Dr. Sami Lakkis - Impact of Untreated Urban and Industrial Solid Waste
THE 4 th KUWAIT WASTE MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION 18-19 October 2011 IMPACT OF UNTREATED URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE ON THE ENVIRONMENT Professor Sami LAKKIS Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; [email_address]
The Three R Waste Management Reducing , Re cycling and Reuse
<ul><li>Waste management Options </li></ul><ul><li>► Solid waste management regulation and implementation vary around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>► European countries have the most advanced waste management practices. </li></ul><ul><li>► Most of developing countries have struggle with the collection services and control of disposal sites. </li></ul><ul><li>► Waste Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>- Transport </li></ul><ul><li>-Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>-Incineration </li></ul><ul><li>-Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>-Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>-Composting, </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul><ul><li>- Reuse </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
In most developed countries they use Sorting solid waste
WASTE PRODUCTION ► In 2000, USA 10 billion tons of solid waste per year = 33% of the world’s waste for only 4.6% of world population , ► Most waste process in developed countries: LANDFILL,INCINERATION, RECOVERY ► ORGANIC & PAPER/CARD the big fraction of solid waste Waste Management practices in some Organic and paper/card content developed countries of household waste in 3 locations
CLOSING THE LOOP ► our waste reenter the economy as a useful product having undergone some degree of reprocessing . ► Reprocessed material (secondary material) is essential for the whole waste management issue. ► This may reduce our reliance on virgin materials and reduces energy uses and environmental impacts. ► These secondary material are reliable in supply and quality and there is a market for products made using these materials.
LANDFILL ► Permanent disposal of solid waste materials by burial employed solution in most developing countries ► However this process became more and more less used because issues of space and environmental regulations ► In some developing countries, landfill is still used to minimize pollution and produce energy. ► Methane gas emission is the main environmental impacts of landfills. ► Methane is 21 times more Damaging than CO2 as a greenhouse gas. ► Methane used as Source of Energy ► Health impacts of uncontrolled waste disposal are very evident: Low birth weight , risk of cancer for those living at least 2 km the landfills containing hazardous waste.
INCINERATION ► INCINERATION involves Combustion organic substances ► Incineration converts the waste into ASH, FLUE GAS & HEAT The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic c onstituents of the waste, form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. ► The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before to be dispersed into the atmosphere . The heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power . ► Incineration with energy recovery is one of several WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES such as : GASIFICATION, PYROLYSIS and ANAEROBIC DIGESTION ► In most European countries and Japan Incineration is used to produce energy. ► Although incineration reduce the volume of disposed waste, the environmental impacts are still numerous.
RECOVERY ► Incineration has strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types : clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures. ► Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen , used for industrial or domestic purposes to release energy. Anaerobic digestion and air processing SYSAV incineration Sweden plant in Malmö components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany
Downcycling Process of converting waste materials or useless products into new materials or used products of lesser quality and reduced functionality. ► The goal of downcycling is to - Prevent wasting potentially useful materials, -Reduce consumption of fresh Raw materials , - Reduce energy usage, reduce Air pollution and water pollution - Lower Greenhouse emissions - Plastic recycling turns into Lower grade Plastics ► Breaking computer hard drive to harvest the rare earth magnet ► Recycling used office paper into toilet paper . ► Transferring disposable batteries to lower-power devices (e.g. taking batteries from a digital camera to use in a TV remote . ► Reusing defective car batteries for lower-power applications. ► Reusing towels for other cleaning environments. ► Cutting up old clothes to use as cleaning rags. ► Water Bottle to Plastic Salad Dressing Bottle ► Print Paper to Cardboard or to Toilet Paper ► Crushing a reusable brick to create a very much cheaper recycled aggregate substitute.
ISSUES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ► Must Development mean pollution? ► what are we to do with our waste? ► Do we pollute rivers, seas, land and air? ► While avoidance is ultimate solution, we have to deal with waste production and pollution we are doing ► Increasing in waste and pollution means consequence of rising global population & thus rising living standard. ► The case of radioactive waste is particularly worrying . These waste was dumped in the sea in concrete steel containers, expected to last up to 300 years but some of the contents such as plutonium-239 have a half-life time over 20 000 y ears. ► Urgent issues : Developing pollution control & waste legislation, Green taxation, Landfill tax. “POLLUTER PAYS ”. ► Pollution prevention costs preferable to the costs of damaged heal th, lost resources and increased frequency of climatic hazards. ► Consumer is also environmentally concerned than businessman and politicians.
► Hazardous wastes are poisonous byproducts of manufacturing, farming, city septic systems , construction, automotive garages , laboratories, hospitals, and other industries. The waste may be liquid, solid, or sludge and contain chemicals, heavy metals, radiation, dangerous pathogens, or other toxins . Even households generate hazardous waste from items such as batteries, used computer equipment , and leftover paints or pesticides. ► The waste can harm humans, animals, and plants if they encounter these toxins buried in the ground, in stream runoff, in groundwater that supplies drinking water, or in floodwaters .Some toxins, such as mercury, persist in the environment and accumulate . Humans or animals often absorb them when they eat fish.
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS WASTE What Is Hazardous Waste? ► A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. ► Waste is considered to be hazardous when it contains substances caustic, carcinogenic, corrosive, ecotoxic, flammable, harmful, infectious, irritant, mutagenic, toxic, or an oxidising agent. ► Construction waste, Food W., Garden w., Hotel w., Household w., Liquid w. Medical w/, General & Tailored w., Motor Trade W., Office w., Production w., Pubs & Rest w., Recyclable w., Schools & College w., Shp w., Warehouse w., Other w., ► Major Hazardous waste : Painters , Acid, Adhesives, Aerosols, Animal By-Products , Asbestos, Batteries, Boilers Cooking Oil, Degreaser, Detergents, Drugs, Fire Extinguishers, Fluorescent Tubes, Food Waste, Gas Cylinders, Hazardous Waste (Recyclable) , Inks, Leather, Fur & Textile, Industry Wastes, Medical waste, Oil Filters, Oil Tanks, Paints, Pharmaceuticals, Photographic Industry Wastes, Printer cartridges, Sodium Bulbs, Solvents, Toner Cartridges, Tires, Used Oil, Varnishes, Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment.
ISSUES & IMPACT ► Coping with pollution, dealing with waste. Pollution kill. ► Causes of pollution: ● Rising Human population ● Rising standard of living ● Increasing per capita resource use ● Increased waste generation ● Misunderstand problems of environment ● Inadequate models for costing resources ► Two emotive issues are: ● Hazardous waste disposal ● Use of the sea for waste disposal. ► Most waste are dumped in the coastal area where pollution create damage to the productivity and marine life ► The case of radioactive waste is particularly worrying. Plutonium-239 have a half-life time over 20 000 y ears. ► Disposal and spills of oil in the sea is a critical environmental problem. ► Health impacts of uncontrolled waste disposal are very evident: Low birth weight, risk of cancer for those living near the landfills ( at least 2 km) containing hazardous waste.
How Toxic Waste Affects Our Natural Environment ► Toxic waste is hazardous to human health or to our natural environment. About 15% of our garbage is classified as toxic , and only 85% (approximately) of that is disposed of properly. ► EU and Canada produce one ton of toxic wastes for every single person every year representing about 4.2 million tons of toxic waste in Canada. ► Toxic wastes which are dumped in improper sites can seep into underground water supplies and contaminate huge areas. If the land that is intoxicated supports plant life, most of the plants and trees will die off. If the area is lived on by humans, it could cause serious illness or death ( dioxine, cancer). ► Chemicals toxic substances dumped in the sea turn up in dead whale bodies and dead fish in high enough concentrations to kill people. ► Medical wastes such as used needles and vials of blood (some carrying the AIDS virus) have washed up along the coast have mutated and disfigured fish as well as other water animals have washed up dead or been caught by fishermen. The list of stories goes on, and it's still growing. ► Canada , USA and EU have created laws and regulations to try to stop the illegal dumping of toxic wastes and the destruction of our environment. ► Some toxic wastes can actually been turned into something useful: several kinds of metals can be recycled, namely Lead and silver .