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How to remove pollutants of rural water

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A filter can be used to treat urban as well as rural water. The most common contaminants of rural surface water are impurities released from the fertilizers and pesticides used for unhindered growth of crops and plants . The surface runoff, after a flush get mixed with nitrate,sulfate and some other inorganic and also organic micro-constituents which are present in the cultivators watershed and may have been consumed by the crop itself. However without the runoff, it could have never reached the surface water sources like rivers and lakes. To know how to select a filter for rural water, a presentation was prepared which can be accessed from here.

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How to remove pollutants of rural water

  1. 1. How to remove pollutants of rural water ? • PREPARED BY : DR.MRINMOY MAJUMDER,FOUNDING EDITOR(HONR), INNOVATE FOR SUSTAINABILITY,HTTP://WWW.BAIPATRA.WS. • FIND ME IN RESEARCHGATE AND LINKED IN AS MRINMOY MAJUMDER • IN TWITTER AND KUDOES AS KUTTU80
  2. 2. Different Types of Filters
  3. 3. PHYSICAL FILTERS AND ION EXCHANGE FILTERS
  4. 4. ACTIVATED CARBON REVERSE OSMOSIS
  5. 5. ACTIVATED CARBON AND REVERSE OSMOSIS FILTERS
  6. 6. Distillation vs UV Filters
  7. 7. DISTILLATION AND UV FILTERS
  8. 8. Contaminants in Rural Water • In rural areas, sources of diffuse water pollution include: run-off from agricultural land containing substances including pest control products, animal medicines, slurry, sewage sludge and manure. run-off and leaching from contaminated land. silt and dust from mining, quarrying, construction and demolition. • “….much of the pollution originates from animal wastes and commercial fertilisers. To a lesser extent, groundwater contamination also occurs in this sector as a result of inadequate percolation at septic tanks and from leaching of water soluble plant nutrients from the soil.”…. (Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government.Ireland,2020) • Infectious diseases caused by bacteria like E Coli and parasites like Cryptosporidium are the most significant health risk indicators associated with contaminated drinking water mainly found in rural water.
  9. 9. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • In rural areas as described earlier (slide 25) water is generally collected from surface water sources like lakes, ponds or rivers and there will be high chance of contamination by both organic and inorganic pollutants which can be present in the fertilizers and pesticides used in the agricultural fields for cultivation. • In some location where ground water is extracted and used, probability of concentration of heavy metals will be more compared to the water collected from surface water sources. • As the soil in the agricultural fields are loosely bound, soil particles can be carried away by the surface runoff after a spell of rainfall which will also contaminate the surface water source by increasing the Total Suspended Solids in the water body. • Rural Water may also contain hardness.
  10. 10. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • In such areas activated carbon followed by ion exchange and if you have high budget for procuring filters, then you can use RO at the last stage. Activate Carbon filter will remove the suspended soil particles, Volatile Organic Compounds(VOC), herbicides, pesticides, chlorines and some other inorganic chemicals. In a study conducted by Abdulrazak et.al.(2016) activated carbon filter was found to be able to remove heavy metals like Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead from waste water. • The remaining inorganic pollutants like sulphates and nitrates which was dissolved due to the contamination from fertilizers and pesticides including hardness of the water can be removed by the ion exchange filter.
  11. 11. Some tips and tricks while buying water filters • RO filter will remove the remaining micro-organisms as both activated carbon and ion-exchange filter can not remove micro-organic pollutants. • However if you want to reduce your electricity consumption and avoid using additional infrastructure for managing the waste water which is produced as a by-product at the end of RO process then RO stage can be replaced by UV lights which consume less electricity and also does not require any additional waste water management procedure. • On the other hand UV lights can remove the remaining amount of microorganic pollutants after filtration by the ion exchange filter.
  12. 12. Thank you • Visit me in Innovate for Sustainability(http://www.baipatra.ws) • Join the group : Water, Energy and Informatics (http://groupspaces.com/WaterResourceManagers/)
  13. 13. References • Abdulrazak, Sani, K. Hussaini, and H. M. Sani. "Evaluation of removal efficiency of heavy metals by low-cost activated carbon prepared from African palm fruit." Applied Water Science 7, no. 6 (2017): 3151-3155. • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment Technologies for Household Use." (2015). • Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government,2020,Urban and Rural Water Pollution, Retrieved from http://www.askaboutireland.ie/enfo/irelands- environment/water/water-pollution/urban-and-rural-water-pol/ • Pal, Amrita, Yiliang He, Martin Jekel, Martin Reinhard, and Karina Yew-Hoong Gin. "Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle." Environment international 71 (2014): 46-62.

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