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Ms. Rana Al Hishmi - Construction & Demolition Waste Recycling


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Ms. Rana Al Hishmi - Construction & Demolition Waste Recycling

  1. 1. Industrial & Management Systems Engineering College of Engineering & Petroleum Kuwait University Dr. Esra AlEisa Eng. Rana Hishmi 1
  2. 2. Construction & Demolition (C&D) Waste SourcesConstruction Waste: Erecting Remodeling RepairingDemolition Waste: Pulled-down buildingsEnvironmental Disasters: Earthquakes Industrial & Management Systems 2 Engineering Department
  3. 3. C&D Waste CompositionAsphaltGravelConcreteFerrous & Non-ferrous metalsPlasticPaperWood (Huang et al, 2002)Industrial & Management Systems 3 Engineering Department
  4. 4. Disposing C&D WasteReduceReuseRecycleCompostIncinerateLandfill (Tam and Tam, 2006)Industrial & Management Systems 4 Engineering Department
  5. 5. Recycling C&D WasteBenefits: Reducing shortage in raw materials Minimizing energy and cost of production Decreasing landfilling (Tam and Tam, 2006)Industrial & Management Systems 5 Engineering Department
  6. 6. Contamination Collection & Contamination Collection & Transportation Transportation Issues Affecting Recycling C&D Waste Sorting, Transformation, Sorting, Transformation, and Standards Standards and Disposing Disposing (Nabil Kartam et al, 2004)Industrial & Management Systems 6 Engineering Department
  7. 7. Recycled products should compete with original materials according to:  Technical specifications  Price (Tam and Tam, 2006) Industrial & Management Systems 7 Engineering Department
  8. 8. Potential Usage of Recycled C&D Waste Recycled C&D aggregates can be used for: Low-value High value purposes purposes Road sub-base Engineering Structural construction landfill concrete Huang et al, 2006)Industrial & Management Systems 8 Engineering Department
  9. 9. Potential Usage of Recycled C&D Waste (Cont.)Recycled C&D aggregates can: Replace primary limestone aggregates Produce precast concrete building blocks (Soutsos et al, 2011) Industrial & Management Systems 9 Engineering Department
  10. 10. Replacement Percentages of Recycled C&D waste Maximum MaximumReplacement Replacement for recycled for recycled concrete masonry aggregate aggregate 60% 20% coarse coarse fraction fraction 20% fine 20% fine fraction fraction (Soutsos et al, 2011)Industrial & Management Systems 10 Engineering Department
  11. 11. Other Recycled C&D Waste ApplicationsRecycled asphalt: Produce new asphalt Used instead of sand or cement sub-bases Industrial & Management Systems (Tam and Tam, 2006) 11 Engineering Department
  12. 12. Other Recycled C&D Waste ApplicationsFerrous metal Reused directly Melted, and reused to produce new steelIndustrial & Management Systems 12 Engineering Department
  13. 13. Other Recycled C&D Waste ApplicationsRecycled concrete rubble:  Landfilling material Replace natural aggregate in new concreteIndustrial & Management Systems 13 Engineering Department
  14. 14. Other Recycled C&D Waste ApplicationsRecycled glass: Replace asphalt in roads GlassTile Fiber Paving Blocks Filling Material Industrial & Management Systems 14 Engineering Department
  15. 15. Other Recycled C&D Waste Applications (Cont.)Recycled masonry aggregate: Thermal insulating concrete  Aggregate in traditional clay or sodium silicate bricks Industrial & Management Systems 15 (Townsend et al, 2004) Engineering Department
  16. 16. Other Recycled C&D Waste Applications (Cont.)Non-ferrous metals: Reused directly, or melted and then used Produce galvanized steel strip and brassIndustrial & Management Systems 16 Engineering Department
  17. 17. Other Recycled C&D Waste Applications (Cont.)Recycled plastics: 70 % Recycled Produced with sufficient resistance 30 % Used in street furniture, roof and floor, piling, Virgin panel, cladding and insulation foamIndustrial & Management Systems 17 Engineering Department
  18. 18. Other Recycled C&D Waste Applications (Cont.)Recycled timber: Reused in furniture and insulation boards Used to produce lightweight concrete Used as fuel to generate powerIndustrial & Management Systems 18 Engineering Department
  19. 19. Other Recycled C&D Waste Applications (Cont.)Recycled paper and cardboard Easily purified and reused Industrial & Management Systems 19 Engineering Department
  20. 20. Other Recycled C&D Waste Applications (Cont.)Screened soil (fines): Reused as filling material Construction fill (i.e. embankments)Industrial & Management Systems 20 Engineering Department
  21. 21. Recycling Process of C&D WasteWaste Recycling Methods: Chemical Chemical Closed Cycle Closed Cycle Mechanical Mineralogical Mineralogical Construction Sorting Appraisal Appraisal (Mulder et al, 2007) (Huang et al, 2002) (Bianchini et al, 2005) (Townsend et al, 2004)Industrial & Management Systems 21 Engineering Department
  22. 22. Mechanical Sorting Process Bar Trommel Magnetic Air DiskScreening Screening Separation Classification Screening Final Manual Sorting Industrial & Management Systems 22 Engineering Department
  23. 23. Closed Cycle Construction Technology 1 • Closing material cycles for Closing material cycles for Mainly based on Closing the material cycles concrete and masonry concrete and masonry 2 Higher profits • Higher profits • Utilizing fraction of demolition 3 Utilizing fraction of demolition waste as a fuel as a fuel 4Industrial & Management Systems • Reduction in transportation • Reduction in transportation costs costs (Mulder et al, 2007) 23 Engineering Department
  24. 24. Closed Cycle Construction (CCC)Concept Separation Mineral Power Materials generation Processing Construction Products Manufacturing (Mulder et al, 2007)Industrial & Management Systems 24 Engineering Department
  25. 25. Chemical-Mineralogical AppraisalRecognizes particular grain-size fraction  X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) investigates chemical compositions in terms of major elements.  X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) recognizes the constituent mineralogical phases. (Bianchini et al, 2005) Industrial & Management Systems 25 Engineering Department
  26. 26. C&D Waste in Kuwait C&D Waste C&D Waste Other S Waste olid Other Municipal Household Waste Nabil Kartam et al, 2004)Industrial & Management Systems 26 Engineering Department
  27. 27. Composition of C&D waste in Kuwait Concrete Bricks Wood Steel Sand 30% 30% (Nabil Kartam et al, 2004) 8% 25% 2%5%Industrial & Management Systems 27 Engineering Department
  28. 28. Demolition Waste Rates in Kuwait Residential (ton/m2) Industry (tons/m2) 1.45 1.75 Average = 1.5 ton/m2Industrial & Management Systems 28 Engineering Department
  29. 29. Construction Waste in Kuwait Total C&D Waste is 1.6 Million Tons/Year Waste Tons/ Year 600,000 450,000 300,000 150,000 0 Demolition Construction & R ir epa Cons truction of New Buildings Concrete Ma cturing nufaIndustrial & Management Systems 29 Engineering Department
  30. 30. C&D Waste Recycling in KuwaitBenefits: Decreases the high cost of treating landfill sites Preserving desert natural environmentIndustrial & Management Systems 30 Engineering Department
  31. 31. Recycling C&D Waste in Kuwait C&D waste Tons/Day 15,000 11,250 7,500 3,750 0 Facilitys Capacity C&D Amounts receivedIndustrial & Management Systems 31 Engineering Department
  32. 32. Types of C&D Waste A • Large & pure C&D waste bars B • Smaller C&D waste C • Mixture of 10% pure C&D • Mixture of 10% pure C&D waste, 20% of 20% of Type 70% of 70% of waste, Type B, and B, and wastes wastesIndustrial & Management Systems 32 Engineering Department
  33. 33. C&D Waste Recycling ProcessTrucks ArrivalClassification & Segregation Cleaning Crushing Separation Decide on size Industrial & Management Systems 33 Engineering Department
  34. 34. Production sizes’ percentages of Batch No. 1Industrial & Management Systems 34 Engineering Department
  35. 35. Production sizes’ percentages of Batch No. 2Industrial & Management Systems 35 Engineering Department
  36. 36. Why Simulation?!Mimicking current processesBetter UnderstandingMonitoring the current system and investigating bottlenecksIndustrial & Management Systems 36 Engineering Department
  37. 37. Simulating Current (As-Is) C&D Waste Recycling Process Process Activity C&D waste materials enter the factoryClassifying and segregating materials using excavators Cleaning Crushing using jaw crushers Crushing using crusher machine Separating the iron by a magnate Decide on the size of the gravel Storing Industrial & Management Systems 37 Engineering Department
  38. 38. Simulating Recycling ProcessIndustrial & Management Systems 38 Engineering Department
  39. 39. Discrete-event simulation model of C&D Recycling ProcessIndustrial & Management Systems 39 Engineering Department
  40. 40. Statistical Model Validation Provides evidence on whether or not the model is a legitimate representation of reality (Law and Kelton 2000) 95% Confidence LevelIndustrial & Management Systems 40 Engineering Department
  41. 41. Statistical Validation Assumptions Independency (Randomness) NormalityHypothesis testing and Confidence Intervals can be then applied 41Industrial & Management Systems Engineering Department
  42. 42. Test the Equality of Populations’ MeansResults: -97.8194 ≤ µ1-µ2 ≤ 275.8194 statistically equal at a 95% level of confidence The simulation model is a legitimate representation of As-Is systemIndustrial & Management Systems 42 Engineering Department
  43. 43. Optimizing Resources (Manpower & Machinery)Objective:Maximizing resources utilization and plant profitabilityUsing OptQuest Arena Z= Max ( ))Industrial & Management Systems 43 Engineering Department
  44. 44. List of best feasible solutions suggested by OptQuestDumper Excavator Jaw Crusher Loader Crushing Worker Machine 2 2 1 2 1 10Industrial & Management Systems 44 Engineering Department
  45. 45. Applying Other C&D Recycling Processes in Kuwait How could it be applied in AIIP Process Benefit plant Apply Lab analyses Closing Investigate to reuse in civil (i.e. sieve analysis, LA abrasion Ensure the ability Mechanical Sorting Applytest, organic test, friability XRF engineering projects materials’ cycles chemical analysis content test, and fitness test) (i.e. thermal Apply Lab analyses Improve composition Closed Cycle (i.e. sieve analysis, Chemical- treatment, recycled Closing materials’ cycles Ensure the ability Constructio(i.e. thermal treatment, physicalto products recycled products Mineralogical Mechanical physical LA abrasion test, Improve reuse in civil quality CCC friability test, separation, separation, apply density quality n Sorting Appraisal separation techniques) organic content apply density engineering Save energy Recognize the Save energy projects test, and fitness separation Apply XRD constituent test) techniques) analysis Apply XRF analysis mineralogical composition Investigate chemicalChemical-Mineralogical phase Appraisal Apply XRD analysis Recognize the constituent mineralogical phaseIndustrial & Management Systems 45 Engineering Department
  46. 46. Limitations & Considerations Regulations and rules of Kuwait Municipality to allow the usage of recycled products Market Demand Illegal demolition procedures Recycled product prices (Nabil Kartam et al. 2004)Industrial & Management Systems 46 Engineering Department
  47. 47. AcknowledgementDr. Khalid Mahdi, Chairman- Environment Preservation Industrial Co. (EPIC)Eng. RaddadEng. Ahmed Shather Al-EneziEng. Saud Nasser Al-SalehEng. Abdulaziz Bader Al-AnnazEng. Hamad Sulaiman Al-Essa Industrial & Management Systems 47 Engineering Department
  48. 48. Thanks for Listening Any Questions ?Industrial & Management Systems 48 Engineering Department