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  1. 1.  Definition of Pollution  Types of Pollution  Air Pollution: a. Introduction c. Effects b. Causes d. Prevention  Water Pollution a. Introduction c. Effects b. Causes d. Prevention  Noise Pollution a. Introduction c. Effects b. Causes d. Prevention
  2. 2. To be continue 2nd Slide  Land Pollution Introduction Causes Effects Prevention  Radio Active Pollution Introduction Causes Effects Prevention
  3. 3.  When Harmful Substances Contaminate the Environment it is Called Pollution.  Pollution refers to the very bad condition of environment in terms of quantity and quality .
  4. 4. Types of Pollution There are Five types of Pollution  Air Pollution  Water Pollution  Noise Pollution  Land Pollution  Radio Active Pollution
  5. 5.  Atmosphere is the life blanket of Earth.  It is therefore essential that we know more about the atmosphere and the ways in which it is Polluted.
  6. 6. Major sources of Air Pollution - Industries -Automobiles and Domestic fuels -High Proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide
  7. 7. Air pollution is the condition in which air contains a high concentration of certain chemicals that may harm living things or damage non-living things. Air pollution is caused by solid particles and poisonous gases in the air. These air pollutants include carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.
  8. 8. Pollutants Major Sources Harmful Effects (a) Carbon monoxide Incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances eg. charcoal, wood, petrol, etc. - Carbon monoxide reacts with hemoglobin in the blood to form carboxyhaemoglobin so the hemoglobin cannot transport blood to the rest of the body. - Cause headaches, fatigue breathing
  9. 9. Pollutants Major Sources Harmful Effects (b) Oxides of nitrogen (eg. nitrogen monoxide , NO & nitrogen dioxide, NO2. 1) Reactions that occur in car engines (internal combustion engines) 2) From lightning Nitrogen reacts with oxygen in the air to form nitrogen monoxide. N2 (g) + O2 (g)  2NO (g) Nitrogen monoxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2). 2NO (g) + O2 (g)  2NO2 (g) 1) Eye irritation 2) Breathing difficulties 3) Lung inflammation (bronchitis) 4) Acid rain
  10. 10. Pollutants Major Sources Harmful Effects (c) Sulfur dioxide 1) combustion of sulfur containing fossil fuels (especially coal) 2) volcano eruptions Sulfur reacts with oxygen in the air to form sulfur dioxide. S (g) + O2 (g)  2SO2 (g) 1) Eye irritation 2) Breathing difficulties 3) Lung inflammation (bronchitis) 4) Acid rain
  11. 11. Other Pollutants Unburnt hydrocarbons are released in car exhaust. Methane is a colourless and odourless gas produced when plant and animal matter decay. It is also produced from the decay of rubbish in landfills. Methane is a greenhouse gas.
  12. 12. Air Pollution affects???  Human health  Animals  Plants  The atmosphere as a whole
  13. 13.  Rain usually has a pH that is slightly below 7.  Why? Carbon dioxide in the air dissolves in rainwater to form carbonic acid, which is a weak acid.  However, acid rain has a pH value of 4 or less.
  14. 14.  Acid rain is formed when acidic air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) dissolve in rainwater.  Sulphur dioxide dissolves in water to form sulphurous acid (H2SO3). Chemical equation: SO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO3(aq) In the presence of oxygen in the air, acid is slowly oxidised to sulphuric acid (H2SO4).  In the presence of oxygen and water, nitrogen dioxide is converted to nitric acid. 4NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g)  4HNO3(aq)
  15. 15. Effects of acid rain • Corrodes metal structures such as fences and bridges • Reacts with carbonates in marble and limestone. • Reduces pH , which will kill fish and other aquatic life. • Leaches important nutrients and destroys plants.
  16. 16. Yes, we can avoid pollution As Follows Use natural Gases, like LPG autos Do not Burst Crackers Use less Amount of Fuel for Vehicles Avoid using and use electric stoves (bio gas)
  17. 17. Catalytic converters involve the use of redox reaction: 1. Carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide. Oxides of nitrogen are reduced to nitrogen. Eg. Nitrogen monoxide + carbon monoxide  nitrogen + carbon dioxide 2 NO (g) + 2 CO (g)  N2 (g) + 2CO2 (g) 2. Unburnt hydrocarbons are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Eg. Octane + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water vapor 2 C8H18 (g) + 25 O2  16 CO2 (g) + 18 H2O (g) Catalytic Converters
  18. 18.  The best way to control air pollution is to … burn less fossil fuels.
  19. 19. 2 ways of minimizing the effects of sulfur dioxide pollution: Flue Gas Desulfurization . 1. Remove sulfur from fossil fuels before burning. However, this method is too expensive and difficult. 2. Remove sulfur dioxide from the waste gases from burning. - Process known as desulfurization
  20. 20. What Happens in Desulfurization? Sulfur dioxide reacts with an aqueous suspension of calcium carbonate to form solid calcium sulfite. CaCO3(s) + SO2(g)  CaSO3(s) + CO2(g) The calcium sulfite is further oxidized to calcium sulfate by atmospheric oxygen. CaSO3(s) + O2(g)  2CaSO4(s)
  21. 21. • Prohibition of the use of open fires for the disposal of domestic and industrial wastes • Introduction of unleaded petrol and phasing out of leaded petrol • Reduction of the permissible level of sulphur in diesel • Fitting of all petrol-driven vehicles with catalytic converters
  22. 22. The Contamination of water with undesirable substances which make it unfit for usage is termed water Pollution.
  23. 23. Some of the stuff that it dissolves / suspends is good for us Others, not so good
  24. 24. Can you name 5 things that dissolve in water? Know of any 2 that can be called ‘pollutants’ – those dangerous to life ?
  25. 25. If we drink polluted water, we can get sick
  26. 26. C T S K + + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Led Zeppelin Black Sabbath Deep PurpleIron Maiden _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ GH Sounds like + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Clue: toothpaste
  27. 27. C T S K + + ARSENIC Led Zeppelin Black Sabbath Deep PurpleIron Maiden HEAVY METAL + NITRATE GH Sounds like + FLUORIDE Clue: toothpaste
  28. 28. Sometimes it stinks……but not always Sometimes polluted water changes colour…..but not always Sometimes it tastes different ……..but not always
  29. 29. Water pollution can be confirmed only by testing it in a lab.
  30. 30. Sources of water pollution are generally grouped into two categories Non-point source of pollution: Contamination gathered by water over a large area. Point-source of pollution: Contaminants enter a waterway at a discrete point
  31. 31. Water can get polluted naturally When water seeps into the ground, it absorbs different substances depending on the type of soil and rock that it flows through.
  32. 32. Water can get polluted naturally Some of these substances (arsenic, iron, fluoride etc) can be harmful to health Natural pollution is a non-point source of pollution
  33. 33. Arsenic Fluoride Natural pollution can introduce chemicals that collect in our bodies. Over time this can cause chronic problems and even life – threatening diseases. In groundwater In groundwater
  34. 34. “ If you had a bottle of life- preserving fluid on which your life depended, would you pour into it all your sewage and rubbish, along with any other poisonous chemicals you could find? And yet, that is exactly what we are doing to our water supply – all over the world.” This is what a young person like you has to say:
  35. 35. Untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage Yamuna, when it leaves Delhi, resembles a sewer full of the city’s wastes. A few hundred kms downstream is Agra, where this ‘sewer’ is the main municipal drinking water source.  YUCK!!
  36. 36. Reaches ground water bodies Untreated sewage seeps in and contaminates groundwater aquifers Such aquifers show a higher than acceptable level of nitrate content The various ways in which man pollutes water  Untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage
  37. 37. When garbage is dumped in a landfill, toxic chemicals leach into the soil and groundwater. Dumping garbage in surface water bodies
  38. 38. Over 10 million people bathe in the Ganga daily! The various ways in which man pollutes water  Washing and bathing introduces phosphates and other chemicals into water
  39. 39. Agriculture is a major source of groundwater contamination. dissolve in irrigation water or rainwater. They contaminate surface water and groundwater with pollutants like nitrates, phosphates and non degradable synthetic organic pollutants
  40. 40. Industry Agro industries – their wastes have high concentration of dissolved organic matter Chemical Industries – If their wastes are not treated properly, the chemicals can destroy our soil and water resources. Petroleum refining – water used in the process needs to be separated from all the oil before releasing it into nature……but is that done?? An example of Point source of pollution Minamat a disease
  41. 41. Industry Thermal power plants – water is needed to cool the process. The water gets hot and when it’s released into a larger water body, it upsets the ecology by modifying the delicate temperature balance. This is called ‘Thermal pollution’ An example of Point source of pollution
  42. 42. Liquid wastes from an industry are treated in effluent treatment plants. Large industries would have in-house effluent treatment plants It’s expensive for small industries to go in for such plants individually In some industrial estates, a group of small industries have a common effluent treatment plant.
  43. 43. Water can be polluted by man Water can be polluted naturally Sewage in our water bodies Garbage dumps Washing and bathing Pesticides and fertilizers Industries
  44. 44. Divide the class into 5 teams Draw as many dashes as in the name of a water pollutant or a pollution cause Team A starts. They guess a letter. The teacher puts in the letter at the correct place, if it is there in that name. Else, the letter is written down on one side. A maximum of 10 wrong guesses are allowed. The team gets as many points as letters on the side (maximum of 10). The team with the lowest number of points wins
  45. 45. When wastes with high organic content (such as sewage wastes) are dumped into a water body like a lake or pond, eutrophication can occur, killing all life in the water body. Organic wastes are rich in nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) They stimulate excessive plant growth – especially weedy species
  46. 46. On dying, the plants further add to the organic waste in water. Microorganisms that decompose the organic material in water use up a lot of dissolved oxygen. This depletes the available oxygen in the water and upsets the ecological balance, since fish and other life forms perish without adequate oxygen. Eventually all the oxygen is used up.
  47. 47. Anaerobic organisms then attack the organic wastes, releasing gases such as methane and hydrogen sulphide. The result is a foul smelling, waste filled body of water, quite like m the lakes in India. These water bodies are also natural groundwater recharge system and their contamination also leads to groundwater pollution.
  48. 48. Industrial wastewater from the Chico corporation (manufacturing fertilizers and other chemicals) was released into the Minamata Bay in Japan The waste water was rich in methyl mercury Mercury content in shellfish in that region increased People ate the shellfish and the cats ate the leftovers
  49. 49. Strange things started to happen – cats had convulsions and died, crows fell from the sky, dead fish floated.. Young children had convulsions and difficulty in walking and speaking People died Investigation showed organic mercury poisoning affecting the nervous system First discovered in 1956 Lawsuits and claims continue till today Did you know? One mercury thermometer can contaminate up to 95,000 liters of water to beyond the drinking water standard.
  50. 50.  About 40% of Deaths worldwide are caused by Water Pollution.  Water Pollution is Caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers.  Noise also causes anxiety stress reaction and fright.
  51. 51.  Diseases like Cholera  Malaria  Typhoid (spread during the rainy season )  Aquatic life gets destroyed
  52. 52.  Rivers should not be used for washing clothes or bathing animals in.  Harvesting of Rainwater to meet water requirements.  Dams &embankments must be created.  The rivers must not be contaminated.  In sacred river like Ganga the dead bodies shouldn’t thrown.
  53. 53. NOISELESS ATMOSPHERE  Noise can be simply defined as unwanted sound.  The sound is pleasant or not depends upon its loudness,duration,rhythm and the mood of the person.  Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger.
  54. 54.  Traffic Noise  Air craft Noise  Noise from construction and civil engineering works.  Noise from the Industries.  Noise from other sources.
  55. 55.  Picture shows : Noise Pollution
  56. 56.  Hearing Loss  High Blood Pressure  Stress  Sleep Disturbance  Colour Blindness
  57. 57. Effects Of Noise On Humans a) Auditory effects interfering with hearing; auditory fatigue and deafness. b) Non-auditory effects interfering with social behaviour; problems with communications, sleep, recreation, mental equilibrium (peace), and the ability to concentrate at work. c) Physiological effects affecting biological functions; anxiety, neurosis, insomnia, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, visual symptoms, hypertension, cardiovascular symptoms, liver changes, nervous symptoms, changes in skin, fast irregular heart beats (tachycardia). d) Endocrine and hormonal changes relating to stress and noise levels. i.e. raised adrenaline and cholesterol. Noise causes blood vessels to close cutting down blood supply to the fingers and toes. Respiratory changes occur due to noise. e) Psychological effects; physical and mental fatigue, loss of concentration, lower efficiency, reduced output, absenteeism, higher rates of accidents, behavioural changes, errors at work, loss of sleep, psychosomatic disorders, diseases related to stress, mental illness, aggravation of existing stress problems and mental illness, neurotic effects, rage anger, crime.
  58. 58. Some of the more common ways noise pollution may affect you are: •Provides poor concentration •Communication difficulties •Annoyance •Discomfort •Fatigue due to insufficient rest •lowered property value However, as more and more research are being done, more serious health risks have developed due to the increase in noise pollution. Some of these risks include: •Hearing loss (conductive or sensorineural) •Hypertension •Aggressive behavior •Serious sleep loss •Heart disease (stress related) •Danger to people - cover warning signals &: Cause accidents
  59. 59. Noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Elevated workplace or other noise can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. Changes in the immune system and birth defects have been attributed to noise exposure, but evidence is limited. Although some presbycusis may occur naturally with age, in many developed nations the cumulative impact of noise is sufficient to impair the hearing of a large fraction of the population over the course of a lifetime. Noise exposure has also been known to induce tinnitus, hypertension, vasoconstriction and other cardiovascular impacts. Beyond these effects, elevated noise levels can create stress, increase workplace accident rates, and stimulate aggression and other anti-social behaviors. The most significant causes are vehicle and aircraft noise, prolonged exposure to loud music, and industrial noise. Cardiovascular effects Noise has been associated with important cardiovascular health problems. In 1999, the World Health Organization concluded that the available evidence showed suggested a weak association between long-term noise exposure above 67-70 dB(A) and hypertension. More recent studies have suggested that noise levels of 50 dB(A) at night may also increase the risk of myocardial infarction by chronically elevating cortisol production Noise health effects
  60. 60. These reduce unwanted ambient sounds (i.e., acoustic noise) by means of active noise control (ANC). Essentially, this involves using a microphone, placed near the ear, and electronic circuitry which generates an "antinoise" sound wave with the opposite polarity of the sound wave arriving at the microphone. This results in destructive interference, which cancels out the noise within the enclosed volume of the headphone. Keeping noise low at the ear makes it possible to enjoy music without raising the volume unnecessarily. It can also help a passenger sleep in a noisy vehicle such as an airliner. Retail noise cancelling headphones typically only use ANC to cancel the lower- frequency portions of the noise; they depend upon traditional noise suppression techniques (such as their earcups) to prevent higher-frequency noise from reaching the interior of the headphone. This approach has three benefits: The demands on the electronic circuitry are vastly simplified. Because of the shorter wavelength of the high-frequency sound, active cancellation is much less effective at higher frequencies. To truly cancel high frequency components (coming at the ear from all directions), the sensor and emitter for the cancelling waveform would have to be adjacent to the user's eardrum, an impractical situation. Noise-cancelling headphones
  61. 61.  The Government should ensure the new machines that Should be noise proof.  Air ports must be away from residential area.  The Sound horn symbol is to be in School Roads.
  62. 62.  Pleasant Home  Bhagavan Baba says “Silent is God”.  We need to talk sweetly to others.  Talk Less Work More.  Sound affects our ears so loud noise should be avoided.
  63. 63.  One fourth of area is covered by land is Called Land.  Land is a earth which is occupied by people for shelter,occuption etc..,
  64. 64. Causes of Land Pollution We can classify major sources that lead to land following Categories  Mining and quarrying  Sewage waste  Household Garbage  Industrial Waste
  65. 65. Land pollution pictures
  66. 66. Effects of Land Pollution  The Land Cannot be construct house  Man cannot be farming  Ground water will gets Affected  House hold Garbage like putting Plastics
  67. 67.  More and more land should be brought under farming  Trees should be planted everywhere.  Waste matter should be disposed immediately  Avoid drilling the Land for more underground water.  Avoid using more fertilizers and Pesticides.
  68. 68. Definition of Radio Active Pollution Despite the Advantage of nuclear as a clean energy, the big concern is the resulted from nuclear reaction, which is a form of pollution called Radio activity. Radiation (Laser-Rays) will from Radio Active Pollution.
  69. 69.  Nuclear power plants(Ex:Neyveli,Kalpakkam)  Nuclear Weapon(Ex:Missiles)  Disposal of Nuclear Waste  Uranium Mining
  70. 70. Effects of Radio Active Pollution  The Diseases include blood in cough  Ulcer  Swelling of bone joints  Cancer  Lung Cancer  Skin Cancer  Bone Cancer  Eye Problems
  71. 71. How to Prevent of Radio Active Pollution Avoid Constructing Nuclear Power Plants Avoid Using Nuclear Weapon Have Proper Treatment for Nuclear Waste Avoid mining for Uranium to a minimal
  72. 72.  Science books  www.google.com  http://en.wikepedia.org/wiki/AirPollution  Free foto.com