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Prof. Sameh Saad - A Digital Model for 3D Characterization of Groundwater Quality Parameters Around a Landfill Site


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Prof. Sameh Saad - A Digital Model for 3D Characterization of Groundwater Quality Parameters Around a Landfill Site

  1. 1. A Digital Model for 3D Characterization of Groundwater Quality Parameters around a Landfill Site <ul><li>Sameh S. Ahmed Hassan I. Mohamed </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Prof. of Environmental Engineering Associate Prof. of Hydraulics & Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Engineering Department, Majmaah University , KSA </li></ul>
  2. 2. Outlines <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater Quality Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater Sampling Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Problem and Suggested Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Multiquadric Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the 3D Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results and Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Future Work </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Develop a methodology that could cope with a few numbers of water samples and used for monitoring the changes in the parameter (s) in fast, accurate and cost-effectiveness manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a clear visualization of monitoring parameters using contour maps and three dimensional representation using the developed model and computer software. </li></ul><ul><li>Data Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>P Penetrometric data measured at known X, Y and Z coordinates near a landfill site, and for several groundwater quality parameters. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Groundwater Quality Parameters Field Laboratory Geotechnical Temperature Water level pH Dissolved Oxygen Conductivity Chloride Nitrate Ammonium TDS … . Ca, Mg, K, Na, F, Cl, Br, NO2, S, HCO3, Li Cu, Fe, Pb , Zn,.. Others Tip resistance Pore pressure Permeability
  5. 5. Sources of Groundwater Contamination
  6. 6. Landfills
  7. 7. Landfills and Groundwater
  8. 8. Groundwater Sampling Techniques
  9. 9. Problem and Suggested Solution Sparsity of the data and limited number of penetration points Estimate the variable at non - sampled location within the defined domain in 3D Problem Target
  10. 10. Methods of Point Estimation
  11. 11. Multiquadric Technique <ul><li>Geometric interpolation of the multiquadric equation </li></ul><ul><li>The above equation represents a system of linear simultaneous equations. The solution of the system results in unique determination of the algebraic sign and magnitude of every coefficient C j . </li></ul><ul><li>A multiquadric solution will fit all the data points. </li></ul><ul><li>The derived equation treats the surface as natural. </li></ul><ul><li>The flatness or sharpness of the slope change in the surface is totally depends on the flatness or sharpness of the cone at that particular point. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Development of the 3D Methodology <ul><li>Multiquadric function was selected as an interpolation function to develop the 3D model </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater samples of one variable gathered from limited penetration points at a test area were used to characterise the variable in 2D. </li></ul><ul><li>The process is repeated at different depths and estimation of the variables at any XYZ point being available. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Computer Program <ul><li>To apply the multiquadric technique for 3D estimation, one needs to interpolate the data in the XY plane at all given Z levels . </li></ul><ul><li>Then, one moves to the perpendicular plane YZ and does the same procedure using all the X intervals and for all the original and estimated values. </li></ul><ul><li>The final task is to enter the X, Y and Z co-ordinates for the variable to obtain its estimated value. </li></ul>
  14. 14. INPUT-1 Original measured pH observations at one of the 37 penetration points. Other Variables: Cations: Ca and Mg Anions: Br and HCO 3 Others: Temp & conductivity Program 1: Poly.m MATLAB MACRO To fit the data within the depth using Polynomial Function <ul><li>OUTPUT-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Cof.dat: the coefficients of the polynomial equations to fit the data at each penetration point. </li></ul>Example of “Cof.dat” output 2.7068e-4 – 0.0149 0.2899 -2.2988 12.8701 2.6589e-5 -1.9676e-3 .05145 – 0.5595 8.695 -2.225e-6 2.118e-4 4.056e-3 – 0.232 8.547 4.521e-4 -1.876e-2 0.252 -1.210 8.728 4.811e-5 -2.785e-3 5.668e-2 – 0.488 8.207 -2.757e-5 1.328e-3 -1.356e-2 – 0.113 7.835 -1.686e-4 7.655e-3 – 0.112 0.584 6.702
  15. 15. <ul><li>INPUT-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cof4.dat: output of program 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Input6.dat: includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Number of significant points in each XY plane =37 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of sections in XY plane = 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Best fitting using polynomial f </li></ul><ul><li>The selected depths, here, </li></ul><ul><li>5,10,15 & 20m </li></ul>Input3.dat 37 4 3 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 Program 2: Cof.f Fortran program <ul><li>OUTPUT-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Phsl.dat </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the significant points and used as input for the sections.f. </li></ul><ul><li>Phslchk.dat </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the significant values for the tested levels and used to check the output before using final program. </li></ul>Phsl.dat 6.927060 6.954450 7.513961 6.912077 6.867423 7.079912 7.664041
  16. 16. Modelling Methodology <ul><li>XYZ and V for one of the variables at 37 penetration points </li></ul><ul><li>Fitting the best 2D function for each equal Z level </li></ul><ul><li>Multiquadric digital model has been developed to estimate the values at equal intervals. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>INPUT-3 </li></ul><ul><li>SXXYY.dat: X & Y coordinates of the significant points. </li></ul><ul><li>Phsl.dat: output of program 2 which includes the significant points of all required levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Inputt.dat: </li></ul><ul><li>Number of levels </li></ul><ul><li>XY grid and its offset </li></ul><ul><li>Depths of the levels </li></ul><ul><li>YZ grid and its offset </li></ul><ul><li>Number of required vertical planes </li></ul><ul><li>X coordinates for the sections </li></ul>input.dat a 6 60 60 20 20 800.0 200.0 5. 10. 15. 20. 60 25 20 1 200.0 0.0 3 900.0 1300.0 1900.0 Program 3: Sections.f Fortran program XXYY.DAT A grid 20x20m generated inside the program for XY plane <ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Test area </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill site (if any) </li></ul>YYZZ.DAT A grid 20x1m generated inside the program for YZ plane
  18. 18. Results: Contour Maps and 3D Representation of pH X-section and 3D representation of pH at Z = 10m.
  19. 19. Distribution of pH values along the XY plane at four depths and one cross-section in YZ plane
  20. 20. X,Y co-ordinates for 37 points and their pH values at 4 different levels No X (m) Y (m) pH1 pH 2 pH 3 pH 4 pH 2 (est.) Diff 1 43.5 1102.0 6.8 7.2 7.0 7.1 7.1999 0.0001 2 175.6 1880.4 6.0 5.9 6.0 6.1 5.8998 0.0002 3 200.0 500.0 7.2 7.1 6.9 7.3 7.1000 0.0 4 245.2 1340.0 7.7 7.8 7.4 7.8 7.7999 0.0001 34 1256.0 1452.0 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.0 9.2999 0.0001 35 1266.5 625.7 9.0 8.8 8.7 9.2 8.8000 0.0 36 1400.0 1250.0 8.6 8.6 8.4 8.2 8.5999 0.0001 37 1571.8 2228.2 8.9 8.6 8.9 9.1 8.5998 0.0002
  21. 21. Ranges of tested water quality parameters Range Mean Max. Min. 4.1 8.262 10 5.9 pH 100 220.824 275 175 EC 9.2 5.010 10.0 0.8 DO
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  25. 25. Conclusions <ul><li>A digital model based on the multiquadric technique is introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>The model provides a tool for 3D characterisation of groundwater parameters from a small number of penetration points that would help prepare a cost effective monitoring programme. </li></ul><ul><li>The technique was first examined for 2D estimation and then modified to handle the data in 3D. In both cases, the output data were used to plot contour maps and represent the variable in 3D. </li></ul><ul><li>An example, of creating a digital model for pH variable, is introduced. Several other groundwater parameters were also tested. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Possible Future Work </li></ul><ul><li>The 3D methodology could be modified using X, Y, Z, variable and time to conduct a digital model for supervising the change in the behaviour of groundwater parameters with time. In other wards, to carry out a 4D study. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thanks for your attention