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Introduction to Hydro informatics

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An introduction to the emerging branch of Hydro-informatics Engineering.The presentation tries to highlight the salient points of this new specialization which involve contribution from various engineering ,science and management disciplines for the single objective of optimizing the utilization of water or water power resources.Various soft computation tools and techniques are generally used to achieve this objective.That is why, the knowledge of the subjects as well as the techniques are required to become an expert or professional from this stream.

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Introduction to Hydro informatics

  1. 1. HYDRO-INFORMATICS A BRANCH OF ENGINEERING WHICH DEALS WITH WATER, WATER POWER AND INFORMATICS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • ABNORMALITIES IN CLIMATIC PATTERN • LARGE SCALE URBANIZATION • INCREASE IN POPULATION • ADVANCEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY • DEMAND FOR LUXURY • NON-OPTIMAL UTILIZATION OF WATER AND ENERGY RESOURCES • UNCONTROLLED EXTRACTION OF THE RESOURCES • WASTAGE OR UNNECESSARY USE OF RESOURCES E F F E C TC A U S E
  3. 3. CASE-STUDIES • “APPROXIMATELY 98% OF OUR WATER IS SALTY AND ONLY 2% IS FRESH. OF THAT 2%, ALMOST 70% IS SNOW AND ICE, 30% IS GROUNDWATER, LESS THAN 0.5% IS SURFACE WATER (LAKES, RIVERS, ETC) AND LESS THAN 0.05% IS IN THE ATMOSPHERE”. • THE MAIN EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IS IT “CAUSES POLAR ICE TO MELT INTO THE SEA, WHICH TURNS FRESH WATER INTO SEA WATER, ALTHOUGH THIS HAS LITTLE DIRECT EFFECT ON WATER SUPPLY” BUT AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES GET MINIMIZED. • ANOTHER EFFECT OF THE ABNORMAL RISE IN GLOBAL TEMPERATURE IS TO “INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF WATER THAT THE ATMOSPHERE CAN HOLD” WHICH LEAD TO ”MORE AND HEAVIER RAINFALL WHEN THE AIR COOLS”. • IN A REPORT PUBLISHED IN THE GUARDIAN, MORE RAINFALL MEANS MORE FRESH WATER RESOURCES BUT MASSIVE AMOUNT OF RAINFALL LEADS TO RAPID MOVEMENT OF WATER FROM THE ATMOSPHERE TO THE OCEANS AND THUS REDUCES THE SCOPE OF STORAGE AND UTILIZATION. • AS A RESULT SCARCITY OF WATER TAKES PLACE.
  4. 4. CASE STUDIES • EFFECTS OF WATER SCARCITY IS MASSIVE WITH RESPECT TO FOOD PRODUCTION. • ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, AGRICULTURE RENDERS ABOUT 70% OF GLOBAL WATER WITHDRAWALS AND COMPETES WITH “DOMESTIC, INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL USES FOR A SCARCE WATER SUPPLY”. • CHINA EXPERIENCES RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH IN RECENT DECADES, BUT HAVE “ONLY 7% OF THE WORLD’S ARABLE LAND AVAILABLE TO FEED 22% OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION” • LACK OF ASSESSMENT ABOUT THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE “ON CHINA’S WATER RESOURCES AND AGRICULTURE AND THEREFORE CHINA’S ABILITY TO FEED ITS PEOPLE” WILL DISTURB THE FOOD SECURITY IN NEAR FUTURE. • ACCORDING TO PIAO ET.AL.(NATURE,2010), WORK RELATED TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF “REGIONAL CLIMATE SIMULATIONS—ESPECIALLY OF PRECIPITATION—AND DEVELOP A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE MANAGED AND UNMANAGED RESPONSES OF CROPS TO CHANGES IN CLIMATE, DISEASES, PESTS AND ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS” MUST BE ENCOURAGED AND PRACTICED TO PREPARE AN OPTIMAL DISASTER MANAGEMENTPLAN.
  5. 5. CASE STUDIES • IN A REPORT AUTHORED BY DIEGO JUAN RODRIGUEZ AND MARCELINO MADRIGAL(THE WATER BLOG,2014) THE AUTHORS STRESSED THAT MORE THAN HALF OF THE GLOBAL POWER UTILITY AND ENERGY COMPANIES HAVE EXPERIENCED “WATER- RELATED BUSINESS IMPACTS”. WATER IS NOW A SUBSTANTIVE RISK TO BUSINESS OPERATIONS FOR TWO THIRD OF THE COMPANIES THAT PARTICIPATED IN THE STUDY. • THE GLOBAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED TO 9 BILLION AND SO IS THE COMPETITION FOR USE OF WATER AMONG THE DIFFERENT SECTORS LIKE ENERGY, AGRICULTURE ,DOMESTIC, INDUSTRY ETC. • IN THE SAME REPORT THE AUTHORS DESCRIBED ABOUT THE LACK OF SUFFICIENT WATER RESOURCES IN SOUTH AFRICA WHICH IMBIBED THE THERMAL POWER PLANTS INTO DRY COOLING SYSTEMS THAT “COST MORE TO BUILD AND ARE LESS EFFICIENT THAN WATER-COOLED SYSTEMS”. • THE REPORT ALSO HIGHLIGHTED THE CONDITION OF CALIFORNIA’S HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION IN 2012 WHEN THE POWER PRODUCTION WAS 38% LOWER THAN THE LAST SUMMER DUE TO “REDUCED SNOWPACK AND LOW PRECIPITATION” • AS A RESULT, "THE NEED FOR INTEGRATED ENERGY-WATER PLANNING TO IDENTIFY AND REDUCE RISKS, MAXIMIZE BENEFITS AND AVOID FINANCIAL LOSSES” BECOMES NECESSITY.
  6. 6. NEED OF THE HOUR • OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF WATER/WATER POWER • UTILIZATION AS PER REQUIREMENT • INTELLIGENT ALLOCATION OF WATER/WATER POWER • MINIMIZATION OF UNCERTAINTY • ANALYSIS OF IMPACTS • REAL TIME MONITORING AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS • PREPARATION OF MITIGATION PROCEDURE Development of system for communication Application of soft computation tools Utilization of the knowledge gained from the application of softcomputation
  7. 7. LEADS TO…. EXPERTISE IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF HYDRO-INFORMATICS ENGINEERING (HIE) scarcity water soft-computation communication populationtechnology BENEFICIARY BENEFICIARY T O O L S A N D T E C H N I Q U E S PROBLEM RESOURCE H I E
  8. 8. HYDRO-INFORMATICS ENGINEERING • DECISION MAKING TOOLS • PREDICTIVE MODELS • STATISTICAL METHODS • UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS • GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Engineering knowledge
  9. 9. SUB-DOMAINS STATISTICS ENGINEERING SOFT- COMPUTATION MANAGEMENT
  10. 10. STATISTICS • PROBABILITY ANALYSIS • RELIABILITY ANALYSIS • DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION • CONTROL CHART • GRAPH THEORY • DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS • INDEX • PREDICTIVE MODELS • OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES • DECISION SCIENCE Knowledge of the following statistical concepts are pre- requisite for working in the field of hydro- informatics
  11. 11. ENGINEERING • CIVIL • (HYDROLOGY) • MECHANICAL • (HYDRAULIC, PIPE NETWORK) • ELECTRICAL • (HYDRO POWER, PUMPS) • ELECTRONICS • ( MONITORING SENSORS ) • COMMUNICATION • (INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY(ICT) • COMPUTER SCIENCE • (PROGRAMMING, IMAGE PROCESSING) • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY • (ICT) • AGRICULTURE • (IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT, AGRI- MACHINERY) • PRODUCTION • (DECISION MAKING, AUTOMATION) • INDUSTRIAL • (OPERATION MANAGEMENT, DECISION MAKING) Engineers of following depts. can do research in hydro-informatics
  12. 12. SOFT COMPUTATION • MATLAB • OTHER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES • NATURE BASED ALGORITHMS • GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM Expertise in Tools and Techniques like the following are required to work in Hydro- informatics • MULTI CRITERIA DECISION MAKING TOOLS • R • NEURAL NETWORKS • DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
  13. 13. MANAGEMENT • OPERATION MANAGEMENT • FINANCE • IT • SYSTEM MANAGEMENT Hydro-informatics is all about optimal management • DISASTER MANAGEMENT • INVENTORY MANAGEMENT • HUMAN RESOURCE • MARKETING
  14. 14. JOURNALS • JOURNAL OF HYDRO-INFORMATICS ENGINEERING. • OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE IAHR-IWA-IAHS JOINT COMMITTEE ON HYDRO-INFORMATICS • PUBLISHED BY INTERNATIONAL WATER ASSOCIATION(IWA) • IMPACT FACTOR : 1.64 • MOST CITED PAPER FROM THE JOURNAL : • NEURAL NETWORK RIVER FORECASTING WITH MULTI-OBJECTIVE FULLY INFORMED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION • WATER • OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL ON WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, INCLUDING THE ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES • PUBLISHED BY MDPI • IMPACT FACTOR :1.832(2016) • MOST CITED PAPER FROM THE JOURNAL : • ADVANCES IN MEMBRANE DISTILLATION FOR WATER DESALINATION AND PURIFICATION APPLICATIONS SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE JOURNALS FOR MORE INFO
  15. 15. JOURNALS • JOURNAL OF HYDROGEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGIC ENGINEERING (JHHE) • PUBLISHES ALL THEMES OF HYDRO-INFORMATICS THAT INCLUDE: COMPUTATIONAL HYDRAULICS, WATER USE AND DESALINATION, WATER QUALITY, WATER RESOURCES, WASTE WATER TREATMENT, AQUIFER TESTS, SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT, HYDROLOGY MODELLING, STORM WATER PLANNING, MODELLING AND MANAGEMENT, FLOODWAY ANALYSIS, ECOHYDROLOGY, HYDRO-INFORMATICS, GROUND WATER QUALITY & ANALYSIS AND EROSION & SEDIMENTATION CONTROL. • PUBLISHED BY SCITECHNOL. • IMPACT FACTOR : NEW JOURNAL • MOST CITED PAPER FROM THE JOURNAL : • NUMERICAL MODELING OF TSUNAMI-LIKE SOLITARY WAVE IMPINGING AND OVERTOPPING A SEAWALL THROUGH SPH SCHEMES BY CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF ENTRAPPED AIR. • WATER AND INFORMATICS • EDITED BY THE AUTHOR OF THIS PRESENTATION. AIMS TO PUBLISH PAPERS ON APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORKS AND DECISION MAKING ALGORITHMS IN WATER RELATED PROBLEMS • PUBLISHED BY PRIVITIUM • IMPACT FACTOR :NEW JOURNAL • MOST CITED PAPER FROM THE JOURNAL : • 1ST ISSUE AWAITED SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE JOURNALS FOR MORE INFO
  16. 16. BOOKS FOUR BOOKS THAT GIVES AN IDEA ABOUT THE SCOPE OF HYDRO-INFORMATICS ENGINEERING • PRACTICAL HYDROINFORMATICS: COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL ... • EDITED BY ROBERT J. ABRAHART, LINDA M. SEE, DIMITRI P. SOLOMATINE • GOOD FOR ANALYSING THE CASE STUDIES IN HYDRO-INFORMATICS • SPRINGER SCIENCE & BUSINESS MEDIA, 2008 • HANDBOOK OF RESEARCH ON HYDROINFORMATICS: TECHNOLOGIES, THEORIES AND APPLICATIONS • AUTHORED BY GASMELSEID, TAGELSIR MOHAMED • GOOD FOR LEARNING ABOUT THE APPLICATION OF HYDRO-INFORMATICS IN SOLVING WATER RELATED PROBLEMS • IDEA GROUP INC (IGI), 2010 SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE BOOKS FOR MORE INFO
  17. 17. BOOKS…CONTD. FOUR BOOKS THAT GIVES AN IDEA ABOUT THE SCOPE OF HYDRO-INFORMATICS ENGINEERING • HYDROINFORMATICS TOOLS FOR PLANNING, DESIGN, OPERATION AND REHABILITATION OF SEWER SYSTEMS • AUTHORED BY JIRI MARSALEK, CEDO MAKSIMOVIC, EVZEN ZEMAN, ROLAND PRICE • GOOD FOR “SEWAGE SYSTEMS, STARTING WITH THEIR PLANNING AND THEN GOING ON TO DISCUSS THEIR DESIGN, OPERATION AND REHABILITATION • SPRINGER SCIENCE & BUSINESS MEDIA, 2013 • DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR INTEGRATED URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT: • AUTHORED BY TIM FLETCHER, ANA DELETIC • GOOD FOR LEARNING ABOUT “COLLECTION, VALIDATION, STORAGE, ASSESSMENT AND UTILIZATION OF THE RELEVANT DATA” FOR INTEGRATED URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT • CRC PRESS, 2008 SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE BOOKS FOR MORE INFO
  18. 18. GROUPS / ASSOCIATION • INTERNATIONAL WATER ASSOCIATION : HYDRO- INFORMATICS SUB GROUP • HYDROINFORMATICS CHAIR GROUP IN IHE, DELFT • IAHR/IWA JOINT COMMITTEE ON HYDRO- INFORMATICS • LINKED IN GROUP : HYDRO-INFORMATICS SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE GROUPS FOR MORE INFO
  19. 19. COURSE • MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY DEGREE • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AGARTALA • STRESSES ON : APPLICATIONS OF HYDRO-INFORMATICS IN WATER-POWER • DURATION : 2 YEARS • ADMISSION THROUGH : CCMT ON THE BASIS OF GATE SCORE • LOCATION : TRIPURA, INDIA • GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE (GECT) • STRESSES ON : PREDICTION AND MANAGEMENT OF BOTH THE QUALITY AND THE QUANTITY OF WATER IN BOTH UNDERGROUND (AQUIFERS) AND ABOVE GROUND (LAKES, RIVERS, AND STREAMS) RESOURCES • DURATION : 2 YEARS • ADMISSION THROUGH : CCMT ON THE BASIS OF GATE SCORE • LOCATION : THRISSUR, KERALA SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE COURSES FOR MORE INFO
  20. 20. COURSE …CONTD. • ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER'S DEGREE IN HYDRO-INFORMATICS AND WATER MANAGEMENT (EUROAQUAE) • EUROAQUAE CONSORTIUM COORDINATED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF NICE-SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS • STRESSES ON : APPLICATIONS OF HYDRO-INFORMATICS IN SMART WATER MANAGEMENT • DURATION : 2 YEARS • ADMISSION THROUGH : DIRECT ENTRY BY APPLICATION • LOCATION : DIFFERENT CITIES IN EUROPE • MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREE • NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY • STRESSES ON : QUANTITATIVE TRAINING IN HYDROLOGY, HYDRAULICS AND MODERN INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF WATER MANAGEMENT • DURATION : 1 YEARS • ADMISSION THROUGH : DIRECT ENTRY BY APPLICATION BUT A REQUIREMENT OF IELTS SCORE OF 6.5 OVERALL (WITH A MINIMUM OF 6.0 IN ALL SUB- SKILLS) IS ESSENTIAL FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS • LOCATION : NEW CASTLE, UNITED KINGDOM SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE COURSES FOR MORE INFO
  21. 21. COURSE …CONTD. • MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREE • THE INTERNATIONAL MASTERS IN HYDRO- INFORMATICS (IMHI) IS A JOINT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMME OF UNESCO-IHE, DELFT, THE NETHERLANDS AND HOHAI UNIVERSITY (HU), NANJING, CHINA • STRESSES ON : “SOLVE PROBLEMS OF HYDRAULICS, HYDROLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FOR BETTER WATER MANAGEMENT USING SIMULATION MODELLING AND OTHER TOOLS” • DURATION : 1 YEAR 6 MONTHS • ADMISSION THROUGH : DIRECT ENTRY BY APPLICATION • LOCATION : NANJING, CHINA SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE COURSES FOR MORE INFO
  22. 22. JOBS • AS A CONSULTANT : EXAMPLE : HYDROINFORMATICS INSTITUTE, SINGAPORE. (FOR MORE SUCH JOBS VISIT : STARTUPJOBS.ASIA) • AS AN AGRI-CONSULTANT : EXAMPLE : AGRICONSULTING, HYDRO INFORMATICS SPECIALIST JOBS IN RWANDA ( FOR MORE SUCH JOBS AJOBSRWANDA.BLOGSPOT.IN) • AS A RESEARCHER : EXAMPLE : PHD STUDENTSHIP IN UNIVERSITIES OF BRIGHTON AND DURHAM, USA (FOR MORE SUCH JOBS VISIT :IAHR.ORG) • AS A LECTURER : EXAMPLE : LECTURER IN CIVIL ENGINEERING (EDUCATION AND RESEARCH), UNIVERSITY OF EXETER, UK (FOR MORE SUCH JOBS VISIT :IAHR.ORG) • AS AN ENGINEER : EXAMPLE : MID/SENIOR LEVEL WATER RESOURCES ENGINEER, PORTLAND, OR, USA (FOR MORE SUCH JOBS VISIT :IAHR.ORG) SEARCH THE NET WITH THE NAME OF THE JOBS FOR MORE INFO
  23. 23. THANK YOU
  24. 24. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • FOR CASE STUDY : HOW WILL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON FRESH WATER SECURITY? • HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/ENVIRONMENT/2012/NOV/30/CLIMATE-CHANGE-WATER • FOR CASE STUDY : THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER RESOURCES AND AGRICULTURE IN CHINA • HTTPS://WWW.NATURE.COM/NATURE/JOURNAL/V467/N7311/FULL/NATURE09364.HTML • FOR CASE STUDY : WATER SCARCITY AND AGRICULTURE • HTTPS://THEWATERPROJECT.ORG/WATER-SCARCITY/WATER-SCARCITY-AND-AGRICULTURE • FOR CASE STUDY : 4 WAYS WATER SHORTAGES ARE HARMING ENERGY PRODUCTION • HTTP://BLOGS.WORLDBANK.ORG/WATER/4-WAYS-WATER-SHORTAGES-ARE-HARMING-ENERGY- PRODUCTION • FOR CLIP ARTS : WATER CLIP ARTS • HTTPS://OPENCLIPART.ORG/TAGS/WATER

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