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Research Meth Volume 1 Issue 1

The first issue of EIS newsletter is launched. This newsletter is named as Research Meth. In this issue, the main focus is on the way we can write a readily acceptable research article. A Webware for analyzing your article with respect to its suitability for publication in a selected journal is also provided.

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Research Meth Volume 1 Issue 1

  1. 1. HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH PAPER
  2. 2. Content Scan the QR to see our recommended webhost that can be used to host your personal page(PROMO)
  3. 3. How to write a research paper Mrinmoy Majumder, PhD
  4. 4. Writing a research paper • Writing a research paper is : • Time consuming • Boring • Hard work • Full of uncertainty • Success rate : highly probabilistic • However, this opinion about writing research paper can be changed by following the tips given in the next pages Scan the QR to see our recommended book in this aspect(PROMO)
  5. 5. First Step : Preparation of the Paper Content • The in-detail “content” of the paper has to be written first. • The content may be branched down up to fourth level(1.1.1.1)
  6. 6. Second Step : Filling the content • This four level content as discussed in the previous slide may be filled with related content • Contents can be directly copied from other sources as much as required • The reference to the copied content must be saved so that it can be used while preparing the Reference section of the paper. • The content describing the novelty or the objective or the brief methodology or the detail methodology or results and discussions followed by conclusion has to be written in own words.
  7. 7. Third Step: Making the Methodology Flow chart The flow chart depicting the detail methodology has to be added to the Methodology section The description of the flow chart has to be in own words and can be added after the flow chart.
  8. 8. Fourth Step: Preparation of the R&D • The Result and Discussion(R&D) section has to be prepared as a support to the methodology described in the Methodology section. • The entire result and discussion section has to be in own words not directly copied from other sources. • The results already published but can support the findings of the paper may also be included and cited in the R&D section
  9. 9. Fifth Step : Editing • The paper thus prepared may be printed. • The Objective, Methodology, Result and Discussion and Conclusion section has to be edited minutely and corrections or addition or deletion if any has to be made in this step.
  10. 10. Six Step : Anti Plagiarism and Grammer Check • A plagiarism checking software for identification of duplicate content can be used for detection of similarity of the entire paper with respect to the other sources that are already published. • The identified sentences can be re-written in a different way using synonyms of the existing word. • After the correction the paper has to be rechecked again with the software. • Until the percentage of similarity reduced to less than 8%,this step has to be repeated.
  11. 11. Last Step :Final Editing and Journal Submission • After the similarity of the paper become less than 8%, the fourth level paragraph may be merged with the third and third may be merged to the second paragraph for reduction of complexity in the structure of the paper. • It is better to have a two level content, compared to a one or three or more levelled content. • Once this final editing is completed, the paper has to be submitted for grammatical error checking and then the corrected paper may be submitted to a journal for possible publication.
  12. 12. How to read a book/research paper/newspaper quickly ? • If the book is a fiction nothing can be done to read it quickly. • You have to read it from the very beginning to the end so that you can fully enjoy the drama and thrills involved Scan the QR to see our recommended webhost that can be used to host your personal page(PROMO)
  13. 13. Reading Fiction • A non-fiction book can be read quickly. The backside, "About the Author", Preface and Content will give you an idea about its usability. • If it is really useful then try to find the chapters which may give you the answers you are searching for. • Once you get these chapters start reading from the last para to the first para. • That means, first read the last para which will generate some queries in the mind and to find the answers you will automatically read the next para and so on up to the first one when all your query may get answered.
  14. 14. Backside Reading • The backside reading can reduce your time of reading a book to nearly half due to the inquisitiveness imbibed in you by the last para and • to know the answers you try to search the previous para and then some more queries will be generated and • in searching this increasing the number of queries you will read the entire chapter without noticing the time consumed.
  15. 15. Reading Research Papers In case of research papers the abstract and conclusion is first read. After going through these paras you will understand whether this paper is necessary for your research or not. If the answer is yes then again follow the backside rule to read the Methodology and Result and Discussion section which is enough to extract relevant information from a research paper.
  16. 16. Reading Newspaper • In newspaper reading first few lines of any report will generate interest to it and • then again follow the backside rule so that whole news can be read within few minutes. • For featured articles read the highlighted points and first para to educe interest and • then again follow the backside rule. Scan the QR to see our recommended video converters(PROMO)
  17. 17. Three points for writing a good research paper Three points are extremely vital for your research to be successful, popular and useful.
  18. 18. Idea • First point is the idea around which it is developed. • The central idea of the research ,must be contemporary, solves a problem and • can also encourage other researchers to continue their investigation upon that topic. Scan the QR to subscribe for different software / app news(PROMO)
  19. 19. Style • Second important point is the style at which the research paper was written. • A reader must understand the basic objective and methodology of the study vividly. • The occurrence of number of spelling and grammatical mistakes must be rare. • Image and tables must support the working scope and methodology of the research article.
  20. 20. Citation • Third and final point is citation of previous literature and • quotation of similar research studies. • It will ensure the reliability and justification of the research papers as well as prove certain important observations and solutions.
  21. 21. How to learn MS Excel without any tutor and without any money ?
  22. 22. Most Dominant Spreadsheet • Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) is a spreadsheet program written and distributed by Microsoft for computers using the Microsoft Windows operating system and for Apple Macintosh computers. • It features an intuitive interface and capable calculation and graphing tools which, along with aggressive marketing, have made Excel one of the most popular microcomputer applications to date. • It is overwhelmingly the dominant spreadsheet application available for these platforms and has been so since version 5 in 1993 and its bundling as part of Microsoft Office.
  23. 23. Free Tutorial/Help Files • The Beginner's Guide to Excel - Excel Basics Tutorial • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rwbho0CgEAE • Top 50 Microsoft Excel Shortcut Keys • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T5vSDAX1HjY • 7 Ways to Use Vlookup in Excel • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Xf-0KN-QCs • Introduction to Pivot Tables, Charts, and Dashboards in Excel • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NUjHBNWe9M • How to Create a Data Entry Form in Excel With Add, Modify, Delete and Reset • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-Ze6bX7ous
  24. 24. Tutorial Videos on Excel : Contd. • MS Excel - Conditional Formatting • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7iKoccSTNZA • MS Excel - Print Page Setup & Print Data Tips • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPh9ZPzExTI • MS Excel - Data Validation • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMxl1_NAcxc • Excel Formulas and Functions Tutorial • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jl0Qk63z2ZY
  25. 25. Tools & Apps on Excel • Excel Tools • http://www.excel-extools.com • Excel to Software(without any code) • Spreadsheet Converter • Excel to App (without any code) • https://www.goodbarber.com/create/ • http://www.xlapp.io/xlapp_io/index.php Scan the QR watch a video on mobile security(PROMO)
  26. 26. Outlier Detection A method for detection of abnormal/extreme/uncommon data points among a set of data By Dr.Mrinmoy Majumder Scan the QR to see our recommended tutorial in this aspect
  27. 27. Overview • Significance of Outlier Detection • Importance of Size of Sample Data • Importance of Distribution of Data-set • Chauvenet Method • Dixon Thompson Method
  28. 28. Significance of Outlier Detection • Detection of extreme data • Not from the sample population • Either over or under mean value • Various methods available • Selection of method based on sample size • Selection of method based on underlying distribution
  29. 29. Importance of Size of Sample Data • Rosner Method >25 • Dixon Thompson <25 • Chauvenet Method Any Name of Method Size of Sample Data
  30. 30. Importance of Distribution of Sample Data • Distribution of sample data and the distribution critical deviate must be from the same distribution. • Underlying distribution selects the most appropriate method/test. • Error in selection of methods may ignore some of the outliers.
  31. 31. Chauvenet’s Method Z = (X – Mean of X) / (Standard Deviation of X) • Critical value is selected from the table of distribution of the sample data • To find the critical value first probability based on the size of data is calculated by : ( 1 / 2n ) • Then based on the probability critical value is derived. • If the value of Z is more than the critical value then the data will be an outlier. • The weakness of this method is it can detect only one outlier.
  32. 32. Normal Distribution Table for finding the Critical Value After 1/2n is derived to find the probability, the same was identified in the table and corresponding Z-value in the row and column is used to find the critical value of that probability. Example : Say 1/2n becomes 0.8508 Then, the corresponding z score will be z in row i.e. 1.0 and z in column ie.0.04. Adding both row and column z gives the critical value of Z which is : 1.04
  33. 33. Dixon Thompson Method 1. First, all the data are sorted in an ascending order 2. Smallest is ranked first and largest is ranked last. 3. Then test statistic and critical value of R is determined based on the sample size. • This method is used when direction of the test is predetermined. • If it is specified to find the outlier of the lowest value then this test is preferred to Chauvenet’s Method. • Can detect only one outlier • Used for one or two tailed test.
  34. 34. Test statistic and Critical value m is the sample size After deducing R the value of R is compared with the critical value found in the table as per the level of significance. If the data set have 5% level of significance and sample size of 10 data points then the critical value will be 0.472
  35. 35. Thank You • Many other Outlier Methods are available: • Z-Score or Extreme Value Analysis (parametric) • Probabilistic and Statistical Modeling (parametric) • Linear Regression Models (PCA, LMS) • Proximity Based Models (non-parametric) • Information Theory Models. • View the link for more details : https://towardsdatascience.com/a-brief-overview-of-outlier-detection-techniques- 1e0b2c19e561
  36. 36. Auto-correlation and cross-correlation DR.MRINMOY MAJUMDER (ORCID id : 0000-0001-6231-5989) Lecture 1 of “INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS” course and “HYDRO-INFORMATICS”/”ADVANCED OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES” of MTECH(HYDROINFORMATICS ENGG) Scan the QR to see our recommended tutorial in this aspect
  37. 37. Auto-correlation
  38. 38. Definition • The degree of correlation between adjacent values of the same time series. • The analysis usually examines the changes in correlation as the separation distance increases • The separation distance is called the lag and is denoted by the letter tau or t • The correlation between the adjacent time series is known as Lag 1 Auto Correlation • The correlation between the values separated by two time interval is known as Lag 2 Auto Correlation • A plot of the auto correlation coefficient vs lag is called the correlogram
  39. 39. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT dataset OF SAME TIMESERIES SEPARATED BY A DISTANCE OF tau • If A = Sum of the product of xi and xi+t from i = 1 to N-t ( N is the total no. of data point in the series) • B = Sum of xi from i=1 to N-t • C = Sum of xi from i=t+1 to N • Let D = N-t • If E = Sum of the square of xi from i=1 to N-t • F= Sum of the square of xi from i=t+1 to N • Then, • R(t) • = t-lag Auto Correlation Coefficient • 𝐴−𝐷−1(𝐵×𝐶) 𝐸−𝐷−1 𝐵2 × 𝐹−𝐷−1 C2 M NO
  40. 40. Points to remember • At t = 0, R(t) = 1 • As t increases values to calculate R(t) decreases and correlogram begin to oscillate • Maximum value of t must be equal to or less than 10% of N • Strong secular trend = high auto correlation for small lags • Periodic trend = peak of correlogram occurring at the period of the component
  41. 41. How to calculate autocorrelation coefficient 1) The procedure to calculate R(t) begins with the creation of a table where the first column will indicate the value of i. 2) Second column will depict the value of xi 3) Third column will show the value of xi+t 4) Fourth column will indicate the value of square of xi 5) After deducing the value of D, the fifth to ninth column will depict the value of respectively A,B,C,E and F (As indicated in Pearson Product.. slide). 6) The tenth column will show the value of R(t) after calculating the same as per the equation given in Pearson Product.. slide.
  42. 42. Autocorrelation Example : problem • Calculate the lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient of the following data series : 4 3 5 4 6 5 8 Indicate the range within the dataset taken for calculation of B Indicate the range within the dataset taken for calculation of C Indicate the range within the dataset taken for calculation of E Indicate the range within the dataset taken for calculation of F
  43. 43. Autocorrelation Example : Solution What is M,N,O ??
  44. 44. Cross correlation
  45. 45. definition • Objective is to identify the significance of correlation and thus the predictability between two time series • Cross-correlation coefficients can be plotted against lag to produce Cross-correlogram • Calculation of coefficient is same like that of deduction of the auto-correlation coefficient • Only the xi+t term is replaced by yi+t where y represents the data point of the other series
  46. 46. Difference between auto(A) and cross(C) correlation For A : value of coefficient at lag = 0 is always 1 For C : can take any value between - 1 to + 1 For A : peak of correlogram can be found at lag = 0 For C : peak of cross-correlogram can be observed at any lag other than 0 For A : calculation of positive lags is enough For C : calculation of both positive and negative lag is required if both are physically feasible (rainfall of today will have zero impact on the runoff of yesterday)
  47. 47. Calculation of cross-correlation coefficient between two time series xi (independent/cause) and yi (dependant/effect) • If A = Sum of the product of xi and yi+T from i = 1 to N- T ( N is the total no. of data point in the series) • B = Sum of xi from i=1 to N- T • C = Sum of yi from i=T+1 to N • Let D = N- T • If E = Sum of the square of xi from i=1 to N-T • F= Sum of the square of yi from i=1+T to N • G = Sum of yi from i=1 +T to N • Then, • Rc(T) • = T-lag Cross Correlation Coefficient • 𝐴−𝐷−1(𝐵×𝐶) 𝐸−𝐷−1 𝐵2 × 𝐹−𝐷−1 G2 M NO Note : Here the absolute value of tau(T) is considered
  48. 48. How to calculate cross-correlation coefficient 1) The procedure to calculate R(T) begins with the creation of a table where the first column will indicate the value of i. 2) Second column will depict the value of xi 3) Third column will indicate the value of yi 4) Fourth column will show the value of yi+T 5) Fifth column will indicate the value of square of xi 6) Sixth column will depict the value of square of yi 7) After deducing the value of D, the seventh to eleventh column will depict the value of respectively A,B,C,E and F (As indicated in twelvth slide).C and G is generally the same factor if tau is positive. 8) The tenth column will show the value of R(t) after calculating the same as per the equation given in twelvth slide
  49. 49. Cross correlation Example : problem • Calculate the lag-1 cross-correlation coefficient of the following data series : Indicate the range within the dataset taken for calculation of B Indicate the range within the dataset taken for calculation of C Indicate the range within the dataset taken for calculation of E Indicate the range within the dataset taken for calculation of F i xi yi 1 5 2.5 2 4.8 2.1 3 3.7 2 4 2.8 1.3 5 3.6 1.7 6 3.3 2 7 2.9 1.8
  50. 50. Cross correlation Example : solution What is M,N,O ??
  51. 51. Web-ware : Journal Suitability Indicator • You had wrote a research article now you are trying to find a suitable journal to publish this manuscript. • Most of the publishers and also some individual websites has developed a Journal Finder Tool where if you paste your article or abstract of the article then the software will show you the most suitable journals for that article. • The problem is it does not say whether your article is suitable for publication in that journal or not. • Every journal has its own criteria which it looks into the articles submitted for possible publication in that journal
  52. 52. Contd. • By suitability we mean an article must match the criteria of the journal • And by “criteria” we do not only mean about the factors mentioned in the guideline to the authors but also the “criteria” which are hidden but can be retrieved if you observe the published articles of that journal. • That is why we devised the Journal Suitability Indicator which will show whether your article is suitable for that journal or not. • The indicator will consider all the visible and hidden factors the journal considers before it approves an article for publication.
  53. 53. Inputs • You have to enter six inputs to find the JSI value of your article with the targeted journal • Inputs required are : Number of keywords of your article matching with the topic of interest of the targeted journal • Number of keywords of the most cited and latest three published manuscripts of the journal, matching with the keywords of your article • Number of Articles of the journal that you have cited in your article. • Number of articles cited from the published articles of the members of Editorial and Reviewer Board of the journal.
  54. 54. Output • On submission of the six inputs described in the previous page JSI will be calculated along with the Suitability of the journal with respect to your article. • JSI will be a number between 0 to 1,more the better . • If JSI is less than 0.25 then your article is highly unsuitable for that journal and If within 0.26 to 0.5 then also the article is not suitable for the targeted journal. • However if the JSI is more than 0.5 then the article become suitable and for a JSI of more than 0.75 then your manuscript is highly suitable for the selected journal. • Although it doesn’t mean that your article will surely get published in the journal as that depends on the quality of your work and writing along with the preference of the selected reviewers and editors, but at least you can be assured that your article will not get rejected due to “out of scope of the journal”.
  55. 55. Link to Journal Suitability Indicator(JSI) • Journal Suitability Indicator(JSI) • https://tinyurl.com/y44zuaek Scan the QR Code to access JSI
  56. 56. Thank you and see you in the next edition • Contact Us or Inquire about Advertisement/Announcements or Subscribe through Energy In Style Publishers or Research Methodology Blog • http://energyinstyle.website • https://researchmethodology2012.blogspot.com/ • You May Also Like : • WE Nexus Letter : https://waterandenergynexus.blogspot.com/ • Hydro-Geek Newsletter : https://hydroideas.blogspot.com/ • Innovate With Sustainability : http://www.baipatra.ws Scan the QR Code Scan the QR Code Promo : Buy

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