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Material Science and Metallurgy
Topic:~Iron Iron-Carbide Diagram
(Basic Definitions & States)
Mechanical Department
Prepared by
• Kushal Panchal
Definition of structures
•Various phases that appear on the Iron-Carbon
equilibrium phase diagram are as under:
•Austenite
•Ferrite
•Pearlite
•Cementite
•Martensite
•Ledeburite
Definition of structures
• Ferrite is known as α solid solution.
• It is an interstitial solid solution of a small amount of
carbon dissolved in α (BCC) iron.
• stable form of iron below 912 deg.C
• The maximum solubility is 0.025 % C at 723 deg.C and it
dissolves only 0.008 % C at room temperature.
• It is the softest structure that appears on the diagram.
Definition of structures
• Ferrite
• Average properties are:
– Tensile strength = 40,000
psi;
– Elongation = 40 %
Definition of structures
• Pearlite is the eutectoid mixture
containing 0.80 % C and is formed
at 723 deg.C on very slow cooling.
• It is a very fine plate like or lamellar
mixture of ferrite and cementite.
• The white ferrite background or
matrix contains thin plates of
cementite (dark).
Definition of structures
• Austenite is an interstitial solid solution of Carbon
dissolved in γ (F.C.C.) iron.
• Maximum solubility is 2.0 % C at 1130 deg.C.
• High formability, most of heat treatments begin with this
single phase.
• It is normally not stable at room temperature. But, under
certain conditions it is possible to obtain austenite at room
temperature.
Definition of structures
Austenite
• Average properties are:
– Tensile strength
=150,000 psi;
– Elongation = 10%
Definition of structures
• Cementite or iron carbide, is very hard, brittle
intermetallic compound of iron & carbon, as Fe3C, contains
6.67 % C.
• It is the hardest structure that appears on the diagram,
exact melting point unknown.
• It is has
– low tensile strength (approx. 5,000 psi), but
– high compressive strength.
Definition of structures
• Ledeburite is the eutectic mixture of austenite and
cementite.
• It contains 4.3 percent C and is formed at 1130°C.
Definition of structures
• Martensite - a super-saturated solid solution of
carbon in ferrite.
• It is formed when steel is cooled so rapidly that the
change from austenite to pearlite is suppressed.
Iron Iron-Carbide Diagram
The Iron-Iron Carbide Diagram
• A map of the temperature at which different phase
changes occur on very slow heating and cooling in relation
to Carbon, is called Iron- Carbon Diagram.
• Iron- Carbon diagram shows
– The type of alloys formed under very slow cooling,
– Proper heat-treatment temperature and
– How the properties of steels and cast irons can be
radically changed by heat-treatment.
How to read the Fe-C phase diagram
Ferrite
Austenite
Steel Cast iron
Pearlite
Pearlite and
Cementine
Pearlite and
Carbide
Eutectic
eutectoid
Various Features of Fe-C diagram
Peritectic L + δ = γ
Eutectic L = γ + Fe3C
Eutectoid γ = α + Fe3C
Phases present
L
Reactions
δ
BCC structure
Paramagnetic
γ austenite
FCC structure
Non-magnetic
ductile
α ferrite
BCC structure
Ferromagnetic
Fairly ductile
Fe3C cementite
Orthorhombic
Hard
brittle
Max. solubility of C in ferrite=0.022%
Max. solubility of C in
Three Phase Reactions
• Peritectic, at 1490 deg.C, with low wt% C alloys
(almost no engineering importance).
• Eutectic, at 1130 deg.C, with 4.3wt% C, alloys called
cast irons.
• Eutectoid, at 723 deg.C with eutectoid composition
of 0.8wt% C, two-phase mixture (ferrite &
cementite). They are steels.
The Iron-Iron Carbide Diagram
The diagram shows three horizontal lines which indicate
isothermal reactions (on cooling / heating):
• First horizontal line is at 1490°C, where peritectic
reaction takes place:
Liquid + δ ↔ austenite
• Second horizontal line is at 1130°C, where eutectic
reaction takes place:
liquid ↔ austenite + cementite
• Third horizontal line is at 723°C, where eutectoid reaction
takes place:
austenite ↔ pearlite (mixture of ferrite &
cementite)
Delta region of Fe-Fe carbide diagram
Liquid + δ ↔ austenite
Ferrite region of Fe-Fe Carbide diagram
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite
transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite
transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram
In order to understand the transformation processes,
consider a steel of the eutectoid composition. 0.8% carbon,
being slow cooled along line x-x‘.
• At the upper temperatures, only austenite is present, with
the 0.8% carbon being dissolved in solid solution within the
FCC. When the steel cools through 723°C, several changes
occur simultaneously.
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite
transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram
• The iron wants to change crystal structure from the FCC
austenite to the BCC ferrite, but the ferrite can only
contain 0.02% carbon in solid solution.
• The excess carbon is rejected and forms the carbon-rich
intermetallic known as cementite.
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in
relation to Fe-C diagram
• Hypo-eutectoid steels: Steels having less than 0.8% carbon
are called hypo-eutectoid steels (hypo means "less than").
• Consider the cooling of a typical hypo-eutectoid alloy along
line y-y‘.
• At high temperatures the material is entirely austenite.
• Upon cooling it enters a region where the stable phases are
ferrite and austenite.
• The low-carbon ferrite nucleates and grows, leaving the
remaining austenite richer in carbon.
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in
relation to Fe-C diagram
• Hypo-eutectoid steels- At
723°C, the remaining austenite
will have assumed the eutectoid
composition (0.8% carbon), and
further cooling transforms it to
pearlite.
• The resulting structure, is a
mixture of primary or pro-
eutectoid ferrite (ferrite that
forms before the eutectoid
reaction) and regions of pearlite.
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to
Fe-C diagram
• Hyper-eutectoid steels (hyper means "greater than")
are those that contain more than the eutectoid amount of
Carbon.
• When such a steel cools, as along line z-z' , the process is
similar to the hypo-eutectoid steel, except that the primary
or pro-eutectoid phase is now cementite instead of ferrite.
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in
relation to Fe-C diagram
• As the carbon-rich phase nucleates and grows, the
remaining austenite decreases in carbon content, again
reaching the eutectoid composition at 723°C.
• This austenite transforms to pearlite upon slow cooling
through the eutectoid temperature.
• The resulting structure consists of primary cementite and
pearlite.
• The continuous network of primary cementite will cause
the material to be extremely brittle.
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in
relation to Fe-C diagram
Hypo-eutectoid steel showing primary cementite along grain
boundaries pearlite
The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in
relation to Fe-C diagram
• When the alloys are cooled rapidly, entirely
different results are obtained, since sufficient time
may not be provided for the normal phase
reactions to occur.
• In these cases, the equilibrium phase diagram is no
longer a valid tool for engineering analysis.
• Rapid-cool processes are important in the heat
treatment of steels and other metals (to be
discussed later in H/T of steels).
Principal phases of steel and their Characteristics
Phase
Crystal
structure
Characteristics
Ferrite BCC Soft, ductile, magnetic
Austenite FCC
Soft, moderate
strength, non-
magnetic
Cementite
Compound of Iron
& Carbon Fe3C Hard &brittle
Thank You.!

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Iron Iron-Carbide Diagram(MSM)

  • 1. Material Science and Metallurgy Topic:~Iron Iron-Carbide Diagram (Basic Definitions & States) Mechanical Department
  • 3. Definition of structures •Various phases that appear on the Iron-Carbon equilibrium phase diagram are as under: •Austenite •Ferrite •Pearlite •Cementite •Martensite •Ledeburite
  • 4. Definition of structures • Ferrite is known as α solid solution. • It is an interstitial solid solution of a small amount of carbon dissolved in α (BCC) iron. • stable form of iron below 912 deg.C • The maximum solubility is 0.025 % C at 723 deg.C and it dissolves only 0.008 % C at room temperature. • It is the softest structure that appears on the diagram.
  • 5. Definition of structures • Ferrite • Average properties are: – Tensile strength = 40,000 psi; – Elongation = 40 %
  • 6. Definition of structures • Pearlite is the eutectoid mixture containing 0.80 % C and is formed at 723 deg.C on very slow cooling. • It is a very fine plate like or lamellar mixture of ferrite and cementite. • The white ferrite background or matrix contains thin plates of cementite (dark).
  • 7. Definition of structures • Austenite is an interstitial solid solution of Carbon dissolved in γ (F.C.C.) iron. • Maximum solubility is 2.0 % C at 1130 deg.C. • High formability, most of heat treatments begin with this single phase. • It is normally not stable at room temperature. But, under certain conditions it is possible to obtain austenite at room temperature.
  • 8. Definition of structures Austenite • Average properties are: – Tensile strength =150,000 psi; – Elongation = 10%
  • 9. Definition of structures • Cementite or iron carbide, is very hard, brittle intermetallic compound of iron & carbon, as Fe3C, contains 6.67 % C. • It is the hardest structure that appears on the diagram, exact melting point unknown. • It is has – low tensile strength (approx. 5,000 psi), but – high compressive strength.
  • 10. Definition of structures • Ledeburite is the eutectic mixture of austenite and cementite. • It contains 4.3 percent C and is formed at 1130°C.
  • 11. Definition of structures • Martensite - a super-saturated solid solution of carbon in ferrite. • It is formed when steel is cooled so rapidly that the change from austenite to pearlite is suppressed.
  • 13. The Iron-Iron Carbide Diagram • A map of the temperature at which different phase changes occur on very slow heating and cooling in relation to Carbon, is called Iron- Carbon Diagram. • Iron- Carbon diagram shows – The type of alloys formed under very slow cooling, – Proper heat-treatment temperature and – How the properties of steels and cast irons can be radically changed by heat-treatment.
  • 14. How to read the Fe-C phase diagram Ferrite Austenite Steel Cast iron Pearlite Pearlite and Cementine Pearlite and Carbide Eutectic eutectoid
  • 15. Various Features of Fe-C diagram Peritectic L + δ = γ Eutectic L = γ + Fe3C Eutectoid γ = α + Fe3C Phases present L Reactions δ BCC structure Paramagnetic γ austenite FCC structure Non-magnetic ductile α ferrite BCC structure Ferromagnetic Fairly ductile Fe3C cementite Orthorhombic Hard brittle Max. solubility of C in ferrite=0.022% Max. solubility of C in
  • 16. Three Phase Reactions • Peritectic, at 1490 deg.C, with low wt% C alloys (almost no engineering importance). • Eutectic, at 1130 deg.C, with 4.3wt% C, alloys called cast irons. • Eutectoid, at 723 deg.C with eutectoid composition of 0.8wt% C, two-phase mixture (ferrite & cementite). They are steels.
  • 17. The Iron-Iron Carbide Diagram The diagram shows three horizontal lines which indicate isothermal reactions (on cooling / heating): • First horizontal line is at 1490°C, where peritectic reaction takes place: Liquid + δ ↔ austenite • Second horizontal line is at 1130°C, where eutectic reaction takes place: liquid ↔ austenite + cementite • Third horizontal line is at 723°C, where eutectoid reaction takes place: austenite ↔ pearlite (mixture of ferrite & cementite)
  • 18. Delta region of Fe-Fe carbide diagram Liquid + δ ↔ austenite
  • 19. Ferrite region of Fe-Fe Carbide diagram
  • 20. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram
  • 21. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram In order to understand the transformation processes, consider a steel of the eutectoid composition. 0.8% carbon, being slow cooled along line x-x‘. • At the upper temperatures, only austenite is present, with the 0.8% carbon being dissolved in solid solution within the FCC. When the steel cools through 723°C, several changes occur simultaneously.
  • 22. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram • The iron wants to change crystal structure from the FCC austenite to the BCC ferrite, but the ferrite can only contain 0.02% carbon in solid solution. • The excess carbon is rejected and forms the carbon-rich intermetallic known as cementite.
  • 23. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram • Hypo-eutectoid steels: Steels having less than 0.8% carbon are called hypo-eutectoid steels (hypo means "less than"). • Consider the cooling of a typical hypo-eutectoid alloy along line y-y‘. • At high temperatures the material is entirely austenite. • Upon cooling it enters a region where the stable phases are ferrite and austenite. • The low-carbon ferrite nucleates and grows, leaving the remaining austenite richer in carbon.
  • 24. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram • Hypo-eutectoid steels- At 723°C, the remaining austenite will have assumed the eutectoid composition (0.8% carbon), and further cooling transforms it to pearlite. • The resulting structure, is a mixture of primary or pro- eutectoid ferrite (ferrite that forms before the eutectoid reaction) and regions of pearlite.
  • 25. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram • Hyper-eutectoid steels (hyper means "greater than") are those that contain more than the eutectoid amount of Carbon. • When such a steel cools, as along line z-z' , the process is similar to the hypo-eutectoid steel, except that the primary or pro-eutectoid phase is now cementite instead of ferrite.
  • 26. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram • As the carbon-rich phase nucleates and grows, the remaining austenite decreases in carbon content, again reaching the eutectoid composition at 723°C. • This austenite transforms to pearlite upon slow cooling through the eutectoid temperature. • The resulting structure consists of primary cementite and pearlite. • The continuous network of primary cementite will cause the material to be extremely brittle.
  • 27. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram Hypo-eutectoid steel showing primary cementite along grain boundaries pearlite
  • 28. The Austenite to ferrite / cementite transformation in relation to Fe-C diagram • When the alloys are cooled rapidly, entirely different results are obtained, since sufficient time may not be provided for the normal phase reactions to occur. • In these cases, the equilibrium phase diagram is no longer a valid tool for engineering analysis. • Rapid-cool processes are important in the heat treatment of steels and other metals (to be discussed later in H/T of steels).
  • 29. Principal phases of steel and their Characteristics Phase Crystal structure Characteristics Ferrite BCC Soft, ductile, magnetic Austenite FCC Soft, moderate strength, non- magnetic Cementite Compound of Iron & Carbon Fe3C Hard &brittle