><li>They store, retrieve, and </li></ul><ul><li>manipulate information </li></ul><ul><li>Each record has subunits called fields </li></ul><ul><li>They are used everywhere like doctor offices, schools, libraries, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Students could build databases by collecting and then comparing/contrasting peoples’ stories </li></ul>
  13. 13. Why Build Models With Mindtools? <ul><li>They are essentially constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>They construct personal representations of experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling supports hypothesis testing and inferring </li></ul><ul><li>Students own the knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling motivates our efforts to make sense of the world </li></ul>WHY? WHY?
  14. 14. Presented By: Katie Walker Images By: Google Images and Clip Art