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Co I Tp Considerations Handout


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Instructional Strategies for Blended Learning

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Co I Tp Considerations Handout

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES, GUIDELINES & STRATEGIES/ASSESSMENT Principle Guidelines Strategies/Assessment Design & Organization Social Presence Principle: Guidelines associated with this principle would be to establish trust and opportunities to get to know other participants. A Establish a climate that will create major part of this is a comfort and willingness to a community of inquiry collaboratively engage with the community. • Social presence supports An example of an activity to establish a climate for purposeful collaboration and collaboration would be to have each participant to introduce a questioning predisposition themselves and share something about their personal and professional interests and activities. A special forum should be created for these postings. Another idea might be to assign students to discuss formal expectations of the course and identify concerns. Group spokespersons could then share this in the main discussion forum. You might also create a “chat” room for informal communication and encourage students to use it to get to know one another. Cognitive Presence Principle: Guidelines associated with this principle would be to limit curriculum content such that a significant proportion of time Establish opportunities for critical would be devoted to discourse and reflection. It is also crucial reflection and discourse that will to create opportunities for small group discussion. It is support systematic inquiry. important in the very early stages of the course that an opportunity for substantive, curriculum focused, discourse be • The design of academic provided. activities and their assessment have a significant A brainstorming exercise may be appropriate in the early impact on how students stage of the course. In order to set the stage for team-based approach learning collaborative projects down the road, it is suggested that a small group discussion format be provided early to allow • Think in terms of inquiry and students to engage more actively and with less anxiety. As actively engaging students in groups report back, it is important that the teacher respond the process. and model respectful discourse, establish a friendly environment, and reinforce discourse guidelines. • Share with students the inquiry model (meta- cognitive awareness)
  2. 2. Principle Guidelines Strategies/Assessment Facilitation Social Presence Principle: Collaborative activities provide the best means to build and maintain group cohesion. Group cohesion goes beyond polite Sustain community by shifting dialogue. For this reason, the group or team should be the from affective expression to focus of the discourse. The teacher should be present but not purposeful cohesive responses. the centre of the discourse. Activities must be provided where participants must engage and rely on each other to accomplish • The challenge here is to a relevant and important task or goal. maintain and enhance group cohesion (collaboration and Small group discussions moderated by students may provide support). opportunities for students to connect with each other and collaboratively negotiate process issues. Small group guided • Shift from overt socio- reviews of articles with alternating group leaders is an emotional messages to excellent way to build social presence. academic engagement. • Cohesion is an important enabler for collaborative activities. Cognitive Presence Principle: Guidelines associated with this principle are to provide stimulating questions, keep discussion focused, identify issues Encourage and support the needing clarification, and be prepared to move discussion in a progression of inquiry through to timely manner. It is important that the teacher facilitates resolution discussion as a member of the community, modeling the inquiry process and emphasizing the importance of moving • Facilitation is essential to toward some form of resolution. keep the discourse on track and ensure that inquiry A good activity here is the use of a case study, debate or evolves. critiquing an article. Because case studies are based upon a real-life situation, students can readily relate to the situation. • Students do not move to They are thus effective in involving all members of the group. resolution without a clear In addition, a case study usually involves some response, goal and help in moving hence a resolution students can work towards. toward specific outcomes in an expeditious manner.
  3. 3. Principle Guidelines Strategies/Assessment Direct Instruction Social Presence Principle: Guidelines associated with this principle are to be supportive but expect students to be self-directed Manage collaborative relationships to support and work collaboratively to complete tasks. From students to assume increasing responsibility a teaching presence perspective, there will be a for their learning. stage where tensions and conflicts will arise between members of collaborative groups. It is • Direct instruction can increase crucial that the teacher directly address these confidence and respect by managing situations and resolve conflicts. potential conflict and ensuring that students are collaborating constructively. Team building activities will give students the opportunity to develop the connection and support • Need strong leadership to achieve goals. of the community to accomplish the assigned tasks. • Direct intervention is sometimes necessary to maintain functional communities (manage conflict). Cognitive Presence Principle: Guidelines associated with this principle are to be prepared to contribute ideas and perspectives that Ensure that discourse moves to resolution will constructively shape the discourse. It is also and meta-cognitive awareness results. important to diagnose misconceptions so students do not get side-tracked and frustrated. It may be • The primary role for direct instruction is necessary to make connections among ideas and to ensure that discourse and summarize the discussion before moving on. collaboration achieve larger educational goals. At this point, appropriate activities are team projects. If expectations and guidelines are clear, • At times direct intervention is required to team projects can provide opportunities to develop provide important information and collaboration skills as well as engage in a ensure successful outcomes. substantial, realistic and applied problem. Students must recognize the need for leadership, • Raising meta-cognitive awareness is also set goals, plan and manage tasks, assess progress, an important responsibility requiring and adjust strategies where necessary. These more than facilitation. activities ensure that students become self-directed and increase awareness of meta-cognitive
  4. 4. processes.